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Full text of "Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society"

942.4101 
B77a 

V396873 GENEALOGY COLLECTIONT 




J 





Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 








in 2014 







https://archive.org/details/transactionsofbr1318bris 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 



FOR 1888-89. 



The Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Arch^ological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statements made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors alone 
are responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and the 
Editor for the Notices on Books. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

FOE. 1888-89. 

Edited by SIM JOES MACLEAN, F.S.A., <S;c. 

VOL. XIII. 



BRISTOL 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY C. T. JEFFERIES AND SONS, 
BACK HALL, BALDWIN STREET, & CANYNGB BUILDINGS, REDCLIFFE STREET. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Transactions at Chipping Sodbury . . . 1-5 

Transactions at Gloucester . . . . 41-85 

Transactions at Stroud .... 333-396 
On the Gilds of Sodbury and Dyrham. By Francis F. Fox, 

Alderman of Bristol .... 6-9 

Hawkesbury Church. By W. Wood Bethell, architect . 10-15 

Notes on Mediajval Dursley. By Rev. W. R. Lett, B.A. . 16-18 
Notes on the West Front of St. James, Parochial, formerly 

Priory, Church. By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. . 19-22 
Testa de Nevill, Returns for the County of Gloucester. No. 2. 

By Sir HenryBarkly, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. . . 23-34 
The Churches of Sodbury, co. Gloucester. By T. S. Pope, 

architect . . . . . 35-40 

Inaugural Address. By R. V. Vassar-Smith, President . 86-95 
On the Structure of Roman Houses and their Ornamentation 

with Tesselated Pavements and other decorations. By 

the Rev. Prebendary Scarth, M.A. . . 96-102 

Annalia Dubrensia. By F. A. Hyett . . . 103-117 

St. Osvi^ald's Priory, Gloucester. By Henry Medland . 118-129 
Gloucester Tokens of the 17th, 18th and 19th Centuries. By 

John Pleydell Wilton. Illustrations drawn by Walter 

Huntley ..... 130-145 
Notes on the Manor and Church of Hempstead. By the Rev. 

B. S. Dawson, Rector .... 146-154 
The Early Days of the Abbey of S. Peter, Gloucester. By the 

Rev. W. Bazeley, M.A. . . . 155-161 
Notes on a Monumental Effigy and a " Brass " in the Church of 

Quinton, Gloucestershire. By Sir John Maclean, F.S.A. 162-172 
The Grey Friars, Gloucester. By Rev. W. H. Silvester 

Davies, M.A. . . ... . 173-187 

The Berkeley s of Dursley. By Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., 

G.C.M.G. ..... 188-195 

The Roman Villa, Tockington Park {Second Notice). By Sir 

John Maclean, F.S.A., &c. , . . 196-202 

Further Remarks on the Ring of Senicianus. By F. Havee- 

EiELD ...... 203-204 

The Mint of Gloucester. By J. Drummond Robertson, M.A. 205-211 

ilfewoWaw. —Thomas Gambier Parry, Esq. . . 212-213 

Scrivens' Conduit. By Henry Medland . . . 242-246 

Institutions to Tockington Free Chapel. By Sir John 

Maclean, F.S.A., &c. , . . . 247-251 



1396873 



Gloucester : Tlie Cathedral Monuments. By the late M. H. 

Bloxam, F.S.A. . - . . 252-259 

The Guilds of Gloucester. By the Rev. W. Bazeley, M.A. . 260-270 
Notes on the Church of St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. By 

Frederick Smithe, M.A., LL.D. . . . 271-287 
Roman Bristol and Roman Gloucester, compared with the 

Castra Prietoria and the sites of the Castra Peregrina, 

and of the Castra Equites Singulares at Rome. By Geo. 

EsDAiLE, C.E.. . . . . . 297-358 

Testa de Nevill, Returns for the County of Gloucester, Nos. 3 

to 7. By Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. . 297-358 
Some Account of the Parish of Brookthorpe. By the Rev. J. 

Melland Hall, M.A. . . . . 359-383 
The Seals of the City of Gloucester. By W. H. St. John 

Hope, M.A. . . . . . 384-392 

/;i il/monam.— Francis Day, CLE., LL.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S. 397-398 



NOTICES OF RECENT ARCH^OLOGICAL AND HISTORICAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

Calendar of State Papers.— DoTTjes^ic Series, 1644. By W. D. Hamilton, 
F.S.A. ...... 214-216 

Modern Science in Bible Lands. By Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G,, LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S., &c. .... 216-218 

The History and Fate of Sacrilege. By Sir Henry Spelman. 

Edited by Samuel Eales, D.C.L. . . . 219 

Architectural History of Exeter Cathedral. By Rev. Edward 

Verb Freeman, M.A. . . . . 220 

Dictionary of the Church of England. By Rev. Edward L. 

Cdtts, D.D. . . . . . 221 

Records of the English Catholics of 1715. By John Orlebar 

Payne, M.A. . . . . . . 221-222 

A Hand-book to the Land Charters and other Saxonic Docu- 
ments. By John Earle, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon 
in the University of Oxford . . . 222-225 

The Ringers' G uide to the Church Bells of Devon. By Charles 

Pearson, M.A. ..... 225-226 

The Descent, Name and Arms of Borlase, of Borlase,co. Cornvv. 227-229 

By-ways in Book-land. By William Davenport Adams . \ 

Nature's Fairy Land. By H.W. S.Worseley-Benison, F.L.S. 

Some Aspects of Humanity. By E. Hughes . . \- 229-231 

The City of Faith. By S. B. Blean, M.A. . . i 

Through the Shadows. By Erskine Moir . . i 



King Edward the Sixth, Supreme Head. By Frederick Geo. 

Lee, D.D. . . . . . 232 

The Parish Registers of Broseley, Shropshire. Edited by 

Alfred C. C. Langley .... 232 
Somerset Incumbents. Edited by Fred. Wm. Weaver, M.A. 232-233 
A Personal Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition. By Wm. 

Francis Ains worth. Ph.D., F.S.A., F.R G.S., &c. . 233-238 
Gilds. — Their Origin, Constitution, Objects and later History. 

By the late Cornelius W alford, F. S. A. ,F. S.S. ,F. R. H. S. 238-239 
The Brasenose Calendar. By the Rev. William Edward 

Buckley, M. A., and Falconer Madan . . 240 

The Antiquary, Vol. XVIII. July-December, 1888 . 240 

The Cistercian Abbey of Strata Florida : Its History, &c. By 

Stephen W. Williams, F.R.LB.A. ... 399 
Devonshire Parishes : their Antiquities, &c. By Charles 

Worthy, Esq. ..... 403 

Old English Catholic Missions. By John Orlebar Payne, 

M.A. ...... 405 

Settlement of Lands in Edmonton, Enfield and elsewhere. By 

Charles B. Bowles, M.A. . . . 406 

The Survey and Rental of the Chantries, Colleges and Free 

Chapels, Guilds, Fraternities, Lamps, Lights and Obits in 

CO. Somerset. By Emanuel Green, F.S.A. . . 406-407 

The Archgeological Review, No. 6. Vol. I. to 6 Vol. II. . 407-409 

Hallen's London City Church Registers — St. Botolph, Bishop- 
gate. Transcribed by A. W. Cornelius Hallen . 409 
Parish of St. Petrock, Exeter. By the late Robert Dymond, 

F.S.A. ...... 409 

The Registers of Bishops Bronescombe and Quivil of Exeter. 

Edited by the Rev. F. C. Hingeston- Randolph, Preben- 
dary of Exeter, &c. . . . . 410-412 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Edited by the Rev. Beaver 

H. Blacker, M.A. .... 412-413 

The Western Antiquary. Edited by W. H. K. V/right . 413 
Northern Notes and Queries. Edited by the Rev. A. W. 

Cornelius Hallen, M. A., F.S.A., Scotl. . . 413-414 

Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset. Edited by Hugh 

NoRRis and Rev. C. H. Mayor . . . 414-415 

Notes and Gleanings. Edited by W. Cotton, F.S.A., and 

James Dallas, F.L.S. . . . . 415-416 

Cymru Fu : Notes and Queries relating to the past history of 

Wales and the Border Counties. Edited by George H. 

Brierley ..... 416-417 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate I. 
Plate II. 
Fig. 1. 
Plate III. 
Plate III.* 
Plate IV. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 12. 
Fig. 3. 
Plate v.* 
Plate VI- 
Plate VP- 
Plate VIII, 
Plate IX. 
Plate X. 
Fig. 4. 



Orountl Plan of Hawkesbury Church 

Site of Ecclesiastical Buildings at Dursley 

West Front of St. James' Church, Bristol 

AVindow in West Front of St. James' Church . 

Details in Churches at Sodbury 

Ditto and Saxon Baluster at St. Oswald's Priory 

Gloucester ....... 

View of Hempsted Church, Gloucestershire, in 

1S49 

Detail of Hempsted Church .... 
Ancient Well at Hempsted .... 

f Illustrations of the base of an ancient Cross 1 



found at Gloucester 



Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
Fig. 
F.g. 
Fig. 



View of N. Aisle, St. Oswald's Priory, Glouc. 

Plan of St. Oswald's Priory ,, 

Gloucester Token „ 

5. Token of Nicholas Lane 

6. Token of Roman Tavern „ \ 

7. Do, of John Purlent J 

8. \ Obverse and reverse of Token bearing a view 



9. / of Gloucester Cathedral . . . } 

10. \ Token bearing a view of St. Nicholas Ch. \ 

11. / Token bearing the Arms of Gloucester j 
Plate XL Effigy of Sir W^illiam Clopton, at Quinton, 

Gloucestershire ..... 
Plate XII. Brass of Dame Joan Clopton at ditto 
Fig. 12. Seal of Sir Henry Berkeley of Dursley 
Plate XIII. Plan of Roman Villa at Tockington Park 
Plate XIV. Details of objects discovered 
Plate XV. Elevation and Plan of Scriven's Conduit 
Plate XVI. Details in Church of St. Bartholomew, Church 

down ....... 

Plate XVII. Plan of ditto ditto 

Plate XVIIL View of Brookthorpe Court . 

Fig. 13. View of Tower of Brookthorpe Church 

Fig. 14. First Seal of the City of Gloucester (circa 1207) 

Fig. 15. Second ditto ditto (1564) 

Fig. 16. Third ditto ditto (1661), 

Fig. 17. Fourth ditto ditto (1652) 

Fig. 18. Fifth and present ditto 

Fig. 19. Seal of the Provosts of ditto 

Fig. 20. Seal of the Bailiffs of Gloucester 

Fig. 21. First Seal of Mayor of Gloucester . 

Fig. 22. Second and present Seal of ditto 

Fig. 23. Statute Merchant Seal for Gloucester 



to fate p. 10 
17 

on page 20 
to face p. 21 
37 

38 

53 

on page 53 
54 

to face p. 122 

123 
125 

on page 134 
135 

136 
142 
143 

to face p. 167 
168 

on page 191 
to face p. 197 
201 
241 

274 
278 
366 

on page 368 
385 
386 
387 
388 
389 
389 
390 
390 
391 
392 



DONATIONS IN AID OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
Mr. J. P. Wilton for blocks figs. 3 to 7 

Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B., Seal, fig. 12 - - - - 1 10 0 

Mr. Ilcnry Medland, View of North Aisle, St. Oswald's, and Elevation of 

Scrivcn's Conduit - - - - - - 2 10 0 

Rev. Dr. Smithe, Plan of Churchdown Church - - - - 17 0 

Rev. J. M. Hall, view of Brookthorpe Court - - - - 2 2 0 

The Society is also indebted to the courtesy of Mr. J. Lavars for Plate III., Window in 
West Front of St. James' Church, and of M. J. W. Arrowsmith for Electrotype of said West 
Front ; of Mr. T. S. Pope for drawings of details in the Sodbury Churches, &c.; of Mr. James 
Parker, Oxford, for permission to take Eletrotypes of blocks 2, 3 and 12 ; of the proprietors 
of the Builder for permission to reprint the illustrations of the Shaft of the Ancient Cross 
found at Gloucester ; of the Council of the Roj^al Archseological Institute for permission to 
reprint the View of Hempsted Church, from the Archa301ogical Journal ; and of the Mayor 
and Corporation of Gloucester for the use of the blocks of the Seals of that city. 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. Vol. XIII. 



Page 24, last line but one, for imius cujus que read uniuscuj usque. 

135, line 16, for Glovester read Glovcester. 

136, line 9, for Oloveter read Gloucter ; and for Br owe?' read Br over. 
168, line 22, for I3nc read JBne, last line d dropped in degree. 

181, line 26, for Aragon read Arragon. 

192, line 2, for comparisoned read caparisoned. 

194, line 16, insert or sdter ^^assant. 

195, note last line but one, for hrppened read happened. 
397, line 1, for G.L.E. read G.I.E. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Bristol :inb 6Iouasttrsbm g^rcbccokgical Snrntg, 

IN 18SS-9, 

Proceedings at the Spring Meeting at Chipping Sodbury, 
Oil Tuesday, May 29th, 18S8. 



PART I 

The Annual Spring Meeting of the Society, which was held this clay at 
Chipping Sodbury, was well attended. The arrangements M^ere made by a 
Local Committee, consisting of Francis F. Fox, Esq. , Alderman of Bristol^ 
Chairman : The Revs. W. T. Blathwayt, Prebendary Barnard, J. Dumas, 
W. H. P. Harvey, E. Hasluck, Canon Nash, R. Stevens, H. L. Thompson, 
Messrs. J. Trenfield and J. D. B. Trenfield. The Rev. W. T. Blathwayt 
acted as Local Secretary. Among the members present were Sir Brook 
Kay, Bart. (President of the Council), Sir Thomas H. Crawley-Bgevey, 
Bart., all the members of the Local Committee, the Rev. the Archdeacon 
of Bristol, the Revs. A. Pontifex, W. H. Boothby, S. E. Bartleet, R. W. 
Randall, R. L. Crawl fa'-Bcevey, Wm. Bazeley {Hon. General Secretary ) ; 
Messrs. E. Hartland [Hon. Treas.), T. S. Pope, W. W. Bethell, F. A 
Hyett, Robert Taylor, W. J. Stanton^ A. E. Hudd, and many ladies. 

The party assembled at Yate Station at 11.25, and immediately pro- 
ceeded in the carriages there waiting to the church of 

St. Mary of Yate, 
where they were very cordially received by the Rev. A. Pontifex, the Rector. 

Mr. W. W. Bethell, of London, architect, was so good as to call 
attention to the most striking features of the Church, and to make the 
following remarks : — 

This church is dedicated to St. Mary the Virgin, and consists of a 
chancel, a chapel on the north side of the chancel and another on the south 
side, a nave, north nave aisle, south transept, south porch, and a tower at 
the west end of the nave. The east end of the chancel and chapels are in a 
straight line. The grouping of the building is most picturesque, especially 
from the south-east. The earliest visible work is of Norman date, traces of 
which may be seen on the outside of the east end of the church, the spring- 
ing of an arch between the chancel and the north chapel, and the greater 
portion of the south transept. The original Norman church, appears to 
have been cruciform with a chapel on the north side of the chancel, also, 
probably, a lantern, or tower, at the crossing. Then came the Early-English 
work, remains of which may be seen at the base of the tower arch, and the 
lower portion of the south nave wall between the tower and the south 
transept. 

Vol. XIIL B 



Transactions for the Year 1SS8-9. 



No work of any consequence appears to have been carried out from this 
time to the Perpendicular era, when great changes took place. In fact during 
the 15th and early part of the 16th centuries the whole church was practically 
rebuilt. The chancel, north and south chapels, with arcades between them 
and the chancel, the north nave aisle, with arcade between it and the nave, 
the greater part of the south transept, the upper portion of the south wall of 
the nave, the roofs and tower. 

The two arches of the arcade between the nave and the nave aisle 
are some fifty years later than the w^estern end of this arcade, and the 
arcading in the chancel, also the arch opening into the south transept are of 
this date ; and, again, the roof over this portion forms a decided break at its 
junction with the older part of the nave roof, both inside and outside. The 
explanation of these peculiaiities is, probably, that the Norman piers and 
arches of the central lantern were not disturbed during the first alteration in 
the Perpendicular period ; but in the beginning of the 16th century this 
Norman work was removed and the existing arches and roof erected instead, 
Another peculiarity is the position of the rood loft staircase, the bottom 
steps of which jutted out into the north-west angle of the north chapel ; the 
entrance doorway to it was moved a few years ago to the east side of the 
south porch. 

The south porch, once contained a parvise, but the floor is now gone, and, 
on account of the plaster on the walls, no sign of the staircase to the parvise 
can be discovered. The outer archway is formed of r2th century stones. 

A sanctus bell-cot still remains on the gable over the chancel arch. 
There are also some most interesting fragments of old glass left in 
many of the windows. 

The finest feature of the church is undoubtedly the tower, it is 92 feet 
high to the underside of the parapet, but it looks higher owing to the church 
itself being rather low. Its date belongs to the time of Henry VII,, and it 
is highly probable that this King had something to do with its erection, 
because in the top cornice, round the tower turret, are carved the portcullis, 
fleur-de-]ys, and Tudor rose ; also the Tudor rose is carved on the entrance 
doorway to the tower. The parapet and top of the turret do not at present 
exist, except a few of the stones of the pinnacles ; sufficient, however, emain 
to give a fair idea what the original design was. The top of the tower 
evidently became decayed and unsafe, possibly in the last century, and all 
stones were then removed except those which were considered safe, and the 
lead in the old cramp holes can still be seen. 

A design for the restoration of this parapet has been prepared, but for 
want of funds has not yet been carried out. 

The church was partially restored some years ago, but much more 
requires to be done to expose many interesting portions now covered up 
with plaster, and otherwise to restore the building. 

The party next proceeded to the Church of St. John Baptist, Chipping 
Sodbury, where the members were cordially received by the Rev. W. H. P. 
Harvey, tlie Vicar. This church has been " restored " under the direction of 
the late Mr. Street, who, during the operations, discovered a stone pulpit 
which was not known to exist, so completely was it covered with plaster. 



Proceedings at Sodbuhy. 



3 



Until this restoration the view of the chancel was obstructed by a great 
wooden three-decker. Mv. Street was delighted to discover this pulpit, 
and Archdeacon Denison, who preached from it at the re-opening of the 
church, expressed his gratification. 

The church was then described by Mr. T. S. Pope, of Bristol, architect, 
whose Memoir On iJw Cliurclies of Sodburi/ will follow. 

Having inspected this church with much interest, the company ad- 
journed to "The Or.'ipes " Hotel for luncheon, at which Sir Brook Kay 
presided. After lunch thej^ proceeded to the Town Hall, where they were 
received by Mr. J. Trentield, who, as Baililf of the Borough, on behalf of 
himself and the members of the Corporation, heartily welcomed the members 
of the Society to Chipping Sodbury. 

Mr. F. F. Fox, Alderman of Bristol, whose valuable Treatise on the 
Ancient Fraternity of Merchant Tailors in that city is well known to our 
members, read an interesting paper on The Gilds of Sodbury and Dyrham, 
which M-ill be printed post. 

A paper was also read by Mr. J. D. B. Trenfield On the Ancient Manor ^ 
Borough d: Grammar School of Sodbury, which will be enlarged and printed 
post. 

On the conclusion of the reading of these papers, Sir Brook Kay, on 
behalf of the members, tendered a vote of thanks to Mr. Fox and Mr. Tren- 
tield for the information they had afforded on such interesting subjects. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley mentioned that he had inspected the deeds to 
which reference had been made in Mr. Trenfield's paper, and had found 
them to be exceedingly interesting. He believed the history of Chipping 
Sodbury could be traced by the deeds from the time of the Norman Con- 
quest. 

The company then inspected the documents, seals, mace, a curious old 
chest, and other interesting relics belonging to the Corporation. 

The members afterwards drove to Little Sodbury, where the Rev. Wm. 
Bazeley made the following remarks on the 

Old Manor House. 

This ancient dwelling, standing on the western slope of the Cottes- 
wold range, below the Roman Camp of Little Sodbury, was probably built 
by Sir John Walshe, of Olveston, who obtained the Manor of Little Sodbury 
in 1st Henry VIL, 1485-6, by marriage with Elizabeth, daughter and heiress 
of Richard Forster. Sir John Walshe in 1490, was the King's Receiver for 
the Berkeley lands, which had been alienated from the Berkeley family by 
William Marquis Berkeley, aud entailed on the King and his heirs male. 
This appointment of Receiver was a profitable one, and Sir John Walshe, 
who seems to have died about 1492, left his son and namesake the heir to 
several manors. Sir John Walshe (the 2nd) was the champion of Hen. VIII. 
at his coronation in 1509, and was a great favourite with the young King. 
He married, first, Ann, daughter of Sir Robert Poyntz, who was Steward of 
the Berkeley lands, and, secondly, Ann, daughter of John Dinley, of Hamp- 
shire. He was Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1526-7 and 1535 6. Little 
Sodbury House owes much of its interest to the fact that William Tyndale 
B 2 



4 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



the translator of the New Testament, lived there for a short time as tutor 
of Sir John Walshe's children, and also because it was visited by King 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn, on the 21st August, 1535. 

Sir John Walshe died in 1546-7, leaving his son Maurice his heir. 
Margaret, his only child by his first wife, Ann Poyntz, married Richard 
Norton ; and Ann, Catherine, and Mabel, his three daughters by Ann 
Dinley, were married to Edward George, George Huntley, and Henry 
Clifford respectively. 

Maurice Walshe, who was 30 years old on his father's death, had a grant 
from Henry VIII. of the Manors of Old Sodbury and Chipping Sodbury. 
He married Bridgett, daughter of Nicholas Lord Vaulx, and had many 
children. 

In 1556, whilst he was at dinner in the hall of Little Sodbury Manor House 
with his family, ** a fiery, sulphureous globe" passing from one window 
to another, killed him and one child, and so injured six more children that 
they all died within six months. Two sons, however, remained— Nicholas, 
who succeeded him, and Henry. Nicholas married Mary, daughter of Sir 
John Berkeley, of Stoke Gifford, and was Sheriff of Gloucestershire, 1561-2. 
He died 1577-8, leaving Henry son and heir. Henry Walsh was slain in a 
duel by Sir Henry Wintour, and his cousin Walter, son of his father's 
brother, Henry Walsh, succeeded him. Walter Walshe was seized of the 
manor in 1602. Soon after this the three manors of Old, Little, and Chipping 
Sodbury, were sold to Thomas Stephens, of Lypiatt, Attorney-General to 
Prince Henry and Prince Charles. The Stephenses sjcm to have resided in 
the old Manor House, as various members of the family are described on the 
pedigree as of Little Sodbury. 

In 1728, on the failure of heirs male, the manors of the Stephens family 
came to Richard Packer, whose mother was a Stephens ; and, on his death, 
without male issue, they passed to Elizabeth, 2nd wife of David Hartley, D.D., 
whose descendants still hold them. 

Little Sodbury Manor House seems to have been "restored" at the 
latter end of the 17th century : but it still contains many traces of the 
original structure such as a beautiful oriel window, a fine porch Avith hood 
moulding, and several 15th century windows heavily barred. In the interior, 
the dining hall, although dismantled, is much, as regards its structure, as 
it was in the time of Tyndale and Sir John Walshe. The family and their 
guests sat at a raised dais at the south end, whilst the retainers sat at 
tables placed along the east and west walls. Part of the old hall has 
been partitioned off, but the original north end, with its two doors, remains 
intact. Over the entrance from the kitchen and buttery was the miustrfels' 
gallery, the entrance to which still remains. The lofty roof of the hall with 
its wind braces and angel corbels is in fairly good condition. On the east side 
of the dais, high up in the wall, is a mask through which the ladies in the 
ladies' gallery could watch the revelry below. 

About ten j^ards to the east of the Manor House, and above it, on- a 
small level space, are the ruins of what was once Little Sodbury Church, 
dedicated to Saint Adeline. The porch with its pointed and Tudor arches 



PllOCEKDINaS AT SODBURY. 



6 



needs some little repair, or it will soon be lev^el with the ground. In a 
fragment of the north wall which remains may be seen the aumbrey where 
the sacred vessels were kept. Some care should be taken to preserve this con- 
secrated site, where, probably, the bones of many of its former po^sessors 
are lying buried, from the desecration which threatens it. 

The Roman Camp was next visited. It is, as usual, rectangular in plan, 
and contains an area of 1 2 acres. The west side rests on the escarpment of 
the hill, the other three sides being defended by a double line of entrench- 
ments, each consisting of a single bank and ditch. There are entrances on 
the east and west sides, the camp, in all respects, being very perfect in form. 
It is described in Mr. G. B. Witts' Archa'ologkal Handhooh of Gloucestershire, 
p. 46, and a plan is given, ante Plate III., Vol. VIII. Fosbrooke,! citing 
Holinshed, states that Edward IV., on his march from Malmesbury, before 
the Battle of Tewkesburj^ encamped here for a short time. 

The party next proceeded to Hawkesbury, where they were received by 
the vicar, the Rev. W. H. Boothby, who conducted them to the Church, 
and a description thereof was given by Mr. W. Wood Bethell, which will be 
printed post. 

A drive of seven miles brought the party to Yate House, the residence of 
Mr. F. F. Fox, where tea was provided. An inspection of the art treasures, 
and especially the fine library, formed one of the most agreeable features of 
the day's proceedings, and subsequntly, with thanks to Mr. Fox for his kind- 
ness, the party separated. 

1 History of Glouc. Vol, II., p. 29. 



6 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



ON THE GILDS OF SODBURY AND DYRHAM. 

By FRANCIS F. FOX, Esq., Alderman of Bristol. 

Gilds are of great antiquity in England. Evidence is forthcoming 
of their existence during Saxon times, and some are mentioned 
in Domesday book. 

The Early English Gilds was an institution of local self-help, 
which, before Poor-laws were invented, took the place in old 
times of the modern Friendly or Benefit Societies, but with a 
higher aim ; for while it joined all classes together in a care for 
the needy and for objects of common welfare, it did not neglect 
the forms and the practices of Religion, Justice and Morality. 

Without a careful study of the subject it is impossible to 
estimate the extensive and beneficial influence exercised by Gilds 
upon all classes of the community, both urban and rural. They 
have played a very important part in the history of our civili- 
zation ; they have fostered our arts and sciences, developed and 
extended our commerce, and in many ways cherished and pre- 
served our liberties. They have in various respects moulded our 
national character and institutions ; and they especially initiated 
and nurtured that principle of association for the common pro- 
tection in wealth and in adversity, which is claimed as a peculiarity 
of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Though the aims of the several classes of Gilds might differ, 
the Frith Gilds, the Religious Gilds, the Gilds of Merchants and 
Craft Gilds, yet running through the whole, there are to be 
found the same general characteristics of brotherly aid and social 
charity. 

In Religious Gilds these features were pre-eminent ; for in 
addition to prayers for the dead, christian charity was freely 
exercised for mutual assistance of Gild brothers in every exigency 



Gilds of Sodbury and Dyriiam. 



7 



especially in sickness, in old age, in the hour of death, and in 
burial of the dead ; likewise in cases of impoverishment, of wrong- 
ful imprisonment, in losses by fire, water, robbery and shipwreck, 
on loss of sight, of liuib, and of cattle ; aid by loans and by pro- 
vision of work. And as in the middle ages education was entirely 
supplied by the church, and was considered a religious duty, we 
find amongst the objects of Religious Gilds, the aid of poor 
scholars, the maintenance of schools, and the payment of school- 
masters. 

The Reformation shook the whole system of Gilds to its 
foundation, and this was especially the case with the Religious 
Gilds of the laity. By Acts of Parliament in the reigns of 
Henry YIII. and Edward VI., these Religious Gilds, upon the 
pretence that they were founded on superstition, were abolished. 
Their property, in this country, went into the private purse 
of the King and his courtiers ; but on the continent (especially 
in Germany and in Denmark) it was delivered into the common 
treasure for the poor, to poor houses, hospitals, and schools. 
Their suppression in England was a case of pure wholesale robbery 
and plunder, done by an unscrupulous faction to satisfy their 
personal greed under cover of the law. No more gross case of 
wanton plunder is to found in the history of all Europe. No 
page so black in English history. 

A Religious Gild was founded in Chipping Sodbury by Thomas 
Hampton and others in the 22nd year of Henry YI. (a.d. 1442), 
and was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. The master was 
chosen annually, and was generally a clothier or weaver, which 
trades formerly flourished here. 

The objects of the Gild were the finding and maintaining two 
priests to pray for the good estate of the said King, and after his 
decease for his soul, for the benefactor of the Gild, for its foun- 
ders, and always for the brothers and sisters of the said Gild, 
and for all Christian souls. 

The total income of the Gild at the time of its dissolution 
was £18 19s., and Avas thus disposed of— 



8 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


For the two priests 


12 


4 


0 


Four obits .... 


0 


8 


0 


Organ player .... 


0 


14 


8 


Steward .... 


0 


14 


8 


Keeping of the clock . 


0 


6 


8 


Keeping of the ornaments . 


0 


8 


8 


E-ents resolutes .... 


0 


11 


9 



Leaving a margin, presumably for charitable 

uses, of 3 10 7 

It will be noted that no provision was made for the clerk, 
who was paid by a levy of a penny per house on every house in 
the town. 

Part of the possessions of the Gild consisted of a house, 
vulgarly called the Gild House, otherwise the Church House, and 
garden adjoining, situate at Chipping Sodbury, between the tene- 
ment in which Thomas Holder now dwells on the west, and the 
hospitium, or inn, called the " George," on the east, and the King's 
highway on the south, and against the Rouche Were, behind to- 
wards the north." This exactly delineates the spot upon which 
we are now assembled. 

This, with other portions of the Gild possessions, was granted 
in 2nd Edward YI. to Sir Miles Partridge, one of the King's 
commissioners for dealing with this class of property. He seems 
to have paid x^^ v^ iiij*^ for them, and to have sold them the same 
year to Richard Pate, of Gloucester (another of the King's com- 
missioners) for the sum of xxxiiij^^ v^ viij^. In the 5th Mary, 
Richard Pate sold a portion of them to the burghers of Sodbury 
for xxiiij^\ part for a Town Hall and part for an almshouse. 

An information was brought in the Court of Exchequer, 14th 
Elizabeth, for lands in Sodbury called Town-lands, belonging to 
the late dissolved Gild, which, after a hearing, was dismissed. 
The chief witness in the case said : " And at the visitation the one 
half of the said rents was presented to belong to the Prince and 
the other half to the said town of Chipping Sodbury : and further 
of his own knowledge he saith that at the time of the visitation the 
commissioners said that the town of Chipping Sodbury " myght 
have kepte the hole landes to their own use.'''' 



Gilds of Soubury and Dyrham. 



9 



Another information was brought in the Exchequer 32nd 
Carolus II., supposing the hands belonged to the Monastery of 
Bradenstoke, in Wiltshire, but this was likewise dismissed. Mr. 
Trenfield informs me that these lands are still called ' Town- 
lands," and that the rents of them are administered by the 
Corporation of Sodbury in charitable uses. 

The plate belonging to this Gild was sold for ciij% and the 
ornaments for vj^^ iiij'\ but no description of either is now 
obtainable. 

A later and more limited species of Religious Gilds are met 
with, of which some note should be taken. Such an one was 
founded at Dyrham in the 12tli year of Henry VIII. (1520), and 
not many years before the Reformation, by Sir William Dennis, 
Knt., dame Anne, his wife (who was the only daughter of Maurice 
Lord Berkeley) and by others. 

Gilds of this class were more after the manner of chantries, 
endowed simply with revenues for priests to sing masses for the 
souls of the members. 

The statutes of the one at Dyrham are still preserved, and are 
stated at large in the histories of Atkins and of Rudder. They 
are representative of such Gilds in general. 

Although the Gild at Dyrham could not have been in exis- 
tence more than about twenty-five years, it seems to have met 
with great success, for " many were the Brethren and Sisters of 
this Gild who were prevailed upon to contribute towards its 
maintenance ; which persons lived in fifty several parishes at 
least, in Bristol, Bath, Somersetshire and Gloucestershire, and 
might amount in number to three hundred persons." The usual 
payment from each person was 10^ or 20^ quarterly. 

The endowments of the Gilds consisted of oxen, kine, and 
sheep. The kine were let out to neighbouring farmers at a yearly 
rental of 22^. 

No statement relating to this Gild at the time of the dissolution 
can be found in the Record Office, possibly because it does not 
seem to have possessed any land. 



10 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



HAWKESBURY CHURCH. 

By W. wood BETHELL, Architect. 

The only known early history of this church is that given by 
Atkyns and Rudder, and. according to these authorities, it appears 
that about the year 680 a college was founded here for secular 
canons by Oswald, nephew of King Ethelred ; that in 984 King 
Edgar, at the intercession of the Bishop of Worcester, introduced 
Benedictine monks ; and that its impropriation belonged to the 
Abbey of Pershore, in Worcestershire, from the time of William 
the Conqueror, or possibly earlier, until its dissolution. 

The church is dedicated to the blessed Virgin Mary, and 
consists of a chancel, nave, south nave-aisle a chapel at the east 
end of this aisle, north and south porches, with a parvise over 
each, and a tower at the west end of the nave, (See Plan, Plate I.) 

In the tower is a room furnished with a fireplace and chimney, 
as is also the case in each parvise. The chimney in the tower 
runs up about 15 feet in the north wall and then passes out 
through a small wrought stone opening in the face of the wall. 
The tower turret is at the north-east angle up to the roof level, 
then it changes to the south-east angle. 

The building dates from the Saxon period, and contains work 
of every age from that time to the present. The only visible 
Saxon remains are the two bases (these bases are not level, that 
on the east side being about 2 ins. higher than the other) of the 
shafts to the inner doorway of the north porch, probably the work 
of the Benedictine monks in the 10th century. Then comes the 
Norman doorway on the top of these Saxon bases, and in order 
to make the capitals level, one shaft was made longer than the 
other ; proving that the ancient bases were not disturbed when 
the Norman work was built. 



Hawkesbqry Church. 



11 



Then follows the Early English period, to which belong the 
greater part of the chancel, the stones of the chancel arch (this 
arch was rebuilt and widened at a much later date with the result 
that it pushed out the north nave wall and a buttress was built to 
support it), the greater part of the south aisle, the lower part of 
tower arch, part of the north porch and other minor portions. 

There is an Early English coffin-lid with a floriated cross 
carved on it, built into the south-east angle of the south porch ; 
and another built into the north wall of the nave, near the pulpit ; 
there are also signs of others in various parts of the building. 

To the next period, the Decorated, belong the nave arcade 
(some portions of which, if not the whole, were taken down and 
put up again when the chancel arch was rebuilt), and the tower 
up to the roof line of a former roof. 

And to the last Gothic period, the Perpendicular, belong the 
roofs of the nave and aisle, the nave clerestory, the south porch 
and parvise, the greater portion of the north porch and parvise, 
(there is a stone seat on either side of this porch, and there were 
once two niches over the outer doorway, but some years ago they 
were walled up), several windows in the nave and aisle, the chapel, 
the chancel east window (this window has been replaced by a three- 
light early English one, traces of which are visible) the addition 
of 2 feet in height to the chancel walls, some alterations to the 
lower stage of the tower and the whole of the upper stage, the 
doorways to the rood loft, of which the staircase has long since 
disappeared, an elaborate stone pulpit, a stone in the base of 
which is an ornamental one of Norman date ; and one or two 
fragments of oak screens in the two archways leading to the 
chapel. 

Then came the Reformation, when the chancel and chapel 
evidently became roofless for a time until the present roofs were 
put on, either at the end of the 16th or the beginning of the 
17th century; the roof of the north porch is also of this date; 
stained glass, screens and wall paintings also, as usual, disap- 
peared at this period. 



12 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



The floor of the chancel is about 2 feet below the ground out- 
side, as the ground slopes up from west to east, and, in consequence, 
the floor slopes up also about 18 inches. 

From the E/eformation time to the present, the existing roofs 
over the chancel, chapel and north porch, the high oak square 
pews, — all of these pews west of the pulpit were erected at the 
same time, and are of Jacobean character, those east of the pulpit 
were put up at various times, and are made up of Elizabethan and 
Jacobean oak work ; the inscription of texts upon the walls at two 
different times, the font, the building of the buttresses at the west 
end of the aisle, the erection of a gallery at the west end of the 
nave, and various coats of whitewash represent all the work done 
during this time. 

On one of the two buttresses at the west end of the aisle the 
date 1736 is cut, probably the date of the erection of these but- 
tresses, which were evidently put up to support the gable, which 
was being pushed over by the roof ; and on the outside sill of the 
east window of the chancel is carved 1672, probably the date of 
reglazing the window. 

Such is the history of the church up to July, 1882, when I 
commenced the work of restoration. Mr. Gyde, builder, of Pitch- 
combe, near Stroud, being the builder. 

The principal works which I have carried out are as follow : — 
Removing the whole of the plaster and whitewash from the walls 
and roofs, and pointing the walls. 

As there is a great difference of opinion respecting the treat- 
ment of the interior walls of old churches it might be well for me 
to give my reasons for the course I have adopted. It must be 
remembered that in this church, as in most others, the plaster 
consisted of several layers put on at various ages. In mediceval 
times a thin layer was put on, about ~ of an inch thick, on which 
figure subjects, saints and foliage were painted in distemper ; this 
work extended not only over the rough walls but also over the 
wrought stone jambs, arches, &c. Then came the Reformation 
period, when these paintings were covered with a coat of plaster 



HAWKEsnrRY Church. 



13 



on which wore painted toxts ; this again, at a later period, was 
oovorod with another coat of plaster and more texts ; then, in due 
time, these last texts were whitewashed over, again and again ; 
the total thickness amounting to about an inch, and all in such a 
very decayed state, that it was absolutely necessary to remove it, 
and nothing could be saved but a few bits of the medineval work 
here and there. Now% considering this history of the plaster ; 
tlie question comes, how to treat the walls thus laid bare Some 
say replaster ; but I would ask those of this opinion which of the 
above periods of plaster would they restore 1 or wdiether they 
would follow the modern fashion of putting on an inch of plaster, 
left unpainted, and too rough for any future decoration. Now I 
do not consider either of these methods are quite according to the 
spirit of the present age. The mediaeval method is no doubt by 
far the best, but few^ would care to see our churches again covered 
with such crude paintings, quaint and interesting as they are. I 
am, therefore, strongly of opinion that when the time comes for 
these w^alls to be decorated they should have a thin coat of j)laster 
on the rough walling only. Not on any wrought stone, although it 
was done in mediaeval times. And then paint these walls in the best 
manner we are able wdth figure subjects. No decoration can, of 
course, be better than glass or marble mosaic work, but this can 
scarcely be thought of in an old village church, on account of cost. 
And there is also some difficulty in fixing it to old walls, so that it 
shall not project beyond the face of the wrought-stone jambs, &c. 
But until the w-indows are filled with painted glass, I am decidedly 
against doing anything to the walls beyond pointing them. In 
the meantime let them remain bare ; it has, to say the least, a 
certain amount of age and dignity attached to it, and also enables 
archaeologists to study the history of the church far better than if 
the walls w^ere all covered with unpainted plaster, looking very 
spick and span. 

The other works have been — removing the gallery, opening 
out the staircases to parvises, putting a new oak roof on the nave, 
an exact copy of the old, and covering it with lead, repairing the 
other roofs, altering and re-arranging the oak seats, providing 
new oak stalls, sedilia and altar rails, laying oak blocks under all 



u 



Transactions foii the Yeae 1888-9. 



seats, relaying the passages with the old paving stones and monu- 
mental slabs (the mural monuments remain untouched), restoring 
the Norman doorway, repairing all the mullions, traceries and 
string-courses, replacing the 18th century window at the east end 
of the chapel by one of the same design as the original, sufficient 
old fragments having been found to do this ; reglazing the whole 
of the windows with cathedral glass, repairing the stone pulpit, 
repairing the tower, and fixing a lightning conductor, providing 
new oak doors with wrought iron hinges, an oak tower screen, 
wrought iron chandeliers, &c., &c. A heating apparatus, by 
Grundy, has also been provided ; and a deep gutter formed round 
the building where required. 

In carrying out the above works, among other interesting 
relics discovered, may be noticed an Easter sepulchre, a double 
piscina in the chancel and a single one in the chapel ; a monumen- 
tal slab, which once contained a very elaborate brass to a bishop 
or abbot, some 12th century coffin-lids, a holy water stoup in the 
north porch, rood loft doorways, fragments of ancient glass which 
were collected and put in the window adjoining the pulpit, also a 
few floor tiles, &c., &c. 

Also in digging out the ground for the heating chamber at the 
west end of the nave, foundations of a wall were found under- 
neath the north wall of the nave, west of the porch, and crossing- 
it at right angles, then returning about 2 feet north of the present 
arcade (the tower centres between this wall and the existing north 
wall of nave). These foundations possibly belong to buildings 
erected by the secular canons in the 7th century or they may be 
as early as Roman times. Also near these foundations were found 
some very large human sculls. 

Such is an account of the work which was completed by the 
date of reopening, the 9th of April, 1885, but although so much has 
been done, there are still many things which require attention. 
The most urgent of which is the panelling of the chancel and 
chapel roofs ; restoring the south porch and exterior of the 
chancel ; and sundry repairs to the exterior stonework. 



HAWKESBrRY ClIlTRCH. 



15 



In carrying out these works my object has been, first, to make 
the church in accordance with the requirements of the present 
time, and, secondly, in so doing, not to interfere with its past 
history except where actually obliged. 

This was not exactly the order of things in medieeval times, for 
then churches were continually being rebuilt and altered to suit the 
fancies and requirements of the age in which it was done, and very 
little respect was paid by architects to the work of their predeces- 
sors. They, however, had a style of their own to mark the work they 
did ; but we have nothing except the individuality of the architect 
(we are not in want of a new style at the present time, but we want 
more honest work) — and this absence of a modern style is probably 
the chief cause of the many opinions of the present day as to 
the proper mode of restoring a church — and we architects are 
given a great deal of advice on the subject. But I am convinced 
that if those who criticise were to study more the architectural 
history (and by history, I mean the spirit of each age, not merely 
being able to distinguish the date of the work) of an ancient 
church like this, side by side with the history of the Church of 
England, they would realize the fact that good or bad architecture 
has more to do with the employers than the architects. 

Architecture always has and always will be the outcome, or 
rather history in stone or wood, of the work being done by the 
church, and the architecture is good or bad according to the nature 
of that work done by the church. 

The work which has lately been done to this church, was not, 
and could not have been, carried out at the end of the last century, 
not because no architect was forthcoming to do it, but because 
the Church of England did not require it. 

But times have changed, and in these days the Church has so 
much vitality that it shows itself more or less in all our churches. 
And although it is true that a great many restorations have been 
made, and many new churches built, which are .more in sympathy 
with the last than present generation, still, as church principles 
advance, so will bad architecture be less and less seen in our 
churches. 



16 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



NOTES ON MEDIEVAL DURSLEY. 
By the Rev. W. R. LETT, B.A. 

The history of Dursley is still buried in a good deal of obscurity, 
and the following notes are written to clear up somewhat the 
history of two of its buildings. These are the Broadwell House, 
by the springs, and the Church House. 

T. The Broadwell House. 
Several deeds have been found in the church chest relating to 
the sale, lease, &c., of one part of this house. The earliest deed 
is dated Sept. 28th, 1610, by which Eichard Hale, of Badmonton, 
Gloucester, yeoman, son and heir of Robert Hale, sells the tene- 
ment and garden, commonly called Saint Mary's House, to Tobyas 
Cadle, of Dursley, for £32. The later deeds have no particular 
interest, but they go on from 1610 to 1805. In them all the title 
" St. Mary's House " is dropped. It must be remembered that 
these deeds only deal with a part of the house, for we learn from 
the Charity Commissioners' Report of 1827 that one Hugh Smith 
in 1637 left part of the Broadwell House, i.e. three tenements, to 
the parish, the rents thereof to be spent by the churchwardens on 
the poor. This property having fallen into decay, it was let to 
Charles Vizard, who, in 1821, erected on the site a substantial 
building. Thus part of the Religious Building has returned to 
the benefit of the parish. Smythe, 1639, says : " heere (in Dursley) 
also is a place which to this day is called the Nunnery." He does 
not say exactly where, but, probably, he means the Broadwell 
House, for there is no other building in Dursley at all likely to have 
been a nunnery. We know the site of the old almhouses, the church 
house and the chantry buildings. Annexed is a plan of the 
houses near the Broadwell, now called Bowers' Court. 

At (a) Plate TI. are the steps leading up to the church ; (b) is a 
modern schoolmaster's house, but I have been told by an old man 



KOTES l)X MEDI.5iVAL DuRSLEY. 



17 



that the old house which stood there had windows of the same 
style as those in the wall of (e) ; (c) is the modern entry, or 
covered way ; fd ) the ancient entry into the court, now bricked 
up. Old people have told me that, originally, there were two 
cottages where (c) now is, and that their doors opened into 
(c/), the ancient entrance, or covered way. Might not these have 
been once the doorkeeper's lodge and {d) the doorway into the 
building is the well inside the court, which seems unnecessary 
unless the occupants of St Mary's House were cut off from the 
world, for the Broad well was close by ; (e) is the oldest part of 
the building now standing, mentioned in the deeds of 1610, &c., 
and now the Broadwell Tavern ; (f) \^ an entrance to Silver 
Street ; {g) an alley to a back part of the court where there is 
also a covered passage ; (Ji) is the site of the cottages bequeathed 
by Hugh Smith to the parish. 

It will strike anyone that the houses are built round a court, 
and it is very likely that all the present houses in Bowers' Court 
are built on the site of the ancient religious building. 

I will now give a short description of (e), as it now is, adding 

a few reminiscences from old people of the town. Passing through 

the entrance (c), and on the other side of (^i), we come to a modern 

doorway into the building. The first room is simply a place for 

lumber ; it had, originally, a story above it, and I have been told 

that there were four stone pillars running from east to west to 

support the story above. In the corners, and on the walls, I have 

been also told that there once were figures of angels' heads. Both 

above and below there are small fireplaces. Passing through the 

narrow passage (marked in the plan), which also had a fireplace, 

we come to two low rooms, perhaps cellars, w^ith old oak beams, 

and above them were two stories, now quite unsafe. In one of 

these an old woman has told me that she remembers there was once 

a figure of the Virgin and her child, and just beneath it a stone 

ledge with two holes in it, each hole being, as she described it, of 

the size of the circle of a wine-glass. She i.j strongly of the 

opinion that this was a receptacle for water. Could this have 

been an unusal form of a holy water stoup, and the room itself 

the oratory of the building "? 
Vol. XIII. c 



18 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



II. The Chukch House. 
This building stood in Silver Street, a little west of the 
Broadwell HouS3 about opposite the south porch of the church. 
It was a substantial building, and had over its doorway a figure 
of the donor. According to the description of an old man who 
lived in it many years, the date of the building was in the 
oval on either side of the figure. From deeds in Mr. Vizard's 
possession it appears that a charter of the 1 0th year of Hen. VII. 
made Richard Yate and Thomas Whitby ford feofees of the 
Church House. Bigland, 1786, says that tradition reports it 
to have been the gift of Thomas Tanner. Now in Fuller's 
" Worthies " a Thome Tanner de Dursoleye (Dursley ) appears 
among the names of gentry returned by the Commissioners in 
1432, 12th Henry VI. for the better preservation of the Peace. 
Tanner, therefore, may have given the building to the parish. In 
1535 other trustees were appointed. In 1580 trustees were ap- 
pointed to hold the Church House for the sole benefit of the 
parishioners of Dursley, yielding 1 2 pence in silver to the Lord of 
the Fee, the Tolcestres, called Tolle-ale, and Church ale being also 
reserved. In 1654 the Pack (Porch Acre) is mentioned with the 
Church House, the rent of the acre is to go to the repair of the 
house and the residue to the repair of the church. However, from 
the Churchwardens' accounts from 1566 to 1840 the rent of the 
house and acre did not go solely to the repair of the church, but 
was applied to the general purposes of a church-rate. The Charity 
Commissioners' Report of 1827 is not quite accurate with regard 
to the Church House. Up to 1779 it appears from the Church- 
wardens' book that the Overseers of the parish paid £4 a year for 
the building. On October 27th, 1779, at a vestry meeting, it was 
decided to use the building for a workhouse. In 1836 the greater 
part of it was pulled down, the present broad pathway to the south 
porch made, and besides two new houses in Silver Street built on 
its site. However, part of the back of the building still exists. 
It is a great pity that the name of the donor and the date are lost, 
the latter, at all events, must have been well known fifty years 
ago. We must hope that it may yet be traced. 



West Frowt of St. James' Chukcm. 



19 



NOTES ON THE WEST FRONT 
OF ST. JAMES', PAROCHIAL, FORMERLY PRIORY, 
CHURCH, BRISTOL. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

The west front of the church of St. James is very interesting and 
remarkable. The facade is divided into four stories by string- 
courses. The lower of which is built of strong rubble masonry,^ 
with buttresses of milestone grit at the angles of ashlar work 
in Dundry stone. The north buttress had a new buttress built 
against it to strengthen it, about 40 years ago, but the upper part 
of the Norman buttress appears above it, and on the top of it are 
the remains of a pinnacle of the same original work. The upper 
part of the southern buttress may also be seen above the buildings 
erected against it. In this story is a circular-headed Norman door, 
with segmental arch, having a tympanum within it. This doorway 
has been re-worked. The second story contains an arcade of nine 
intersecting arches of varying width. The centre one, being the 
widest, is pierced as a window, as are also the two adjoining ones, 
whilst the others on each side, which are much narrower, have 
pointed arches, and are unpierced. The arches, which are enriched 
with chevron mouldings, rest upon slender shafts with cushioned 
capitals. The string-course above this story separating it from 
the next, is of the same height as the eaves of the building. In this 
third story is a very remarkable circular window in the gable, 
and above the third string-course, which is of a lighter character, 
is a long narrow window, now glazed, but, probably, originally 
constructed for ventilation, and above it a small sculptured orna- 
ment. 

1 It is not improbable that this rubble masonry may be an indication 
that the buiklings on the ground floor originally extended further westward, 
for it is scarcely likely that this rough work w^as exposed to view as a base 
of the more ornate work above ; moreover, the wall is not pierced for 
windows. 



20 



Transactions foe the Year 1888-9. 



The circular window has been described and figured on many 
occasions, but never, except in one instance, accurately. Probably 
this has arisen in consequence of the height of the window and 
the decayed state of the stone-work. Pryce, in his History of 
Bristol, writes : " The circular window, near the summit of this 
gabled west-front, is both rare in design and elegant in execution. 
In it is seen the germ of those beautiful and elaborate Catherine- 
wheel windows, one of which is inserted over the entrance to the 




Fig. 1. 



Mayor's chapel." Barrett describes it (p. 387) as "a pretty gothic 
window," an expression which naturally leads to the inference that 
it is constructed in the pointed style of architecture, instead of 
which, upon examination, it is found not to possess a single feature 
of that beautiful style of building, but it is in every particular 




J. Lavars, Del 
1878 



The West Front of St. James' Church. 



21 



decidedly Anglo-Norman. In Cliilcott's Bristol is an illustration 
just as far removed from being accurate. Mr. J olin Taylor, in his 
Book about Bristol, writes of it as " a small but beautiful rose- 
window," and the same author, in Bristol Past and Present, 
describes it as " a small but exquisite wheel-window of the same 
date (Norman), and the elevation of this front is there given (see 
/iff. i).^ The same author, in his Notes 07i the Architecture of the 
Middle Ages in Bristol, refers to it as "a very curious circular 
window," nevertheless, the illustration which he gives of it is in 
every feature of its tracery totally unlike the original. 

The most correct illustration, generally, of the west front of 
this church, and of the window in question, will be found in the 
beautiful engraving No. 1 . in the abortive work of Messrs. Burder, 
Hine, and Godwin, entitled The Architectural Antiquities of 
Bristol, of which, unfortunately, one number only was printed in 
1851. 

Our attention was specially directed to this window by Mr. 
John Lavars, of 51, Broad Street, Bristol, who kindly favoured 
us with a sketch of it which he had made some time ago,^ and to 
Mr. Lavars we are indebted for the illustration [PL III). Some of 
the details in Mr. Lavars' sketch not appearing quite satisfactory, 
it occurred to us that possibly Mr. T. S Pope, architect, Bristol, 
might have a drawing, and on applying to that gentleman we 
found that he had one very carefully made to scale from a 
scaffold at the same level, which he very obligingly placed at our 
disposal for the correction of the original sketch, and this, as cor- 
rected, forms the illustration referred to above. 

Mr. Lavars, a short time ago, in looking over "Ruskin's Stones 
of Venice, noticed an ornament on the archivolt in St. Mark's 
Church, Venice, which, in his opinion, is exactly identical with the 
window in question. He thought it remarkable that the same 
design should occur in St. Mark's Church and St. James, both 
being built at the same time, the early part of the 12th century, 

1 For the use of this wood-cut we are indebted to the obligmg courtesy 
of Mr. J. W. Arrowsmith, Publisher. 

2 It will be observed that the reticulation consists of three equal tre- 
foils formed of one interlacing ribbon, and Mr. Lavars suggests that it may 
symbolize the Trinity in Unity. 



22 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



and at so great a distance from each other. Mr. Lavars there- 
upon sent a sketch of St, James' window to Mr. Ruskin, and 
requested to be favoured with his opinion as to whether the 
design is Byzantine or Anglo-Norman. Mr. Ruskin replied : "I 
can offer no conjecture as to the origin of the design, it is indeed 
like a Byzantine reticulation, but the resemblance is probably 
accidental. I can easily credit a Norman builder with the in- 
genuity of it." 

There cannot, we think, be any doubt that the whole facade 
is Transition-Norman of the first quarter of the 1 2th century. 



Testa r>F Nevtll. 



23 



TESTA DE NEVILL 
RETURNS FOR COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER. 
No. 2. 

By sir henry BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 

If the Exchequer Register were arranged chronologically, the 
next Return would be that at the foot of column b, page 78. 
Although it has no title, the summation at its close shows it to 
contain an account of the collection of a " Carucage " of two 
shillings a plough. The tax, so called, was a revival under a new 
name of the ancient Danegheld, the normal rate of which had 
been the same sum for each hide of land subject to its imposition. 

From the " Dialogue concerning the Exchequer," written in 
1177, it would seem that Henry II. felt somewhat ashamed 
(possibly after A'Beckett's opposition ^) of continuing that levy 
on the pretext of apprehended invasion, and though by no means 
disposed to spare his subjects, and particularly his military 
tenants, from exactions, suffered it to fall into desuetude during 
the latter portion of his reign.^ With his well ordered finances this 
was easy, but under his son the case was widely different. Richard 
exhausted his resources in order to take part in the Crusade, and 
when it became necessary in 1193 to provide a hundred thousand 
crowns for his redemption from captivity, no better alternative 
presented itself, than to supplement the proceeds of the "Aid," 
to which he was, under such circumstances, entitled according to 

^ At a Council held on 1st July, HQS - See Stubb' s Constitutional History, 
Vol. 1. 

- Dr. Stubb's (now Bishop of Chester), the great authority on such 
points, states that Danegheld ceased to be imposed in 11G8, but Madox, in 
his History of the Exchequer cites from the Pipe Roll of 1175, a charge for 
issuing the summonses for its payment in that year. 



24 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



the feudal system, by reverting to direct taxation on all cultivators 
of land, the number of ploughs employed being taken as the basis 
of assessment. The experiment proved so successful, that it would 
appear to have been repeated in the following year, after Richard's 
liberation, since Roger de Hoveden informs us that at a Council 
held at Nottingham on 1st April, 1194, it was decided to grant 
the King (inter alia) "two shillings from every carucate through- 
out England, towards the cost of his expedition to Normandy.^ 

Henceforth a carucage was deemed an established source of 
revenue, and little time elapsed before the numerous exemptions 
which had largely detracted from the yield of Danegheld were 
abolished, and the incidence of the new tax placed on an uniform 
footing throughout the realm. In 1198, as we learn from the 
same contemporary chronicler, on the imposition of a charge of no 
less than five shillings for each carucate or hide," payable in 
two instalments, commissioners were sent to every county in the 
King's name, whose duty it was, in concert with the sheriff, to 
assemble juries, partly by election, in every Hundred, for the 
purpose of declaring on oath how many " Wainages of Ploughs " 
there were in each vill, whether held in demesne or in villenage, 
or, if by the church, who was responsible for the military service 
of the lands. Minute and stringent instructions were added as to 
the mode of collecting and accounting for the tax, and recording 
all the particulars ascertained. Serjeanties were not directly 
taxed, but the extent and value of the lands held thereby, and the 
names of the holders, were to be entered, the latter being at the 
same time summoned to London at Whitsuntide "to receive the 
King's orders."^ 

Hoveden concludes his account by stating " that those chosen 
to superintend this business decreed according to the estimate of 
the Jurors for the Wainage of each Plough one hundred acres 

^ Roger de Hoveden's Chronicle, edited by Dr. Stubb's for the Rolls 
Series, 4 vols., 8vo, Vol. III., p. 242. 

2 " Carucarum Wainagia," rendered by Dr. Stubbs, in the Glossary to 
his " Select Charters," Ploughlands, but, literally, "Plough-gear." 

^ Ipsi vero qui electi fuerant et constituti ad hoc negotiuni Regis faci- 
endum, statuerunt, per testimationem legalium homnium ad unius cujus 
que carucse wainagium centum acras terre. — Hoveden, Vol, IV., p. JfH, 



Testa de Nevill. 



25 



of land." It seems to be inferred from these words by most 
writers, that an important statutory alteration was thus effected 
by the Royal Commission in the previously recognised area of the 
carucate, which before that period had contained 12C acres. 
Surely, however, if such had been the case, the chronicler would 
not have been content with this mere incidental mention of what 
would have been equivalent to an augmentation of 20 per cent, in 
the basis of assessment Is it not far more probable that in 
what he says as to acreage, he is speaking of the long hundred " 
of six score, then in use throughout England,' and that the decision 
he records meant really no more than that henceforth in levying 
carucage every such hundred acres of arable was to be reckoned 
as requiring one fully equipped plough ^ 

Some standard of assessment must indeed have become almost 
indispensable, considering the varying strengths of the teams 
employed ; the increasing substitution of horses for oxen ; and 
above all, the different systems of farming prevalent, not merely 
in different parts of the kingdom, but even in the same county. 

With regard to the first point, details given in Extents of 
church lands early in the 13th century indicate that the typical 
8 ox plough of Domesday was no longer the rule even on the lord's 
demesne, 2 whilst as to the second, the extended use of horses, 
(which are only once mentioned in the whole course of the Domes- 
day Survey of the County of Gloucester) is shown by the directions 
issued to the Justices Itinerant in 1194, to enquire in the case of 
Hoyal manors on ferm, " how many oxen and how many horses, 
constituted a plough-team,^ the two, doubtless, being often har- 
nessed together, since Sir Walter Henley, the earliest writer on 
English Agriculture whose treatise is extant, strongly recommends 
mixed teams consisting of two of each description of animal. 

1 For explanation as to the " Anglicus Numerus " — See Domesday 
Studies, Vol. I. Papers by the Rev. Isaac Taylor (p. 159) Mr. J. H. Round, 
and Mr. 0. C. Pell. 

2 Vide Cartulary of St. Peter's, Gloucester, where, in the case of one 
manor as many as 10 oxen (with 1 in reserve) were kept for each plough ; 
whilst in another, 6 only M^ere deemed requisite. 

3 " Forma procedendi," as given in Stubbs' Select Charters, p. 262, 



26 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



In respect, thirdly, to modes of cultivation, we know that, 
with the exception of the lord's demesne, the lands lay in open 
common-fields, either three in number, one-third being for winter 
tillage, one-third for lent tillage, and one-third for fallow ; or upon 
the two-field system, half under crop, half fallow; the number of 
ploughs difiering proportionately. 

Under these circumstances it would much simplify matters to 
make the cultivators of every hundred acres pay tax for one 
plough, and although the average thus struck was extremely 
favourable to the owners of stiff clay land, and correspondingly 
adverse to the interests of those who held light and easily culti- 
vated soils, this was probably felt to be by no means inequitable. 

Unfortunately we have no opportunity of testing the results of 
the Commissioners' labours by comparison with other E/cturns, since 
the Inquisitions of 1198 have, there is every reason to suppose, 
all but entirely perished. Dr. Stubbs, indeed, expresses uncer- 
tainty as to whether the elaborate scheme was carried out in its 
integrity, but there are in the "Testa de Nevill " entries which 
leave little room for doubt that the enquiry was completed from 
one end of the kingdom to the other. ^ 

Two years later, after King John's accession, a carucage was 
imposed at the rate of three shillings, in ordei to help in providing 
30,000 marks which he had engaged by treaty to pay Philip of 
France for releasing all claim to the Vexin, but we are not told 

1 At p. 72 is a Return addressed to Archbishop Hubert by the Sheriff of 
Herefordshire " et Socii sui assignati ad taillagium faciendum de carucis de 
hoc Comitatu, "which can belong to no other date. At p. 93 is another 
(likewise from the true Testa) in which the constant recurrence of the phrase 
" Wanag' Car shows that the enquiry extended to the Counties of War- 
wick and Leicester ; whilst at p. 377, under Yorkshire, we find a commission 
of eight notables, among whom is the Sheriff for the year 1198, Roger de 
Bad vent, reporting to H. , Archbishop of Canterbury, that they hav^e been 
" itinerantes in North Riding 'adponenda taillagia super Wainagia caru- 
carum,' juxta mandatum vestrum," but being detained by various affairs in 
Richmondshire could not arrive at the Wapentake of Pykering before the 
Friday next before Holy Trinity, and so the Serjeants of the King could not 
appear before them in London at the appointed time, &c., &c. Unhappily 
in all three cases the compilers of the Testa de Nevill, deemed it worth 
while merely to transcribe the portion of the Returns relating to Serjeanties, 
and the rest is lost ! 



Testa de Nevill. 



27 



in what mode it was levied. This is the only imposition of the 
kind recorded in his reign, but that may arise solely from the fact 
that the chronicle of Roger de Hoveden comes down no further 
than 1201. 

At all events the next carucage mentioned is that granted to 
his youthful heir, Henry III., in July, 1220, by the Great Council 
at Westminster, shortly after his second coronation in the abbey 
there, at the normal rate of two shillings for each plough, with a 
view to relieve the most pressing necessities of the government. 
A copy of the writ addressed on 9th August to the Sheriffs 
throughout England, ordering them to take steps for its collection, 
is on the Close Iloll,^ the mode of proceeding prescribed being 
far simpler than on the former occasion. Each Sheriff, aided by 
two Knights elected by the freeholders of the county, is to collect 
the tax in respect to every plough in working order at the pre- 
ceding Midsummer, excepting those on the demesnes of the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops or those of their villeins, and except those of 
the Cistercian and Premonstratensian Orders. The exceptions were, 
no doubt, made in deference to the strong opposition which had, 
from the first, been manifested by the clergy to being subjected 
to the impost, especially by lay authority. In 1198 King Eichard 
had only obtained payment from ecclesiastics by threatening to 
deprive those in default of the right of recourse to the Civil 
Tribunals in case of disputes with laymen ; and John, two years 
later, had to go to the length of declaring that Geoffrey, Arch- 
bishop of York, his bastard brother, had forfeited his see, for, 
among other offences, preventing the servants of the crown from 
collecting money for the ploughs on his lands. ^ If, as was till 
lately held by most authorities, the lands of churchmen had been 
exempt from Danegheld, the attempt to subject them to the tax 
substituted for that impost, would unquestionably have constituted 
a valid grievance, but it has recently been pointed out by Mr. 
J. H. Round,3 that neither Domesday nor the Cartularies confirm 

1 Printed at full length in Stubb's Select Charters, p. 352. 

2 Roger Hoveden, Vol. IV., p. 107. 

3 "Danegheld and the Finance of Domesday."— Z)Q???es(^ay Studies, 
Vol. J., p. 96. 



28 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9, 



the idea of such exemption. It is true that it appears from the 
Gheld Rolls of the Exon Domesday, that they were excused from the 
heavy tax of six shillings per hide levied by the Conqueror in 1084, 
as far as their demesne lands were concerned, but so likewise were 
the lay barons, so that it may have been an exceptional concession 
in the case of both. In the reign of Rufus we have, in fact, a 
possitive statement that the church was not exempted,^ whilst in 
that of Henry I. we find on the Pipe Roll of 1130 evidence to the 
same effect. This is confirmed by the next earliest Pipe Roll 
extant, that of 2nd Henry II. (1155), which shows Bishops and 
Prelates paying gheld through the Sheriffs, just like laymen, the 
numerous remissions granted in both cases being classed in the 
same category. lb would seem likely, therefore, that clerical 
opposition owed its revival to A'Beckett, and that even then a 
continuance of the tax, disguised under the title of a "Donum" 
or voluntary contribution, was submitted to. Such a compromise 
was at any rate entered into with respect to the carucage of 1220, 
since the chronicles of the Priory of Dunstable inform us ^ that 
in that year "every Bishop of his own free-will collected the aid 
for the King's necessities throughout his Diocese from the Abbots 
and Priors." This is corroborated by the actual returns of the 
collection in one county — Berkshire — to be found in the Testa de 
Nevill. At page 131, under the heading " Receipt of the Caru- 
cage assessed in the 5th year of King Henry III. from the lands 
of the Earls, Barons, Knights, free tenants, and other laymen 
cultivating lands, — not being ecclesiastical fiefs, — by the hands of 
Henry of the Exchequer, Sheriff of Berks, William de Stanford, 
and William de Wancy, elected to receive such collections," we 
find, first of all, seven entries respecting lands which may be con- 
jectured, from the names of the holders, to be held " in Barony " 
and then come lists of the vills in every Hundred, with the 
number of ploughs and amount of taxation calculated at the rate 
of two shillings. 

1 Giilielmus Rufus ad Normanniam festinandum {sic), habuit ex undqua- 
que hida quatuor solidos, Ecdesid non exceptd. — Quoted from " Laws of the 
Confessor,'' by Spellman in Ids Glossary. 

2 Rolls Series. 



Testa de Neyill. 



29 



At p. 132b follows a second Return, headed simply, " Return 
of the Carucage of the lands and fiefs of Religious and Ecclesias- 
tical persons," which sets forth under their respective Hundreds 
the names of the vills, as well as in most cases those of th>i Abbey 
or Priory to which they belonged, together with the number of 
ploughs taxed in each, and the amount of tax calculated as before. 
In one instance only is a Bishop referred to, viz., the Bishop of 
London as holding Bockhampton, where there were ten ploughs, 
for which he paid 20s,, which throws discredit on the inherently 
improbable story that the episcopate taxed itself at the rate of 
6s. 8d. per plough. 

Indeed, as already remarked, throughout both Returns the 
carucage is set down at 2s. per plough, the rate authorised by the 
Great Council, the word Caruca being in almost every instance 
written at full length, without any sign of abbreviation, so as to 
preclude the possibility of carucata being meant. 

Seeing that the writs authorising the levy bore date in Oxford, 
on 9th August, whilst the Sheriffs had to render account for their 
collections at the Exchequer by 30th September, not much time 
was allowed for enquiring as to the actual number and strength of 
the ploughs in use, so that it seems allowable to infer that the 
Rolls of payment for previous carucages were available for con- 
sultation, and that the number of standard ^ plough-teams to be 
paid for in the case of each vill, had been pretty well understood 
beforehand. 

So far as to Berkshire ; the Returns for which are, apparently, 
complete in all respects, which is the case in respect to no other 
county. 

The single Return for Gloucestershire, is in the saine form, 
and relates obviously, from internal evidence, to the same caru- 
cage of 1220-1. It is, however, of much less value, since it is 
confined to lay fiefs alone. 

Not merely are the entire Hundreds of Henbury and Cleeve, 
pertaining to the Bishopric of Worcester : of Pucklechurch, owned 
by the Bishop of Bath and Wells; and of Deerhurst, divided 

^ That there was a " Standard " is clear from the number of cases in 
which the tax is paid for half a plough just as in Domesdaj''. 



30 



Transaction?? fok the Year 1888-0. 



between the Abbot of Westminster and the Church of St. Denis, 
at Paris ; omitted, but none of the church lands scattered through- 
out other Hundreds are included. No doubt they appeared in a 
separate ecclesiastical roll, not now extant. 

This alone renders this Gloucestershire Return unfit for pur- 
poses of comparison, but it has another, though less serious defect, 
arising from the arrangement of the numerous manors belonging 
to the Honour of Gloucester in a schedule at the end, without 
reference to locality ; those of other Earls being treated in the 
same manner. 

It would be useless, under such circumstances, to reprint in 
full the account of the collections in those Hundreds that are 
given, but I append a summary of the number of vills and ploughs 
mentioned under each, with a few comments where they appear 
called for. 



Testa de NevilL. 31 



SUMMARY OF CARUCAGH 



HUNDREDS OR OTHER DIVISIONS. 


No. of 


No. OF 


Reference 


As i)i the Return. 


Modern Naiw. 


A ILLS. 


JL JLULl It H^i. 


TO Notes. 


1 Wesebir' 


Westbiiry 


14 


b0| 




2 Blyclieslawe 


Bledislow 


8 


31^ 




3 Bottelau 


Botloe 


1 Q 






4 Wittestan 


Whit stone 


9 


/( 1^ 1 




5 Duddestana 


Dudstan 


17 


T O 

/ o 




6 Clnlteh'm 


Cheltenham 


3 


00 




7 Jell" de Mon- 


Liberty of Forest 


8 


45 




emue debet res- 


of Dean 








pondere 










8 Byseleg 


Bisley 


13 


64 




9 Walliiigford 


Honour of 


3 


lb 




Walingford 








10 Cirencestr' 


Seven hundreds 
of C. 


15 


oaf 




11 Langetr' 


Longtree 


7 


69 




12 Bretlievaldes- 


Brightwolds- 


5 


58^ 




burgh 
13 R-esp'egat 


barrow. 








Kapsgate 


5 


45 




14 Bradel' 


Bradley 


7 


70 




15 Agemede 


Agmead, united 


2 


6 




to 16. 








16 Grimbaldess 


Grimboldsash 


9 


114 




17 Berkel 


Berkeley 


Z6 


AKJt 




18 Sloctr' 


Slaughter 


10 


107 




19 Olefordd 


Holford and 


10 


127^ 




Winch' 


Winchcombe 








20 Kvftesgate 


Kiftsgate 


io 






21 The Bailiffs of the Earl of Glou- 








cester are responsible for the 








Carucage due 


by the ploughs 








undermentioned 




Q Q O 1 


bee note a 


22 The Bailiffs of the Earl of Chester 








are responsible 


for 15 fees in 








Sapeden, {i.e. Campden) 


1 


25 


See note b 


23 The Bailiff of the Earl of Salis- 








bury is answera 


ble for 20 ploughs 








in Heythrop and for 9 in Omnel 








(Amney) 




2 


29 


See note c 


24 Hundred de Al ewes ton 


3 


20i 


See note d 






245 


1857i 




Sum total of the ploughs for which the 








Knights have 


received carucage 




1405 


jSee note e 


Sum total in iuone\ 






£140 3 



Note A. - The Earl of Glouccstei- here referred to must be Gilbert de Clare (i), whose claim to 
that title on the death of Gcoll'rey dc MandevilJe in 121G was indisinitable. Doyle, 



32 



Transactions von the Ykak 1888-9. 



As already pointed out, the data furnished by the foregoing 
accounts are too scanty and imperfect to serve as a basis for 
comparing the state of agriculture in the different districts of the 
county, as deducible from the number of ploughs employed. Still 
less do they suffice for estimating the extent of cultivation in the 
early years of the 13th century, as contrasted with that which had 
existed at the time of the Domesday Survey ; assuming always 
that the plough then spoken of still constituted the unit of 
taxation. 

The task would in any event be an intricate one owing to the 
alterations which had taken place in the boundaries — and even in 
the number, of the Hundreds, although it might, perhaps, be 
possible in some few instances when these had remained com- 
paratively undisturbed, to make an approximate estimate. 

The Hundred of Berkeley, for example, had undergone little if 
any change of area, though some of its manors had passed to the 
church. 

Berkeley itself, the head of the lordship, had, in 1086, 23 
ploughs, and the 21 Berewicks which belonged to it, 223 more, to 
which must be added for the lands held extra-manorially by E-oger 
de Berkeley, the tenant of the ferm, exclusive of Nesse, where no 
ploughs are accounted for, 48, making a total of 2941. 

indeed, in the Official Baronage, saj's he did not succeed to the Earldom till 1st Jan., 
1225, but this is clearly wrong, as in a case in Bracton's Note Book, in Hillar}' Term, 
4th Henry III. (Jan. 1220) "the Earl of Gloucester" is recorded as present and giving 
evidence, whilst in the Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester in 5th Hen. HI. 
(1221) " Maitland, p. 78," it is noted that "the Earl of Gloucester asserts his right 
to hold courts in Tewkesbury, and also that he was present (p. 56). 

Note B.— Eanulph, Earl of Chester, lived till 1232. 

Note C.— William Longsword. 

Noted.— This supplementary entry is so inexplicable that I cannot but attribute it to a 
mistake at the Exchequer. Alvestan is no where else accounted a Hundred, and of 
the three vills — Rockhampton, Winterbourne, and Frampton (Cotele) here included in 
it, the fii'st and last were in Langley Hundred, and the second in Swynesheved 
(Rot. Hundredorum, 4th Edward I.) Neither of the last named Hundreds occur in the 
» Return of the Carucage, but both were in existence at the time it was levied, for they 
were represented by juries at the Eyre of 1221. (Vide Pleas of the Crown for the 
County of Gloucester, 5th Henry III. Edit. F. W. Maitland). 

Note E. — I cannot make this total tally with the figures as given in detail. If, besides de- 
ducting the number of ploughs for which the three Eai-ls were liable, we deduct like- 
wise the 45 for which John of Monmouth, as Keeper of the Forest of Dean, had to 
answer, there would remain not 1405, but 1406^, but to this ought, apparently, to be 
added the 20^ debited to the Hundred of Alveston. Perhaps, however, the tax for 
these had not been received by the Knights elected under the King's Writ (see ante) 
at the time they made their Retui-n to the Exchequer. The sum total paid by 
them in money, £140 3s., was 7s. short of the tax on 1405 ploughs at 2?. each. 



Testa de Nevill. 



33 



From this aggregate — before any attempt at comparison is 
instituted — should be deducted the ploughs on those manors which 
afterwards became ecclesiastical property, Almondsbury, Ashel- 
worth, Cromhal (Abbots) and parts of Horfield, given to St 
Augustine's, Bristol, by Robert Fitz Harding, besides numerous 
smaller alienations made by the earlier tenants of Berkeley, such 
as Lorenge farm, Ozelworth, Calcote, &c., in favour of St. Peter's 
Gloucester, Kingswood Abbey, and other religious houses. 

The deduction cannot be made with exactitude, for the ploughs 
of the 21 Berewicks are lumped together in the Survey, and we 
can only guess at the number in each of them from the hidage 
assigned to it as compared with the total hidage of all. Roughly 
estimated on this basis an allowance of 30 ploughs would seem to 
suffice, but even if we saw reason to double this number, the 
result of the comparison would still be startling, as instead of the 
234 ploughs of Domesday which would remain, only 207 ploughs 
paid carucage in the year 1220-1. 

The evidence thus presented of a considerable reduction in the 

number of ploughs in this single Hundred, is borne out, so far as 

we can judge, with regard to the entire county. According to the 

figures given by the Rev. C. S. Taylor in his interesting Analysis 

of the Gloucestershire Domesday Survey, there were 3909 ploughs 

belonging to the Lords, temporal and spiritual, and their tenants, 

at that date ; and as the hidage of the lands of the former class is 

stated to have been in the ratio of about 10 to 9 to that of the 

latter the lay lords and their tenants, presumably, then owned 2060 

teams. Instead of this we find them at the end of 135 year: 

accounting for under 1860. It may be argued that the possessions 

of the church generally had been much augmented in that interval 

by gifts from the laity, and, further, that tillage had probably 

become more productive, but neither fact seems to me to explain 

so large a positive decline in the number of ploughs in face of the 

great increase which must necessarily have taken place in the 

population. This part of England it is true had suffered, especially 

in the civil wars of Stephen's reign, but it had for the latter half 

of the term been as little disturbed as any portion of the kingdom, 
Vol. XIII. D 



34 



Tkansactions for the Year 1888-9 



and the apparent contraction of agriculture therefore presents an 
anomaly worthy of closer investigation. 

Apart from its value as throwing light on such questions, the 
Return, I may, in conclusion, point out, supplies the county 
historian with an early and authentic list of the names by which 
the various vills and manors had come to be known at the com- 
mencement of the thirteenth century, as well as of their relative 
importance in an agricultural point of view. As it seldom affords 
a clue to their tenants, it is, however, of little use for genealogical 
purposes. 



The Churches of Sodbury. 



33 



1396873 

THE CHURCHES OF SODBURY, CO. GLOUCESTER. 

By T. S. pope, Architect, Bristol, 

When I was asked some little time ago by Canon Nash to write 
a short description of Chipping Sodbury Church for the meeting 
of this Society I readily consented to do so, remembering, as I well 
do, the state of the church before its restoration, and fully recog- 
nising how well and faithfully that work has been executed, so 
that this church now remains a thing of beauty, and its history 
is as clearly to be read now, perhaps more clearly, than before it 
was restored. Upon thinking over the subject it occurred to me 
that, perhaps, it would be as well to give a description of the 
three Sodbury churches — all three being typical churches, but, 
alas ! one of them, Little Sodbury, has, so far as the ancient 
church is concerned, very nearly disappeared, some small portions 
only remaining. The names of the villages very well indicate the 
the history of these churches. 

First, Old Sodbury. The old Norman church, without doubt 
the first of the three built, was useful as a watch tower, over- 
looking all the flat country below, and keeping guard over its 
subordinates. 

Secondly, Chipping, or Market, Sodbury, formerly a thriving 
little town in the vale, where a colony of weavers seem early to 
have settled, and a flourishing market to have been established ; 
and. 

Thirdly, Little Sodbury. The little parochial church was 
situated close to the old manor house, but scarcely any portion of 
it now remains. 

The country in this neighbourhood seems in those early times 
to have been for the most part wild forest land. Horewood Gate 
Farm still testifies to the vicinity of Horewood Forest, and the old 
oak seats and panelling, formerly in all the churches, shew how plen- 
tiful that timber was in the neighbourhood ; the large commons, 



36 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



still undrained, give some slight idea of the general appearance of 
the country at the period to which I advert. 

Old Sodhury Church is evidently Norman in plan, v^^ith a very 
long chancel, north and south transepts, nave with aisles having 
Transition Norman arcades, the capital of . each pillar being, I 
believe, different in design. I may mention here that the whole 
of the church, with the exception of the tower, has been rebuilt 
upon the old foundations at a quite recent date. 

Athough we may deplore the destruction of ancient work by 
rebuilding of such a church as this, we cannot but approve of the 
effect of the arrangements carried out by the architect. We 
must not forget that ancient churches were built primarily for the 
glory and worship of God, and that the plan and ariangements 
were adapted to the ritual appointed for the carrying out that 
worship in the most reverent and dignified manner. Every 
true churchman and archaeologist cannot but deplore the reckless 
destruction which, through ignorance, has in too many instances 
been committed, and is still being committed, under the misappro- 
priated term " Restoration." 

The original plan of this church, which was erected in the 
first quarter of the 13th century, consisted of a chancel, which 
has been lengthened by 8ft., the chancel arch having been carried 
further westward to that extent in the recent alterations, north 
and south transepts, formerly chapels, separated from the church 
by Early English arches of about 8 ft. wide, and walls reaching 
to the nave, which is long, and has north and south aisles, 
rather narrow, with Transition Norman arcades, the capitals of the 
columns being all different in design as stated above. The tower is 
at the west end of the nave, and it is original. There is no indication 
that theie was ever a central tower, nor is there any tradition 
that such a tower ever existed. The church of Tormarton, the 
adjoining parish, which is of the same character, has also an early 
western tower, and a western porch with a chamber over it, now 
removed. At Old Sodbury also is a good south porch with a fine 
internal late Norman doorway, fortunately but little injured by 
the recent " restoration." The tower also remains almost un- 
touched —a little low village tower with very thick walls having 



'Plate lil^ 




Thk Churchks of Soebcry. 



37 



not much architectural detail, but very good and simple in its 
way. There are two Early English windows, one at the west end of 
each aisle, also some very pretty decorated windows in the chancel, 
as pretty as any in this neighbourhood. 

The north transept contains two tombs in arched recesses 
of the Decorated period containing effigies of Knights in armour. 
One of them is carved in oak similar to an effigy in the church of 
Chew Magna. This effigy is said to be that of Philip le Gros, and 
the effigy in the other recess is stated to represent his son. This 
latter effigy has been much mutilated, but it has a very good 
pointed shield. The font is octagonal, with quartrefoil panels and 
good mouldings, and, apparently, of the 15th century, being the 
usual type of that period. ^ It has been scraped all over, but I am 
told it is the original one. This church, before its alteration, 
contained many valuable remains of wood-work in its ancient 
seating (See Plate III. figs. 1 and 2, PI. IV, fig. 4) ; we must all 
regret they were not preserved. The linen pattern is one of the 
best I have ever seen- When we consider the troublous times 
during which this church was built, and also the condition of the 
country, with Berkeley Castle not far away, Yate Court, another 
fortified house of the Berkeleys, very near, and the hills not over- 
peopled even now, we can quite understand the object of this 
church having small windows and openings and a low strong 
western tower to render it capable of defence. 

The view also from this place of the line of church towers, 
which follow the ancient road from Bristol into the hill country, 
is, in this part of the county, very remarkable. Iron Acton 
almost like a castle ; Yate, more modern in appearance — twin 
sister to Westerleigh and Chipping Sodbury. Then Old Sodbury, 
and, farther on, Tormarton — all, excepting Yate, seeming to have 
been built more for use than beauty. The ancient inn at the 
bottom of Old Sodbury Hill also appears to be a relic of the same 
period. 

Chi^ypmg Sodbury Church was no doubt erected in the 13tli 
century, when the country was becoming somewhat more settled 
and money more plentiful, the market probably contributing 
^ It is well figured in Paley's Fonts, and conseiiucntly is not new. 



38 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

much to the prosperity of the town. Judging from the remains 
on the eastern side of the chancel arch, the chancel, as first 
built, was smaller, and not so high as the present one. The 
old builders almost invariably commenced their churches at the 
east end, so that the offices of religion might be celebrated 
with becoming decency and reverence as soon as possible. But 
we do not find here any remains of the early side chapels into 
which the present arcades must once have opened, although we 
find, apparently, 13th century capitals used as corbels for the 
1 5th century roof in the north aisle. The present side chapels were 
no doubt, built in the 15th century, the southern one near the close 
of that century ; still, we should expect to find some indication at 
least of the earlier work. The present chancel arch is, I think, the 
oldest existing portion of the church, and has a very pretty arch 
supported on corbels (Plate IV., fig. S). Remains of 15th century 
decoration in colours were found on the walls. The table courses 
of the former roof appear on the eastern side, and clearly shew 
there was formerly a smaller chancel, perhaps without side chapels, 
and that the present chancel was built upon a larger scale with the 
intention of having two side chapels opening into it. Just at that 
period Lady chapels came into use. The eastern side of the bay of 
the first pier of the north aisle is clearly of 14th century work, 
and seems to have been built with the idea of completing the church 
upon a grander scale, but something must have prevented this 
being carried out, perhaps the Black Death, which ravaged the 
country about this period. The arrangement of the north-east 
arch as a fiying buttress to the chancel clearly proves its having 
been built to resist the thrust of the chancel arches. The seat-like 
base to this pier is, probably, placed for the purpose of securing 
a broader foundation As the town prospered, first the north aisle 
in the early part of the 15th century, and then the south aisle 
and porch in the latter part of the same century were erected. 
A stone pulpit of 15th century work is placed on the west side 
of the first pier of the north aisle above-mentioned. It has a 
stone seat at its base, and at the back of the pulpit is a small 
circular-headed opening of much later construction. It has at the 
back of it this inscription : " Tobias Davis his charge." Preaching 



The Churches of Sodbury. 



39 



had at that time become popular among the lower classes, and it 
may have been placed in this position for acoustic reasons. There 
is a beautiful incised slab in the north chapel, which probably com- 
memorates some Flemish merchant who had settled here. Tiie tower 
appears to be of about the same date as the south aisle, and it is 
worthy of remark that the builders here and at Yate have taken the 
precaution, in order to prevent danger to the nave by the settlement 
of the tower, to omit all bonding of the nave walls with those 
of the tower. The screens between the chancel and side chapels 
and the nave and aisles were of different heights, as appears from 
the steps and the cills of the doors remaining in the walls in the 
north aisle. A portion of an old oak screen still remains, I think, 
in the south aisle. The north chapel would seem to have belonged 
to the gild of cloth-workers, and they would have had images of 
the patron saints of their craft on their own chapel. Probably 
the doorway now leading into the vestry formerly led into a 
chantry chapel ^ behind the tomb in the north chancel chapel, 
which, I imagine, was the work of the cloth-workers who then 
abou' ded in this part of Gloucestershire. The north door of the 
church is of lith century work, and probably on the rebuilding a 
century or more later this door was rebuilt into it. 

The font also is an early one of elegant design (See Plate IV. 
Jig. 3). The old pewter bottle {fig. Jf) in the same Plate is an 
elegant and interesting object. It was dug up in forming the 
chamber for the heating apparatus, and bears on it the date 
1670. Whether the groining of the tower is original or not I 
am uncertain, except as to the springers of the ribs, which are so. 

The tower, in its simple details and good proportions, is a noble 
one, and must have been of great service in those days when most 
of the houses were built of timber, and so liable to tire and floods, 
the latter not unusual in the lands bordering on the Severn, the 

^ This was the only chantry m Sodbury. It was called the Brother- 
hood or Gild of Chipping Sodbury, and was founded by Thomas Hampton 
and others in the time of King Henry VI. for two priests to celebrate at 
the altar of St. Mary within the chapel or church of the said Chipping 
Sodbury, praying for the good estate of the said King, and, after his death, 
for his soul, the founder's souls and all christian souls (See ante V^ol. VIII., 
p. 277).— Ed. 



40 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



truth is the mediaeval builder always built with a purpose, and not 
for mere prettiness as is too often done now. The remains of the 
churchyard cross are in the garden of the Koman Catholic Priest, 
who most courteously shewed them to the Society. 

The ancient altar slab measuring 7 ft. 10 ins. by 2 ft. 10 ins., 
with four of the dedication crosses still remaining, the fifth being 
obliterated, lies under the altar, having in the year 1745 been 
appropriated as a gravestone by a certain James Hardwyk. 

Little Sodhury Church. Nearly every portion of this building 
has been removed, which we regret the more as it must have 
formed, with the old manor house, a most picturesque group. I 
cannot remember it, although I must have seen it many times. 
Mr. Hasluck informs me the present church is an exact copy of the 
old one, with this difference, the old one had flat roofs covered 
with lead, old oak seats, of which part have been used up, so far 
as the linen pattern panels are concerned. The destruction of the 
old Elizabethan family pew of the manor house at the east end of 
the aisle we much regret, and how quaint these old woodworks were 
we all know. A small portion of the tower still remains, with a 
Holy Water Stoup in the wall. 

The church is dedicated to S. Adelina, a very unusual name, 
of whom Father Grant, S. J., has kindly given me the following 
information : — 

" S. Adelina appears to be the diminutive of S. Adela, probably 
the same as is honoured in Belgium, Jany. 8th, by the Benedictine 
nuns of Messiene, near Ypres, which monastery she had founded." 

The old steps remain leading from manor house to church. 
You will notice the connection with the low countries in S. Adela. 
It is the cloth trade again. 



Report of Council. 



41 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Proceedings at the Summer Meeting held at Gloucester, 
Oyi Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, the 16th, 17th, 
18th, and 19th July, 1888. 



The Thirteenth Annual Summer Meeting of the Society was held at Glou- 
cester on the days above mentioned, the arrangements for which were made 
by a Local Conmiittee, of which Mr. R. V. Vassar-Smith was Chairman, 
Messrs. G. S. Blakeway (Town Clerk), and Mr. F. W. Waller were 
Secretaries, and Mr. Bernard Matthews, Treasurer. 

The ^klAYOR (Mr. John Ward) and the City High Sheriff (Mr, A. C. 
(Wheeler) received a large number of members and their friends at the 
Tolsey at noon. 

The Mayor said it gave him great pleasure on behalf of himself, the 
Corporation, and citizens of Gloucester, to bid a hearty welcome to the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, on this their second visit 
to the ancient City of Gloucester. It was the wish of the citizens that the 
Meeting here should be, in every respect, successful and agreeable, and he 
was very sure that every endeavour would be used by the inhabitants to 
make it so, and that all antiquities illustrating the history, and splendour 
of the city in ancient times would be freely open to the members during 
their visit. 

The Mayor having been duly thanked for his cordial address, the chair 
was taken by Lord Sherborne, the President of the Society, who called 
upon the Honorary Secretary (the Rev. W. Bazeley) to read the 

REPORT OF COUNCIL FOR 1887-8. 

The Council submits the following Report for 1887-8 to the members of the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society : — 

There are at the present time 387 Annual members, 77 Life members 
and 2 Honorary members on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 
466 members. 

The income for the Financial year, 1887-8, including the balance at the 
Society's bankers on April 21st, 1887, was £535 2s. fid. The expenditure 
amounted to £271 lis. 4d., and a balance of £263 lis. 2d. remained in the 
Treasurer's hands on the 21st of April last. From this balance, however, 
must be deducted the charge for the annual volume of Transactions, the first 
part of which has been issued and the second part is in type. 



42 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



A balance of £84 19s. lid. is still due from the Berkeley MSS. fund to 
the General fund, which balance will be gradually diminished as the surplus 
copies of the "Lives of the Berkeleys " and the " Hundred of Berkeley" 
are disposed of. 

The Society, has, moreover, a funded capital of £432 3s. 8d., represent- 
ing the composition fees of the Life members. This sum the Trustees have 
lately re-invested in the new 2| per cent. Consolidated Stock. 

The Society has held three meetings during the last year. The Annual 
Summer Meeting was held at Stratford-on-Avon, which, although out- 
side the boundaries of the County of Gloucester, was selected as the head- 
quarters of the Society, as being the only town in the vicinity of the N.E. 
portion of the county where sufficient accommodation could be procured for 
the members ; and as also being full of interest on account of its connection 
with Shakespeare. 

The Society was most hospitably received by the Mayor of Stratford, 
Sir Arthur Hodgson, and by the principal inhabitants of Stratford-on-Avon, 
and very cordially welcomed at Warwick by the Warwickshire Field Club 
and the Warwickshire Natural History and Architectural Society. 

The thanks of the Society are especially due to Edgar Flower, Esq., 
who acted as Local Secretary, and to Mr. Samuel Timmins, who met the 
members at Stratford, and acted as their guide to the Birth-place, Home, 
and Tomb of Shakespeare. 

During the Stratford Meeting the members visited Warwick Castle, by 
the kind permission of the Earl of Warwick, and Compton Winyatts, by the 
like permission of the Marquis of Northampton. They also visited Clifford 
Chambers, Quinton, Meon Hill, and Mickleton, in this county. 

On the 14th of October, 1887, a Special Meeting of the Society was held 
at Tockington Park, near Thornbury, for the purpose of inspecting the Re- 
mains of a Roman Villa, including several Tesselated Pavements, which had 
been carefully laid open under the direction of Sir John Maclean. The funds 
for these explorations were generously contributed by some members of this 
Society and other gentlemen interested in Roman antiquities in answer to 
an appeal which was issued by the Council. 

On the 29th of May in this year, the Society held its Annual Spring 
Meeting at Chipping Sodbury ; and the thanks of the Council are due to 
F. F. Fox, Esq., chairman ; to the Rev. W. H. P. Harvey, Secretary ; and 
to the other members of the Local Committee for the admirable manner in 
which the arrangements were planned and carried out. 

Full details of these meetings — at Stratford, Tockington Park and 
Chipping Sodbury — together with many interesting papers, will appear in 
the Society's Transactions. 

The Council during the last year has issued Vol. XI., part 2 ; Vol. XIL, 
part 1 ; and a second part of the Analysis of the Domesday Survey, by the 
Rev. C. S. Taylor. The second part of Vol. XII. is in type, and will be issued 
shortly. The Council wovild take this opportunity of expressing its deep 
obliga.tion to Sir John Maclean for the very able and zealous manner in 
which he has performed his onerous duties as Editor of the Society's printed 
works during the last eleven years. 



Rkport of Council. 



43 



In August of last year the Council issued a Prospectus for printing for 
the members, by private subscription, the Cartulary of Winchcombe Abbey, 
the President of the Society, Lord Sherborne, having placed the original 
MS. at the service of the Council for that purpose, and the Rev. D. Royce 
having most liberally offered to edit it free of all cost. The Council regrets 
extremely that the subscriptions which were promised in reply to this prospec- 
tus fell considerably below the estimated expense of printing ; and that it 
was compelled therefore to relinquish the work. The Rev. D. Royce has now 
determined to print the Cartulary on his own responsibility, and has thrown 
tlie subscription open to the general public. The Council feels that the 
thanks of this Society and of all students of Mediceval English History are 
due to this gentleman. 

The Council has during the last year, on more than one occasion, en- 
deavoured to arrest the hand of the destroyer. 

The Local Secretary of the Society for Dursley, having reported that the 
Uley Tumulus, known as Hetty Peglar's Tump, which has been scheduled 
under the Act for the Protection of Ancient Monuments, was being injured 
by mischievous persons, the Council desired the General Secretary and 
Col. Forbes to visit and report on the state of the Tumulus. These gentlemen 
found that several of the stones forming the chamber had been removed, and 
that the whole structure was in a dangerous condition. The report, which was 
drawn up on the occasion of the visit, was sent to Lieut. -Gen. Pitt-Rivers, 
and he has promised to take such steps as are necessary for the preservation 
of the Tumulus. He points out, however, that, in his opinion, the Act 
was passed with a view to enabling magistrates to convict summarily, and 
and that the residents in the neighbourhood of scheduled ancient monuments 
should assist H. M. Government in bringing delinquents to justice. 

It was brought under the notice of the Council in the early spring of 
this year that the ancient Camp near the Observatory at Clifton was in 
danger of demolition. A protest was made on behalf of the Council by 
the Secretary, and the Council rejoices to add that the danger has for the 
present passed away. 

The attention of the Council has lately been directed to a notice in a 
local newspaper that the Communion Plate of Dursley Parish Church, which 
has, no doubt, been in use for more than a century and a half, is to be con- 
verted into new silver vessels of a lighter and less cumbrous pattern. The 
Council has desired the Secretary to write to the Rector and Churchwardens 
pleading for the preservation of these examples of Ecclesiatical Art in the 
18th century. 

The Library of the Society, thanks to the generous gifts of a few of the 
members, to purchases, and to exchanges with other Societies, continues to 
grow, and now contains many valuable works relating to Local and General 
Archaeology. 

The Council has issued a list of Donors and Donations with the second 
part of Vol. XL, and a list of Books, MSS., &c., obt ained by exchange or 
purchases with the second part of Vol. XII. The Society has lately acquired 
many volumes of the Sussex Archaiological Society's Transactions in ex- 
change ; and only the 2nd, 3rd and 4th volumes are now wanting to complete 
this valuable set. 



44 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Several of our officers and other members have been taken from 
us by death during the past year. Sir William Vernon Guise, Baronet, 
President of Council for ten years, died on the 24th of September, 1887. 
He was one of the principal promoters of this Society, and its first President. 
To his thorough knowledge of Archaeology in many of its branches, and 
to his courteous and genial manners the members owe much of the grati- 
fication that they have experienced in attending the Society's Meetings. 
Those who served with him on the Council can testify to his tact, his good 
temper, and his experience as a Chairman. 

Samuel Higgs Gael, Barrister-at-Law, died on the 17th of September, 
1887. A member of Council from the first, and for some time a Vice-President 
of the Society, he was a frequent attendant at the meetings of the Council, 
and of the Society. He was well versed in the history of this county, and 
he rendered many valuable services to this Society as a contributor to 
the Transactions, as a guide to places of interest, and as legal adviser in 
cases of some difficulty. 

The Rev. Reginald Hill, Rector of Bromsberrow, has died in this year. 
The Society owes him a debt of gratitude for the excellent arrangements he 
made as Local Secretary on the occasion of the Society's visit to Tibberton, 
Upleadon, Newent, Dimock, and Kempley, in 1885. 

Lieut. -Col. Lawson Lowe has also died in this year. He was a member of 
Council for six years, and rendered great service to the Society during the 
meeting at Cheptow in 1881. 

The Society has also lost by death Mr. Edwin Witchell, a distinguished 
student of geology. 

The Council, on the death of Sir W. V. Guise, elected as its President 
Sir Brook Kay, Bart., who has taken a deep interest in the work of the 
Society from its foundation, and has been a regular attendant at the meet- 
ings of the Council. 

The Council now nominates for re-election the President of Council, the 
Vice-Presidents of the Society, the General Secretary, the General Treasurer, 
and the Secretaries, local and sectional. The Council also nominates Vice- 
Presidents of the Society, Sir Henry Barkly, K.C.B.,G.C.M.G., President for 
1886-7, and the contributor of many very able papers to the Society's Transac- 
tions, Professor J. H. Middleton, formerly the Local Secretary of the Society 
at Cheltenham, Mr. F. F. Fox, the Chairman of the Local Committee at 
Chipping Sodbury, Mr. Francis James, of Edgeworth Manor, and Mr. 
Wilfrid Cripps, of Cirencester. 

Local Secretaries are needed for Fairford in the room of the Rev. A. S. 
Loxley, deceased ; for Newent, in the room of the Rev. Reginald Hill, 
deceased ; for Cirencester, in the room of Mr. E. C. Sewell resigned ; for 
Stroud, Winchcombe, Berkeley, and Chipping Campden. 

The Local Committee at Stroud has recommended Mr. C. Witchell for 
the office of Local Secretary, and the Council has much pleasure in nomin- 
ating him. They would also nominate the Rev. E. Evans, Rector of Preston 
Local Secretary for the Newent district, and the Rev. H. L. Thompson, 
Rector of Iron Acton, Local Secretary for the Thornbury district. 



GLorcESTEK Cathedral. 



45 



The following members of Council retii'e by rotation, but are eligible for 
re-election : — The Revs. S. E, Bartleet, Canon Ellacombe, J. M. Hall, W. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, and F. E. Broome-Witts, Mr. Wilfrid Cripps, and Dr. 
Payne, 

The Council has held seven meetings during the last year — fi\ e a Glouces- 
ter and two at Bristol, and begs to express its acknowledgment to the 
Mayor and Town Clerk of Gloucester for their courteous permission to meet 
in the Tolsey. 

Lieut Col. Bramble proposed the adoption of the report, which was 
seconded by Mr. Washbourne, and adopted. 

On the proposition of Mr. Fox, seconded by Sir Jolin Maclean, the 
following gentlemen were elected members of the Council :— the Revs. S. E. 
Bartleet, W. Bagnall-Oakeley, F. E. Broome Witts, J. M. Hall, Canon 
Ellacombe, H. D Ombrain, Dr. Paine, and Messrs. G. S. Blakeway, F. A 
Hyett, H. Medlaud and R. Taylor. 

Sir Brook Kay, Bart., proposed a vote of thanks to the retiring 
President, Lord Sherborne, remarking that those who were present at the 
delightful Stratford meeting would always associate his lordship's name 
with that meeting, and he had no need to ask for a most gracious response 
to his proposition, as they must all feel how much they were indebted to 
Lord Sherborne for the manner in which he presided over the Society during 
the past year. 

Sir .JoHX Maclfax seconded the proposal, which was unanimously 
adopted, and briefly acknowledged by Lord Sherborne, who proposed a 
vote of thanks to the Mayor and Corporation for the kind manner in which 
they had received the Society, which also was adopted. He then introduced 
to the meeting the new President, who thereupon took the chaii", and 
delivered his Liaugural Address, which ^vill be printed, in extenso, post. 
For which, on the motion of Lord Sherborne, seconded by Sir Brook Kay, 
a hearty vote of thanks was given to him. 

The Presidext, in reply, acknowledged his indebtedness to Mr. Steven- 
son, the gentleman who had been sent by the " Historical Manuscripts' 
Commission " to examine and report upon the City Archives, who had 
rendered him (the President) great assistance in the preparation of his 
Address. 

The party then separated for lunch, and at 2.30 proceeded to inspect 
the Cathedral, where they were received by the Dean in the Chapter House. 

The Dean, addresing the company, said : we are assembled in one of 
the most ancient and most historic rooms in England. It was in this room 
the great Inquest, which resulted in the Domesday Book, was ordered by 
William the Conqueror and his Council of Magnates, and it was here that he 
held his famous Witan, it was here (13S9) that Richard II. held his famous 
Parliament. It has also been the scene of many other important transactions 
in the history of the country. It was here also the Abbots exercised the 
discipline of the House which thej- governed. 

He pointed out that the architecture was Xorman, though at the east 
end there was some comparatively late Perpendicular work. And he invited 



46 



Transactions for the Y-ear 1888-9. 



the special attention of the members to certain points in the cathedral upon 
which great difference of opinion existed, and would be glad to hear well 
thought out theories upon them. 

The President said it had been thought more fitting that the thanks of 
the Society should be offered to the Dean in this place rather than in the 
cathedral, and proposed a vote of thanks to him and to Mrs. Spence for all 
their kindness, which was unanimously voted. 

The party then proceeded to the choir, where the Dean delivered a long 
and most interesting address on the building, which we hope to print here- 
after. The party then divided into three sections, and made a circuit of the 
building under the guidance, respectively, of the Dean, the E,ev.W. Bazeley, 
and Mr. F. W. Waller, who severally called attention to the principal points 
of interest, remarking thereon. 

Mrs. Spence afterwards received the company at the Deanery, formerly 
the Prior's lodgings, and the Dean obligingly pointed out the most interest- 
ing portions of the ancient house. We noticed a remarkable lantern in the 
staircase, similar to that in the Almonry at Evesham. — See Transactions, 
Vol. IX. Plate XIV. 

The Annual Dinner 
of the Society took place at the Bell Hotel, at which the President occupied 
the chair. A large party assembled, including many ladies. The usual 
loyal and other toasts were drunk, and, after dinner, the company adjourned 
to the Tolsey for the first 

EVENING MEETING 
for the reading of, and discussion on, Papers on Historical and Antiquarian 
subjects. A paper of much interest was read by Mr. F. A. Hyett, on the 
Annalia Duhrensia — a description of the sometime famous and popular 
Cotteswold Games. Mr. Hyett's paper, will be printed in extenso, post. 

Mr. Henry Jeffs, unhappily since deceased, read a long paper on Masons' 
Squares and Masons' Marks, of which we can only give a brief abstract. Mr. 
Jeffs observed that though masons' marks are very common and of great 
antiquity, they had not attracted any archsBological attention until about half- 
a-century ago, when they were brought under notice by the late Mr. Godwin, 
F.R.S., F.S.A., who had made a large collection of drawings of them, but had 
not formulated any theory thereon. The fraternity of Free-Masons, of which 
Mr, Jeffs said he was himself a member, had their marks, symbolical and sig- 
nificant, and also signs by which members of the fraternity recognised each 
other, but these were not, in any way, connected with the ancient masons' 
marks. The Fraternity of Free-Masons had its origin as late as 1717, and could 
not claim anything beyond sociality and benevolence. He referred at con- 
siderable length to masons' marks of ancient dates in many parts of the world, 
Herculaneum, Mexico, Peru, Asia Minor, Germany, Spain, Italy, and else- 
where, many of which he described and illustrated by diagrams, and finally 
came to the conclusion that they were simply the private marks of the 
operatives, of the same character as those found on porcelain or other goods, 
and he was of opinion that many of them represented nothing more than 
some fanciful idea of the workmen themselves, and that if we wanted to 
know what these marks signified he feared we should have to ask the dead. 



Masons' Squares and Marks. 



47 



The Rev. Wm. Bazeley remarked that he had given some attention to 
Masons' Marks, and had with him tracings which he had taken of many in 
Gloucester Catliedral, Mr. Jeffs had come to the conchision that these marks 
had no symbolical meaning, and, perhaps, he was right. Mr. Bazeley ventured 
to think, however, that the}- might give some clue to the dates of con- 
struction of the various portions of the Cathedral on which they appeared. 
He was not without hope that they might throw light on the much disputed 
question as to whether the earlier parts of the building M^ere the work of 
Serlo, the first Norman Abbot of St. Peter's Abbey, or of Aldred, Bishop of 
Worcester, in the reign of Edward the Confessor. Certain Masons' Marks 
appeared everj- where on the na\ e, ti'ansepts, tower steps, and other parts of 
the building that were believed to be the work of Serlo. These same marks 
did not appear in the crypt, where there were three distinct kinds of archi- 
tecture. First, the original arches, pillars and groining on which he had 
found no Masons' Marks of any kind. Secondly, the Norman underpinning 
of the arches, and enlargement of the pillars on which he had found the 
"sacred fish," a very early Christian symbol, and the five pointed star, 
known as "Solomon's Seal." Thirdly, massive Perpendicular walling, 
filling up many of the arches, on which he had found various forms of the 
*' Taw " cross, not so deeply or boldly cut as the earlier marks in the nave. 
He was opinion that the original crypt was the work of Aldred, and was 
constructed before the practice of making Masons' Marks was introduced 
from the East ; the underpinning was earlier than the nave, though not 
much earlier, and was rendered necessary by an earthquake which shook 
the original building to its foundations in the year 1089. The Perpendicular 
work was, no doubt, constructed in the middle of the 14th century to support 
the walls, groining and roof of the great choir. 

[It may be desirable, in connection with the above remarks, to call attention 
to two communications made to the Society of Antiquaries in 1842, The 
first is a letter from Hudson Gurney, Esq., Vice-President, to Sir Henry 
Ellis, then Secretary, accompanying casts of eight Punic Inscriptions found 
on the site of Carthage, and the latter consists of two letters from Mr. 
Godwin (referred to by Mr. Jefi's), dated in 1841 and 1848, on the subject of 
Masons' Marks on buildings erected in mediaeval times. These letters are 
also illustrated by five plates of diagrams of masons' marks collected by Mr. 
Godwin from buildings of various periods both on tfie continent and in 
England. The diagrams are generally formed of straight lines, and many of 
them bear a close resemblance to others in distant buildings, and some 
are almost identical in form ; and it is remarkable that this may be said 
of several of the masons' marks on English buildings compared with the 
characters in the Punic Inscriptions communicated by Mr. Hudson Gurne5\ 

Mr. Godwin writes : "Whether these marks were made for the simple 
purpose of identifying the work done by particular individuals or sub-divisions 
of the band, or that they had a deeper signification and motive, I will not 
now enquire ; nor even venture to remark on the origin of the signs per 
se. My present purpose is simply to draw attention to these marks in the 
hope that collections may be made in England, France and Germany, so that 
they may be properly investigated and compared. No circumstance which 
promises to throw light on the early history of those wonderful men to whom 



4S 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



we are indebted for so many magnificent buildings can be deemed insignifi- 
cant or unworthy of consideration. (See Archceologia, Vol. XXX., pages 
111-120). Our motive is the same. — Ed.] 

The next Paper was read by Mr. Henry Medland, of Gloucester, On St. 
Oswald's Priory y which will be printed post. 

Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, Assistant Secretary to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, then read a paper on The Seals of the City of Gloucester, which will 
be printed in the present volume. 

The Rev. William Bazeley followed with a paper On the Early Days 
of the Abbey of St. Peter, which will be printed in this volume. 

To him succeeded Mr. F. W. Waller with the following remarks on 
recent discoveries of Norman Work in Gloucester Cathedral, confining him- 
self to discoveries made during the repairs of the fabric since the Society's 
last visit to Gloucester. This included a mutilated stone figure of an Abbot, 
evidently 13th century work, and bearing remains of coloured ornamentation. 
This, with other specimens of early English work, had been placed in a chapel 
in the crypt. Many beautiful specimens of such work must have been buried 
by the monks in the 14th century. He described the reservoir which was 
found in the Cloister Garth last year. This was many years older than the 
present cloisters; it might date from 1237. The overflow of water passed 
underneath the west walk of the cloisters, and the groove for the sluice gate 
could be distinctly seen. He commented on the disregard frequently shewn 
by mediteval men for the works of their predecessors. Alluding, in con- 
clusion, to statements recently made as to the bad condition of the Cathedral, 
and the necessity for repairs, he said they must appear extraordinary to 
many people, considering the large sums of money spent upon the fabric 
during the last thirty years. But the matter admitted of easy explanation 
when they considered how much had been expended on the choir and its 
fittings, on windows for the reception of painted glass, and interior work 
generally ; and though the external restorations had been large and im-. 
portant, consisting of the entire repair of the north and south transepts, the 
south porch, the pinnacles and parapets of the great tower, and minor 
matters, yet more remained to be done, consisting chiefly of the repair of 
defective roofs and parapets, and the general repair and pointing of stone 
work, all most important works of their kind, and essential for the preser- 
vation of the building. Under all the financial difficulties with which the 
Dean and Chapter had had to contend for several years past, the greatest 
care had been taken by them to keep the building wind and water proof, 
and as far as the interior was concerned no dilapidation takes place. Pointing 
and general repairs were also carried out, as far as limited funds would 
allow, on the exterior ; but there was no doubt that some of the roofs got 
into worse state every year, and the parapets on some portions of the 
building were absolutely ruinous. Hence the necessity for further outlay. 

Votes of thanks were passed to the readers of the papers, and the pro- 
ceedings for the day concluded. 



Rom AX GLoroESTER. 



49 



TUESDAY, 17th July. 
On Tuesday morning, at 9.30, the members assembled at the Tolsey to 
hear addresses from ISIr. John Bellows, 0?i Roman Gloucester', and from the 
Rev. Wm. Bazeley On. Mcdimval Gloucester, respectively. The President 
was in the chair. 

Roman Gloucester. 

Mr. Bellows remarked that in the history which had come down to 
ns in writing there were many details missing, and it was the province of 
tlie archaeologist to enable iis, by careful examination of local remains, to 
supply some of those missing details, and so to form, or correct, the im- 
pressions given by written history. He would begin the description he had 
heew asked to give of Roman Gloucester by showing the relationship Glou- 
cester bore to the Roman Empire in Britain, and, therefore, its true place as 
a unit in the world's history. It was one thing to know that Glevum was 
Roman ; it was a more important point to know why and when it became a 
Roman military station, and when and why it was made one of the great 
colonies, to be a freeman of which gave its citizens the same privileges 
that they would have had if born in Rome itself. There was no mistake 
more common than to speak of the Roman occupation of this island as if it 
were all one period instead of a series of centuries ; just as in looking at 
some vast landscape one is apt to imagine the distant objects are near, or 
close to each other, because they are foreshortened by the distance from 
which we regard them ; so we are apt to superpose events, manners, and 
customs of the past. If we divided the whole period of time from Adam 
till the present time into three equal spans, in round figures the known 
history of Gloucester covers one of them ; in other words, the city of Glou- 
cester had a place in the story of the world during one-third of the existence 
of the human race upon it. It was nearly 2000 years ago since it was 
founded, and out of that it was for 394 years under Roman rule. It was 
therefore as unreasonable to speak of the Roman time as if it were one and 
indivisable, as it would be to describe the events of the reign of Henry VIII. 
and the battle of Waterloo as belonging to one and the same chapter of 
English history. Thus in the century that passed between the invasion of 
Julius Caesar and that of Claudius, great changes had taken place in the 
Roman Empire, the most important of which, as far as Britain was con- 
cerned, was the taking possession of the Rhine and its use as a great 
highway to the north of Europe by the Roman armies. For a considerable 
time they had availed themselves of the river navigation to Gaul for the 
conveyance of merchandise and stores, using the streams chiefly in their 
downward course on account of the swiftness of the current making the 
ascent tedious. After Julius Caesar invaded Britain Augustus made two 
attempts to do so, but was prevented by disturbances which occurred in 
other provinces ; and the chain of circumstantial evidence goes to show 
that he finally devised a plan of moving the main strength of his legions to 
the Rhine as a base for the permanent occupation of Britain. In the year 9 
of the Christian era, a terrible reverse occurred to the Roman arms at the 
hands of Hermann, three legions under Varus being slaughtered ; and to 
repair this five years were spent in collecting an army of 8 legions (say over 
50,000 men) and all the necessary stores. In the year 14 the younger Drusus 



Vol. XIII. E 



50 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



sailed down the Rhine in a fleet that had been specially built for the purpose, 
and gained the victory over Hermann that earned for him the title of Germani- 
cus, by which he was always known. This conquest produced in the end a 
larger effect on the history of the world than any other similar e-vent has ever 
done ; what it did was to shift the centre of gravity of the whole Roman 
Empire ; to prepare the way for the removal of the seat of Government 
itself, which, by-the-by, took place under Diocletian and Constantine —first 
to Treves, and afterwards to Constantinople — and a century or two later 
its effect was seen in the break-up of the Empire. One earlier result of 
thus making the Rhine a military and commercial highway, was the calling 
into existence of London as a sea-port more readily accessible from Germany, 
than via Gaul, and thus making it the metropolis of this island. By the aid 
of a specially-prepared map, and following the lines laid down by Dr. Hiibner 
in his paper in the first vol. of this Society's Tians., Mr. Bellows proceeded to 
explain the disposition of the Roman legions in Europe at the time the invasion 
of Britain was determined upon ; and the plan of campaign devised for carry- 
ing out the subjugation of the island : from this leading up to the reasons 
for the selection of Gloucester as a camp. It was shown that the process of 
subjecting the island was done gradually, the legions advancing in such a 
manner as to cut off one part of the country from another with a parallel 
line. Thus they were encamped at Gloucester and Colchester — which places 
a straight line drawn across a map would connect — and so advanced to 
Chester and Lincoln — Newcastle and Carlisle — Glasgow and Edinburgh. 
The coins found in Gloucester and the neighbourhood abundantly confirmed 
the idea that this district was taken possession of in the time of Claudius. 
At Kingsholm had been found coins of Vespasian, Nero, Antonia, the mother 
of Claudius, and Germanicus himself. As an example of the abundance of 
Roman coins in Gloucester he mentioned that 50 years ago it was the custom 
of school-boys, after a heavy rain, to go to Wheeler's nursery at Kingsholm, 
and pick up the coins that had been washed out of the ground by the rain. 
One lot of 700 had been found there : and at Haresfield Beacon a pot con- 
taining 3000 was discovered. Mr. George Howitt 50 j^ears ago received one 
of Constantine's coins as change in a shop, so that Roman money was at that 
time passing in Gloucester. An old friend of his (the speaker's) told him that 
his father a trademan at Taunton, made a point of taking Constantine coins 
instead of farthings offered him by the country people. A coin found in 
Oxford Street, Gloucester— a denarius of Domitian — was struck within a year 
or two of the banishment of the Evangelist St. John to Patmos. Mr. H. 
Arkell, a builder and great collector of Roman antiquities, had told him that 
in the process of excavations he found six Roman for every English coin turned 
up. As to the masonry of the old Roman wall, in some parts it was perfectly 
visible standing above ground. It might have been about 35 feet high from 
the foundation, and 2 yds. thick, and its style also gave a clue to the Roman 
occupation, being about the time of Claudius or Vespasian. Another clue 
was given in its formation, with rounded corners, for it had been built a 
couple of hundred years later it would have had round towers at the corners, 
which this had not. One other point identified the masonry with the time 
referred to, and that was the fact that close to the Eastgate the stones were 
moulded round with a large chisel draught. It was rather singular, that 
exactly the same moulding was to be found in Herod's temple, at Jerusalem, 



RoMAx Gloucester. 



51 



and having found that the mouldings at Jerusalem and Gloucester were 
exactly of the same width, he was of opinion that that settled this temple- 
platform as being of a Roman construction. There were some remarkable 
remains in the city of the orignal camp, diagrams of which were shown, 
Mr. Bellows pointing out the deflections and alterations that had occurred 
in the streets since that time. There was very little difference in the 
present width of the four main streets and that of the Roman time, most of 
of the measurements being within a foot. The present width of the street 
at the site of the East-gate is 48 ft. , and at that of the West-gate, 49 ft. 
This gives as the average 48 ft. 6ins. , which is precisely 50 Roman feet : the 
original measurement laid down by the engineers of the camp. We could 
account for every one of the thoroughfares that existed in the Roman camp. 
The two waj^s from King Street into the Northgate Street and the two 
ways from Queen Street and Constitution Walk into the Southgate Street 
were still preserved. There were three bye-streets from Southgate Street, 
i.e. Longsmith Street, Blackfriars, and Cross Keys Lane. In Northgate 
Street one still existed in the narrow passage behind Herbert's, the draper's, 
and 50 years ago a second passage was shown in Hall & Pinnell's map behind 
Roberts' shop, and at this spot a Roman pavement was found in 1860. In 
fact, the whole of the main and secondry streets in the Prsetorian camp were 
accounted for. There were, besides these, passages adjacent to the New 
Inn and Greyhound Hotel that corresponded to those of the Roman plan. 

The Rev. Wm. Bazeley, in the first place, called the attention of his 
hearers to Leland's account of the city, and to the various early maps which 
remained, especially to Speed's map, published about 1600, which he con- 
sidered especially valuable, because it shewed the city as it was before the 
destruction of the suburbs in 1643 for the purpose of defending the city 
against the King. He described the ancient boundaries and gave a short 
account of the noble castle, built in the 1 1 th century ; and he mentioned a 
number of ancient buildings and other antiquities to which he would have 
the pleasure of directing attention in the course of their perambulation. 

Votes of thanks were given to Mr. Bellows and Mr. Bazeley for their 
addresses, and also to Mr. Davies, Clerk of the Works for the new National 
Provincial Bank in Eastgate Street, for the great care and attention he had 
shewn in the preservation of the Roman remains discovered in the work and 
for the assistance the result of his labour had been to Mr. Bellows. 

The members then separated into two parties, one under the guidance 
of Mr. Bellows, to inspect the Roman remains in the city and in the Museum 
in Brunswick Road, and the other accompanied Mr. Bazeley to visit some of 
the ancient buildings and other objects of interest mentioned in his address. 
Messrs^ Medland & Waller accompanied the party and afforded information 
as to the various churches, priories, &c. After luncheon, the members which 
formed Mr. Bazeley's party in the morning, proceeded with Mr. Bellows to 
inspect the Roman remains, and vice versa. 

After partaking of tea, offered by Mrs. Vassar-Smith, at the School of 
Science, the members drove to Llanthony, where the remains of the Priory 
ruins were inspected. 

E 2 



52 



TkAXS ACTIONS FOR THE YeAR 1888-9. 



The Rev. E. C. Scobell read a few notes on the Priory, in the course of 
which he said that all who looked on this modern farmyard must be struck 
with the scanty and unimpressive character of the remains, and might well 
wonder that they could represent the opulent and far-famed Gloucestershire 
Llanthony— the home of the Austin canons. But the sparse ruins need not 
cause wonder when we remembered that the venerable building became a 
quarry for the neighbourhood, and had also experienced the ravages of the 
civil war. The most perfect object remaining was the gateway ; on the north 
side of it once existed an archway high enough for the passage of a loaded 
wagon. The details of architecture were worthy of attention, especially the 
bold projecting buttresses, the deeply recessed doorway, and the graceful 
mouldings of the cornice. By the side of the lane ran part of the western 
boundary wall, a portion of that which once enclosed the whole area of the 
premises. When the canal was made at the end of the last century, two mas- 
sive walls were cut through, while stone coffins, encaustic tiles and other 
remains were found in the N W. corner, clearly showing that this was the 
chapel. At the time of the siege the suburbs of the city were burnt by order of 
Gen. Massey, and the tower of the chapel was destroyed. An old record des- 
cribed the whole building as quadrangular, two stories high, covered with 
lead, and defended with gates. It was long supposed that secret communi- 
cation by means of a passage existed with the abbey. Two passages were seen 
when the chapel wall was destroyed ; one of them was clearly a drain, and 
the other might have been a mode of access to the vaults under the chapel. 
The barn was the most imposing part of the ruin — 165 ft. long and 33 ft. 
wide. The original Llanthony Priory was situated in Monmouthshire, and 
the monks becoming the object of hatred and attack, sent to the Bishop 
of Hereford, who invited them to his palace. Matters becoming worse, they 
could not return, and the Bishop went to Milo fitz Walter, created Earl of 
Hereford by the Empress Maud, who consented to bestow certain lands 
named Hyde, near Gloucester, on which to build a new establishment to be 
called after the original foundation. The new priory was founded in 1 1 36, 
and this branch and temporary home, as it was intended to be, soon 
rivalled in size the mother building. By the time of the Dissolution it 
had become very richly endowed. Among the endowments were St. Mary 
de Crypt, the Chapel of St. Kyneburgh, Hevhampsted, Quedgeley, Elmore, 
the parish churches of Painswick, Brockworth, Prestbury, Sevenhampton, 
and Haresfield ; together with the tithes of fifty-one places in England, 
excluding Wales and Ireland. ^ At the Dissolution the site was granted 
to Arthur Porter. Sir Arthur Porter, his grandson, left an only daughter 
who married Sir John Scudamore, ancestor of Viscount Scudamore, who 
was the proprietor at the beginning of the last century. The property 
passed to the Duke of Norfolk by marriage with Frances Fitzroy Scudamore, 
and then to the family of Higford, who are the present proprietors, 
The members then proceeded to 

Hempsted. 

where they were received by the Rev. B. S. Dawson, the rector, and Mrs. 
Dawson, who conducted them to the picturesque parish church. A notice 
1 The Prior of Llanthony possessed the franchise of the gallows in the Manor of Alving-- 
ton, and two others, one for unnamed Manors in the Hundred of \^ hitestone, and the other 
for uiuianied Manors in the Hundred of Dudstan. (See ante Vol. XII. pp. 120, 121).— Ep. 



HKMPSTF,t>, 



of it was given by the late Rev. J.L. Petit, M. A., with an etching in his inimit- 
able style, in Vol.VI. of the Arch. Jour, (1S49), reproduced PI. V. The chapel 
of St. Ann, presently to be noticed, is 
also there illustrated, which remains in 
much the same condition as it did just 
40 years ago, except that half the thorn 
tree is broken down. The short des- 
cription of Hempstead then given by 
the talented writer, is, we think, worth 
printing in full as an introduction to the 
rector's paper to follow in this volume. 
Mr. Petit writes : ' ' HempsteadChurch, 
near Gloucester, is a picturesque object 
both in form and construction. The 
tower, which is central, is not so M'ide 
as the chancel or nave ; but that the im- 
posts of the transverse arches may not 
project inconveniently into the body of 
the church, a span is given them nearly 
corresponding to the full width of the 
the building ; the north and south 
arches, however, supporting the tower, 
spring from points in the face of the 
transverse ones considerably above, and 
overhanging the capitals of the im- 
posts, so that the internal area of the 
tower falls considerably within the corresponding area on the floor of the 
church {See fig. 2). The weight of the walls above, and the thickness of the 
transverse arches, form sufficient abutment. The Tower is Perpendicular, 
with rather heavy string-courses and mouldings. The belfry window is 
large, but the panelling of the embattled parapet, and the projection of 
the gurgoyles, give it a rich and bold effect. The chancel is chiefly Decor- 
ated ; the nave appears to have been much modernized. 

In crossing the fields between this church and Gloucester, we come 
upon a relic of rather an uncommon description in this country. It is a 
small cell or chapel erected over a well, probably belonging to Llantony 
Abbey, on the south side of Gloucester. The entrance to the building is 
bricked up, so that it is impossible to say what the interior may be. The 
plan is nearly a square of 7 feet, on a wider basement. The east and west 
ends are gabled ; in the latter is an ogee door, and a narrow ogee window of 
one light. On the east end is some sculpture, which seems to have been a 
rood. The covered roof is of stone, and the ridge is finished with a rib. 
The Mdiole is of good ashlar masonry. This little building stands on the side 
of rather an abrupt slope, overlooking the valley of tlie Severn. A fine 
thorn tree which overhangs it, adds much to its picturesque beauty." {See 

fig- 3.) 

The company having carefully inspected the churcli, attention was called 
to a tomb in the churchyard in memory of John Freeman, a j^oung soldier 




Fig 2. 



54 



Transactions ^ob, the Year 1888-9. 



in the King's service, who was shot during the siege of Gloucester. Here 
the Rector read his paper On the Ghmxh and Manor of Hempstead, which 
will be printed in this volume. In the churchyard is a very fine yew tree, 
possibly as old as the church itself. The company paid a visit to the quaint 
little well chapel and to the rectory, and then returned to Gloucester. 



At 8 o'clock the Evening Meeting was held at the Tolsey, the President 
occupied the chair. 

The following Papers were read by their respective authors, and will be 
printed in extenso in this volume : — 

On the Hospitals of St. Mary and St. Margaret, Gloucester, by the Rev. 
S. E. Bartleet. 

On the Grey Friars, Gloucester, by the Rev. W. H. Silvester Davies. 
On Scriven^s Conduit, by Mr. Henry Medland. 

On the Construction and Ornamentation of Roman Houses, by the Rev. 
Prebendary Scarth. 

On the Gloucester Tokens of the 17th Century, by Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

On the conclusion of Mr. Medland's paper, Mr. Jeffs remarked that Mr. 
.J. P. VYilton, Mr. Morrell, and himself were the only citizens, he believed, 
who remembered when the Conduit stood in Clarence Street. 

Mr. Wilton said that the Conduit was not removed at the passing 
of the Act of 1749. The reason, probably, was this :— At the end of the 
Act is a Schedule of the different things authorised to be removed, including 
the Church of the Holy Trinity, and the King's Board. ^ But Scriven's Cross 
L We are informed by iMr. Wilton that the place known as the King's Board was an old 
building, on the roof of which was a resevoir for water. — Ed, 




Fig. 3. 

EVENING MEETING. 



HaresfieLd. 



55 



was not nicntioncd. Tl\e only thing which was taken down that was not in 
the schedule was the cross. As the Act was obtained by the corporation in 
order to widen the streets, they probably removed the cross on their own 
authority. 

At the conclusion of reading the Papers, Sir John Maclean, who had 
taken the chair after the President had been obliged to leave, proposed a 
vote of thanks to the several gentlemen for the interesting Papers they had 
kindly read, and to Messrs. Wilton, C. H. Dancey, and J. Mills, for the 
work they had done in connection with organising the Temporary Museum 
at the Tolsey. This was heartily passed, and the Meeting concluded. 



WEDNESDAY, 18th July. 
The morning opened very unfavourably, nevertheless the ardour of the 
excursionists faltered not, and a large party, including many ladies, started 
in brakes at the time appointed, but the weather soon cleared. 
The first place visited was 

Brookthorpe, 

where the party M^as met at the Church by the Vicar, the Rev. S. R. 
Majendie and the Rev. J. Melland Hall. The latter read a paper on the 
Church, which will be printed in extenso further on. 
From Brookthorpe the party proceeded to 
Haresfield, 

where they were welcomed by Mr. A. E. Niblett. The company having 
assembled in the church, Mr. Hall made some remarks upon the pre-historic 
earthworks on the hill, which, he said, were of British origin, but had been 
occupied by the Romans, and a crock containing some 3000 Roman coins had 
been found there. [This discovery was alluded to by our late valued member, 
Mr. J. D. T. Niblett, F.S.A., at the Inaugural Meeting of the Society at 
Bristol, on 22nd April, 1876 (Vol. I., p. 29), which he says, when a boy, he 
"just missed finding." He mentions also several Roman objects he had 
picked up on the site of the encampment. The same gentleman read a Paper 
before the Society On Haresfield Beacon and its Entrenchments, at the Winter 
Meeting at Gloucester on the 24th January, 1878, which was intended to be 
printed, but was not, for what reason we are not now able to say. Probably 
he substituted his Paper On the Arms of Gloucester for it (which is printed in 
Vol. II., pp. 182, 223). — Ed]. Mr. Hall also gave some historical particulars 
concerning the history of Haresfield, a record of which was in Domesday 
Book. The church, he said, was given to the Priory of Llanthony in 1161, by 
Henry of Hereford, and was appropriated soon afterwards by the priory. 
The building consisted of two chancels, nave, north and south porches, and 
western embattled tower and a spire. The church was dedicated to St. 
Peter, but extensive repairs and restoration had swept away many relics 
of antiquity. Three recumbent figures— a cross-legged Knight and two 
ladies — formerly existed in the church, but only those of the ladies now 
remained. The party soon afterwards left for 

Standish, 

where they were met by the Ven. Archdeacon Sheringham, and after par- 
taking of luncheon in the schoolroom, the old Bede House, an adjournment 



56 



Transactions for the Yicar 1888-9. 



was made to the cliurch. Here the Archdeacon gave some particulars of the 
restoration of the building in 1867. He pointed out the reredos of coloured 
glass, which he said cost only ,£41, and was more effective than those on 
which hundreds of pounds had been spent, instancing that in Gloucester 
Cathedral, where great expense had been incurred and nothing could be 
seen from any distance. The fine old nave roof of wood was pointed out, 
with its 160 bosses, no two of which were alike ; the chancel roof is new, 
an open timber roof having been substituted for the old plaster ceiling 
cutting off the apex of the east window. The church was built probably 
late in the 13th or early in the 14th century. None of the windows had 
need of restoration, having mercifully survived the 18th century. The old 
plaster had been cut off the walls, and the walls pointed, with the result 
that if wet existed it would not show, as was the case in plastered walls. 
Objections had been made to this on the ground that ancient architects 
plastered their walls, but such walls were painted and coloured, and he 
was prepared to replace the plaster if he were able to paint it. The east 
window — five lights — and a quadruple cross of beautiful design, and finely 
coloured glass, was said to be the most beautiful east window in England ; 
the glass was put in by Clayton and Bell in 1873. He drew attention to the 
large chancel arch, which was supposed to be of French character, giving 
the church that openness which is known to have been in favour with the 
Benedictines, 

The Rev. J. MellandHall then read a paper giving the History of the 
Manor and Advowson of Standish. The church, he said, consisted of a chan- 
cel, nave, north and south porches, and western tower and spire. The 
spacious chancel suggested that it was appropriated by the monks, in which 
case the nave would have been the parochial church with an altar at the 
chancel end. The chief characteristic of the building was its extreme 
elegance and lightness. He referred to some of the tombs in the church, 
including that of Bishop Frampton. The company next inspected the remains 
of the entrance to the court house of the Manor of Standish- -a massive old 
gateway — thence going to the vicarage, the home of Bishop Frampton, where 
Archdeacon Sheringham read an interesting paper on the deprived Bishop 
of Gloucester. 

Afterwards the party drove to Hardwicke Court, which was thrown 
open to the visitors by Mr.E. Granville Lloyd Baker, and some time was spent 
in examining the library, pictures, "curios," &c. The members then pro- 
ceeded to the church, respecting which Mr. Baker gave the following 
information : — 

Hardwicke. 

Mr. G. E. Lloyd Baker, acted as guide to the church, which is a chapelry 
to Standish, and is held with that benefice. It is dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
and now consists of a chancel, nave, north and south aisles, the former built 
in 1878, a south porch, which was removed from the north when the aisle on 
that side was built, and a low embattled tower containing six bells. The 
third was a medic3@val one, but it became cracked, and has recently been 
recast. It bore the following legend in old Gothic letters : 

4- SANCTA : MARIA \ ORA [ PRO ] NOBIS i M.W.T.A. 

followed by the impression of a coin, probably Edwardian. There is also 
a chapel on the south of the chancel in continuation of the south aisle. 



Hardwicke. 



57 



The church was, originally, of Norman work, remains of which exist in 
the porch, the chancel arch and other portions of the building, and, until 
about thirty years ago, a Transition-Norman arcade, consisting of three 
bays with massive pillars supporting pointed arches, remained, but is now 
removed and ligliter columns substituted, 

Mr. Baker pointed out that it appeared from a monument in the chapel 
that William Try, Lord of the Manor of Hardwicke, who married Isabell, 
second daughter of Jaines Lord Berkeley, was at the charge of making and 
beautifying the roof of the body of the church as by his will appears. 
He died in 13th Henry VIL It would, however, appear that this was 
simply a plastered ceiling divided into panels with bosses of the same 
character at the intersection of the ribs enriched with armorial bearings. 
Some of these have fallen down and are now preserved in the parish chest. 
He suggested that it was probablj^ at this time that the floor of the church 
was raised, for traces of the old floor have been found 12 inches below the 
surface. The chancel arch was thus, originally, a foot higher from the 
floor than it is at present. The arch had a vaulting rib resting upon small 
shafts whose bases can now be seen when the floor stones are raised. The 
rib of the arch was cut away to give more height, and later the old Tran- 
sition Norman arcade, mentioned above, with its grand substantial columns 
and arches, which were very low as the columns rested on the lower floor, 
was removed for the same reason. The porch when removed from the north 
side was rebuilt on the soutli at the level of the present floor. 

Mr. Baker remarked that Mr. Waller had pointed out that the stones 
of the west window are hammer-dressed, and belonged to some earlier 
window than the present, and he said that the west window of the north 
aisle was formerly iu the north wall of the church. It was a handsome 
window, but about 60 years ago it occurred to a churchwarden that it would 
he easier to reglaze if the cusps were cut out, and this barbarism was accor- 
dingly perpetrated. These, however, were restored when the window was 
placed in its present position. The east window, he said, was formerly at 
Haresfield, but it having been replaced there by a larger one, Mr. Fenwick 
(father of Mrs. Barwick Baker) had it set up here. The heads terminating 
the hood -moulding of the inner arch are said to represent King Edward IV. 
and Elizabeth Wydville. Within the altar rails is a double piscina lately 
discovered, but the two sides differ both in form and size. They are so low 
that they afford further evidence that the floor has been raised. On the 
south side of the chancel arch is a remarkable hagioscope. It is large, and 
divided by a mullion, half way up which is a bracket which may have 
supported the rood-loft, the stairs to which were on the south side, as the 
door emerging on the loft could be seen above the former pillar. 

The font is octagonal and very massive. The panels are quite plain, 
except the three easternmost, which are left unfinished, as if intended to be 
sculptured. 

Mr. Baker is of opinion that the chapel on the south side of the chancel, 
which is called "the Trye Chapel," from being the burial place of that 
family long seated at Hardwicke Court, was, originally, a detached building. 
He pointed out that neither the east window of the chancel nor the apex of 
gable are in the centre of the wall, but about - feet to the north, M hikt iu 



58 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



the chapel there is a similar divergence to the south, and he thinks that, 
from some cause, the two walls were removed, and the chapel is now separ- 
ated from the chancel by a wall with two openings, one a small round-headed 
arch of modern date, and the otlier a canopy over an altar tomb in free- 
stone supporting the beautiful effigies of John Trye and his young son, both 
in armour. On the north side, are the arms of Trye : quarterly 1st and 
4th, or, a bend az, Trye; 2nd and 3rd quarterly, 1st and 4th gu. three covered 
cups or. BoTELER ; 2nd and 3rd, az. a buck's head cabossed <jnles. A Park ; 
impaling : quarterly : 1st and 4th, ar. a saltier between four mullets gu. for 
GuRNEY ; 2nd and 3rd, Bar^^y of eight ar. and gu. over all a lion ramp, of the 
second, for Brandon. On the south side are : thi-ee bars and in chief a grey- 
hound courantaz., for Skipwith ; erected for John Trye, Esq., and Mar- 
garet his wife, dau of Sir William Skipwith, of Flamsted, County Lincoln. 

[The quarterings of Trye are thus derived : Elizabeth, daughter and heir 
of Almery Boteler, of Hardwicke Court, son of John Boteler, of Llanlich, in 
Wales (son of Almery) by Beatrix, daughter and heir of William A Park, 
son of Almery, and grandson of William A Park, who was seized of the 
Manor of Hardwicke Court in the time of King John. John Trye, by Eliza- 
beth Boteler, daughter and coheir of Almery, had issue William Try, before 
mentioned as having beautified the church, who, by his wife Isabell, daughter 
of James, titular Lord Berkeley, was grandfather of John Trye, who, by 
Mary, daughter and coheir of John Gurney, of Lemington, co. Suffolk, by 
Catherine, cousin and coheir of Charles Brandon, was the father of John 
Try, of Hardwicke, who married Margaret Skipwithe. 

It will be observed that this descent shews the devolution of the Manor 
of Hardwicke Court from the time of King John (See Pedigree Heralds' 
Visitation, Gloucestershire, 1623) 

There are many shields of arms in the chapel illustrating the alliances of 
the Trye family.] — Ed. 

Mr. Baker having been thanked for his kindness, the members drove 

to 

Elmore Court, 

where Lady Guise offered them afternoon tea. Then the party was shown 
over the Court by Sir W. F. G. Guise, Bart., the magnificent staircase, fine 
chimney pieces and furniture, the collections of paintings, birds, articles of 
vertu, &c., being much admired. Subsequently the homeward drive was 
commenced, and Gloucester was reached soon after seven o'clock. The 
members had spent a thoroughly enjoyable day ; they were most fortunate 
as regarded weather, one slight shower of rain only falling when leaving 
Standish, At the various places en route votes of thanks were passed to those 
who had received the members and read papers. 

A CONVERSAZIONE 
was held at the Tolsey, at 8 p.m., when numerous objects of interest in the 
Temporary Museum were exhibited, a catalogue of which will appear post. 

The President took the chair. The first subject discussed was the 
ancient course of the river Severn by Gloucester, in which the Rev. Wm. 
Bazeley, Mr. John Bellows, Mr. J. Murrell, Mr. T. S. Ellis, the Rev. E. G. 
Penny, Mr. G. B. Witts, and others took part ; after which 



City Rest Roll. 



59 



The President said that in a search for some old papers that day there 
had been found in a box various old documents, and on examination by Mr. 
Stevenson they were found to be charters of King Henry II. and Richard II. 
supposed to be lost. The Town Clerk wrote saying : " I believe we have 
now a complete series of the City Charters." The President tl ereupon 
requested Mr. Stevenson to give the meeting some description and ex- 
planation of the Charters, and of a very curious ancient City Rent Roll. 

Mr. W. H. Stevenson said in calendaring the records of the city of 
Gloucester, he found them in a state of very great disorder. It was very 
evident that at some period— probably 200 years ago — they were carefully 
sorted out and placed in drawers in the strong room of the Town Clerk. 
As time went on the clerks had occasion to place other papers in the drawers, 
and finding them occupied by papers which they could not read they threw 
their contents on the floor, the papers so thrown out being afterwards put 
into boxes Avithout any reference to their original arrangement. Most of the 
documents were found by him mixed up in a most indescribable fashion, as, 
for instance, a 13th century document with a discharge of a prisoner for debt 
from Gloucester gaol in 1830. Having gone through all the boxes, he looked 
through all the other papers, and thoroughly bottomed the contents of that 
room. That morning the Town Clerk came there to get out some papers in 
the little room at the head of the stairs, and there he found a box purport- 
ing to contain papers relating to St. Barthomew's Hospital, a description 
that was found to be only partly true. The first thing they turned out 
was a seal of Queen Elizabeth, and the next made him hope that they 
had discovered the lost charter of Henry II. , but it was found to be a charter 
of Henry III., with a very good impression of his seal. He thought the 
contents would interest a good many Gloucester people. They are letters 
patent, dated Winchester, 12th September, in the 49th year of the reign of 
Henry III., 1265, in which the King said that whereas he had learned by an 
inquisition that he had caused to be made by his well-beloved Steward of 
the Household that it would not be to the damage or injury of his town of 
Gloucester if he were to grant to the Brethren of the Hospital of St. Bar- 
tholomew in Gloucester 16 yards of land in length and 5 yards in breadth 
for the widening of the chancel of their church in Gloucester ; and he there- 
fore grants them the said land. Proceeding, he found one of the charters 
of Rich. I., if anything scarcely less valuable than the charter of Hen. II. 
After the usual greeting, the King confirms to his burgesses of Gloucester 
the whole borough of Gloucester, with appurtenances, to be held by them 
from the King for ever by fee farm of £55 sterling and £10 by way of 
increase. He also grants them the same customs and liberties of toll and 
of all other things, as the better citizens of London and Winchester enjoyed 
in the time of his grandfather, Henry I. This is dated at Portsmouth, 
the 6th of May, 1194. He next found a duplicate of the same charter, and 
a third, and even a fourth copy, showing how careful the burgesses were 
to have their privileges put on safe record. One of these charters had an 
endorsement that it had been enrolled on the Exchequer records in Hilary 
term of the 19th year of Edward II. Three of these copies had still very 
considerable fragments of the great seal of Richard hanging to them, whilst 
the seal of the fourth had evidently been abstracted, as the seal-threads 
had been clearly cut through. Then he found the charter of Henry II.; 



60 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



this was the greatest discovery of all. It was the first charter to the bur- 
gesses of Gloucester, and it had a considerable fragment of the great seal 
of Henry II. still attached to it. It was a very small document as compared 
with the charters of later date. It showed that Henry gave to his burgesses 
of Gloucester the came customs and liberties throughout the whole of the 
land of toll and all other things as the better citizens of London and 
Winchester enjoyed at any time in the reign of Henry I., and he prohibits 
any one from disturbing or injuring them. The probable date of this 
grant was circa 1160. There was also another little charter of Richard I. 
This was undated, but there could be doubt but that this was of the 
same date as the charter of 1194, because this one was also given at Ports- 
mouth on the 6th May. By this the King grants that the men of 
Gloucester and those who wish to go by the river of Severn shall have way 
and passage on the Severn with wood, coal and timber, and all other 
merchandize freely, and he prohibits anybody from vexing or disturbing 
them upon pain of forfeiture of £10. The seal of this charter was found 
at the bottom of the box, but there was no doubt that it was the seal 
belonging to this charter, as the torn edges of the parchment adhering to it 
fitted the charter, the seal being attached en placate. Most of the other 
papers were of later date. 

The Rev. William Bazeley asked when the Guild Merchant was first 
mentioned in the charters. 

Mr. Stevenson said he thought it was in the charter of King John. 
That charter had been considered as lost, and when he first came down here, 
before it was decided to have these papers put in order — and it was a sine 
qua tion of the Historical Manuscripts' Commission that the records must in 
every case be put in order before they commenced to report upon them — 
Mr. Blakeway had some of the papers out, and one of the first he looked at, 
thrown away as if of no value, was the charter of King John, with a very 
good impression of his seal. Mr. Stevenson, in reply to Mr. Wilton, said 
other towns were open to the same reproach, and one small Corporation sold 
all their records. 

Mr. Vassar-Smith asked him to make a few remarks upon the early 
Rent Roll of the town. 

Mr. Stevenson said it was 33 feet in length, and was drawn up about 
the year 1455, by Brother Robert Cole, a Canon of Llanthony, near Glou- 
cester. It was a register of the houses, and gave an account of every tene- 
ment in Gloucester, the name of the tenant, the name of the owner, the rent 
paid, and the land gavell or tax it was liable for. It commenced at the 
High Cross, first describing Southgate Street, giving the houses on each side 
of the road in separate columns and also the details of every house until the 
South gate was reached, when it returned. It included all the lanes on 
both sides of the way, and describes the houses on both sides of the lanes. 
Then followed the other streets, which were similarly treated. In the blank 
space in the centre of the roll, which represents the roadway, were drawings 
of the High Cross, churches, chapels, pillory, the Trinity well, &c. 

The production of this document, which it was stated had not been 
recently discovered, but only recently examined thoroughly, caused intense 
interest in the room. The picture of the Cross at first was noticed to be 
unlike the model and picture of the Cross in the room, but further down 



City Rent Roll. 



61 



ill the scroll it was noticed to become more like the picture. Mr. J. P. 
Wilton said the first picture was exactly the same as that in the MS. in the 
Bodleian libi-ary. The drawings of St. Mary de Crypt Church, the Chapel 
of St. Kyneburgh, the Churches of Holy Trinity, St. John, and St. Nicholas, 
and the references to the pillory opposite the Bell, the latter place being 
referred to in the document as even then a hospitium, "Bareland," the 
hospital of St. Bartholomew, and the Trinity Well were productive of con- 
siderable interest. At tlie back of the rent roll is an extraordinary and 
elaborate genealogy of the Kings of England from William the Conqueror 
down to Henry VI. This enables anyone to see at a glance the succession 
of the Kings, and the relationship of one to another is shown by a very 
ingenious arrangement of red lines. A brief historical account is given in 
England of each monarch. Henry VI. is the last King mentioned, the 
document having been compiled in his reign. It gives his marriage, and 
states that he had a son. Prince Edward. Then in the same handwriting, 
but in different coloured ink, it is stated that Prince Edward came from 
France with his mother and a great host, and was slain in a battle beside 
Tewkesbury, the year of our Lord 1472, a mistake for 1471. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Stevenson's remarks, upon the proposal of Sir 
John Maclean, Vice-President, wlio, after the unavoidable departure of the 
President, occupied the chair, a hearty vote of thanks was enthusiastically 
passed to Mr. Stevenson for his explanations and descriptions of the records. 

Sir John Maclean said the rent-roll was a most important document, 
and one which he strongly advocated should be printed. He also called 
attention to the discovery of two seals, one ducument referring to Elmore 
nearly a century before the Guises came there, and the other to the Berkeleys 
of Dursley. 

Mr. J. P. Wilton suggested that the cost of printing the Rental 
should be borne by the Archaeological Society. 

Sir John Maclean said this would be impossible, they had no funds. 

In a short conversation which followed, the great necessity of having 
the document printed was urged, and it was suggested there were citizens of 
Gloucester, not members of the Society, who would probably help in such 
an undertaking. 

The proceedings closed at about half-past ten. 

Mr. G. B. Witts reminded the members of the careful collection of 
plans of all the camps in Gloucestershire made by Sir Henry Dryden in 
1840. Through the kindness of Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, copies of these had 
been presented to the Society, and the meeting should not break up without 
returning, their hearty thanks to Sir H. Dryden for allowing the copies to be 
made, and to Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley for making them. 

The vote was heartily carried, and the proceedings terminated. 

THURSDAY, 19th July. 
The concluding meeting of the Society was held at the Tolsey at 9.80. 
The President occupied the chair, and there was a good attendance of 
members. After some discussion, it was proposed from the chair, and 
unanimously resolved 



62 



Transa(tions for the Year 1888-9. 



I. That Cheltenham be the place for holding the Summer Meeting in 1889, 

and that the choice of a President be left to the Council : — 

II. That the hearty thanks of the Society be given to the Mayor and Cor- 

poration of Gloucester for permitting the use of the Tolsey for the 
Meetings of the Society : — 

III. To the Officers and Members of the Local Committee for the excellent 
arrangements made by them for this meeting : — 

IV. To Mr. G. S. Blakeway, Town Clerk, for his untiring exertions on 

behalf of the Society at a time when he was weighed down by grief 
and anxiety on account of the illness of his little daughter : — 

V. To Mr. J. P. Wilton, Mr. C. H. Dancey, and Mr. Mills, for their suc- 

cessful exertions in collecting objects of interest for the Local Museum, 
and to Mr. C. H. Dancey and Mr. A. Pouting for the part they have 
taken in preparing for the Popular Meeting in the Shire Hall : — 

VI. To the Dean of Gloucester for his courteous reception of the Society in 
the Cathedral, and to Mrs. Spence for her hospitality at the Deanery : — 

VII. To the Clergy of Gloucester, Brookthorpe, Haresfield, Standish, Hard- 
wick, Churchdown, and Badgeworth, for the facilities afforded by them, 
respectively, for allowing the Society to visit their several churches, 
and for the information imparted by them on those occasions : — 

VIII. To Mr. Beale, Mr. Nest, Mr. Johnson, Col. Washbourne, Mr. Ricketts 
and Archdeacon Sheringham, for the privilege so readily granted by 
them, respectively, of inspecting their very interesting residences : — 

IX. To Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Lloyd Baker, to Sir W. F. Guise and Lady 

Guise, to Mr. and Mrs. Dj^er-Edwards, and to Mrs. Vassar-Smith, for 
their very kind and hospitable reception of the Society at Hardwick 
Court, Elmore Court, Prinknash Park, and the Museum :— 

X. To the Dean of Gloucester, Mr. F. W. Waller, Mr. H. Medland, the 

Rev. J. M. Hall, the Rev. E. C. Scobell, Mr. J. Bellows, and the 
General Secretary for their able assistance as guides to the various 
places of interest visited by the Society : — 

XI. To Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley and to the several gentlemen who so kindly 

prepared and read papers during the Meeting : — 

XII. To Mr. W. H. Stevenson for the interesting and valuable information 
received from him at various times relative to the Municipal Archives 
of the City of Gloucester. 

Proposed by Mr. Le Blanc and seconded by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, that the 
best thanks of the Society be given to Mr. Vassar-Smith for the genial 
and excellent manner in which he had presided over the Meeting. 
Carried unanimously. 
The President, acknowledging it, said that when he was told he bad been 
elected President of the Society he felt somewhat overwhelmed with the 
honour conferred upon him ; and now this cordial vote of thanks, for he had 
really done nothing except to enjoy being the head of the Society, added to 
it. He felt very much their kindness in electing him their President and 



Badgeworth. 



63 



also for overlooking his shortcomings with regard to the office. The routine 
business of presiding at the meetings he might be able to get through ; but 
as regarded the interests of the Society his ignorance must be a great stumb- 
ling block to the efficiency with which the duties of the office should be 
performed. He apologised for the absence of Mrs. Vassar-Smith on Tuesday, 
a long and severe illness having prevented her being able to meet the 
members at the Museum. Referring to the recent discovery of a Roman 
Villa at Tockington, the President said that Sir John Maclean, who had 
taken such an active part in it, had given him a memorandum of what had 
been done. It appeared that the work would have to come to an end or be 
postponed unless additional funds were provided. 

Sir JoHX Maclean said he had received a letter since he had been in 
Gloucester stating that the wall of another room and a piece of pavement 
had been discovered ; in a second room he hoped to find an entire pavement, 
but this was not yet uncovered. He was in want of funds, and could not keep 
the excavators on for more than another week. The necessity was the more 
urgent because the property was to be sold in a few days, and he could not 
say what difficulties might arise. Some members of the Society had been 
liberal, but he had received more money from beyond than from within the 
Society. 

Mr. TucKETT hoped that the appeal for funds would be warmly re- 
sponded to ; Sir John Maclean should be well and loyally backed up in this 
matter. 

A Member suggested that a circular- letter should be issued, as this 
meeting was hardly a representative one. 

Sir John Maclean said the Council did not wish that any general 
application should be made ; they left the matter in the hands of the 
members. 

At 10.30, after the conclusion of the Meeting, the last excursion started 
from the Bell Hotel. The first place visited was Churchdown, where the 
party was cordially received by the Rev. F. Smithe, LL. D., who conducted 
them over the quaint little Church of St. Bartholomew, the special features 
of which he pointed out and described in a very pleasing manner. A Paper 
on this church will be contributed by Dr. Smithe to our Transactions. 

At Badgeworth the visitors had a delightful surprise, to find at such a 
rural and remote spot a church so br^autiful in structure and decoration, and 
so replete with historic interest. The paper which the ReV. Mr. Ellis Viner 
read was a model of lucid compactness ; and it is here printed in extemo. 

Badgworth and its Church. 
If a stranger in the early years of this century had alighted as the party 
have to-day at this churchyard, he would, no doubt, have found it difficult 
to account for a church so full of architectural beauty being set down in so 
poor and inacessible a place. At that date there were few over a dozen 
houses of all descriptions within a mile of the church ; there was scarcely a 
stone in any of the tracks which served for roads across the open arable fields 
through which it was approached. In the upper part of the parish the 
worst parts were called Splashes (here Sloughs). The far)ners were unable 
to use wheels for agricultural work except in the height of summer, and 
in winter the corn was taken to market on horses' backs. 



64 



Transactions fok the Year 1888-9. 



It is very much due to the spot being so remote and inacessible that 
we have the fabric of the church in so perfect a state of preservation, the 
stained glass in the vrindows alone having been almost entirely destroyed. 

With respect to the earliest notice of this parish — then called Beiewurd — 
I learn that Hart states, from a somewhat corrupt " Charter of confirmation 
to St. Peter's, Gloster," granted by Burghred, King of Mercia, in 872, that 
Beiewurd was acquired in the time of Eva, who was Abbess a.d. 735 to 767. 

Again in 1022, Wulstan, who had been Bishop of Worcester and was 
then Archbishop of York, changed the Monastery of St. Peter's, at Glouces- 
ter, from a home of canons to one of monks, appointing Eadric, who had 
been a canon, Abbot. A similar change was made at the same time at Bury 
St. Edmunds. Rudder states that this Eadric granted by deed for the sum 
of ^815, the Manors of Begge worth and Hadderley to one Starmacotto for life. 
The deed recites that this was done to redeem all the lands of the monastery 
from that great exaction throughout all England called Danegelt. 

Among the witnesses to the deed are Wulstan, Archbishop of York, 
and Leofsius, Bishop of Worcester. As Eadric only became Abbot in 1022, 
and Wulstan died May 28th, 1023, the date of the deed is fixed within very 
narrow limits. Mr. Freeman thinks that the charge which was paid off was 
the Danegelt of 1018, whose paj-ment may have been spread over many years. 
Only this parish and Hadderly (Upper) appear to have been alienated at 
this time. Oddington, with other manors, including Scherenton, in 1057, 
was granted to the Archbishop of York by St. Peter's, Gloucester, in dis- 
charge of sums expended by Alfred, Archbishop, 1047, on repairs of the 
Monastery of St. Peter's, Gloucester ; this accounts for the connection of 
Scherenton with Oddington, for the Archbishop held the manor in 14th 
Edward III., and there is still a sum payable to the Rector of Oddington 
from the tithe of Shurdington, existing through all the changes of time. 

Aftei- the alienations just named, we hear no more of the Abbey of St. 
Peter's in connection with these parishes. 

Atkins says that Alestan held Beiewurd, in Dudestan Hundred, in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor. William de Ow held it in the reign of 
William the Conqueror. This William de Ow continued in possession till 
9th William II., when he was cast into prison and his eyes put out for 
rebellion against the King. This manor was then granted to Gilbert 
Marshal. To him succeeded John his son, who had likewise a son and heir 
John, and he dying without issue in the last year of Rich. I., was succeeded 
by his brother William, Earl of Pembroke and hereditary Marshal. He died 
3rd Henry III., and was survived by Isabel his wife, the daughter and 
heiress of Richard, Earl of Striguil, now called Chepstow ; she held this 
manor in dower, 3rd Henry IIL, but soon after died, whereby the manor 
descended to William, Richard, Gilbert, Walter and Anselm, sons of Wm. 
Earl of Pembroke successively, who, dying without issue, left five sisters 
their heireses, of whom Isabel, the third, was married to Gilbert de Clare. 
It is certain that the de Clares were the owners of these manors in the 12th 
century. In the 13th century the vicarage of Begges worth and Scherenton 
belonged to the Priory of Usk, in Monmouthshire, and almost certainly 
given to that priory by the de Clares, At Usk there was a priory for five 
Benedictine nuns founded by them. 



l^\Di;E\V01iTH. 



65 



111 the oliiec of "first fruits " there is a record of Usk : [t is an item 
of £1 to he expended annuaUjj upon She re Thursdau in Alms to pray for the 
founder)}, viz., Sir Ifichard dr Clare and Sir Gilbert his son, Earles of the 
Jil archer (i: for other descendants tO Benefactors. Now this first iiaineu founder, 
Richard dc Chxre, was the well known Strongbow, Earl of Pembroke and Lord 
of Striguil, or Chepstow, memorable in history for his ill-received successes 
in Ireland, which excited the jealousy of his sovereign Henry II. He died 
1148, 

Both Richard the father and Gilbert the son are named as founders of 
the Priory of Usk, and to be prayed for as such. But Richard's father was 
also named Gilbert, and must not be confounded with Gilbert his son and 
successor. His uncle, Walter de Clare, founded Tintern in 1131, and so 
Richard and his son were but following the family passion for abbey build- 
ing when they founded the Priory of Usk, and of church building too, for 
I think it most probable that we owe the beautiful north chapel of this 
church to the munificence of the Clares. 

The Nunnery of Usk possessed considerable church patronage. At a 
very early period the prioress and convent had six benefices in their gift, and 
among them Beggesworth and Sclierenton. In confirmation of this, there 
appears in the Register of the Diocese of Worcester (for these parishes were 
formerly in Worcester diocese) entries of Institutions to the Vicarage during 
the Episcopate of Godfrey GifFard, 1268 to 1301 ; Henry de Wakefield, 1375 
to 1395 ; and on the 17th February, 1392, at Breadon, Dom. Hugo Noyl, 
Priest to the Vicarage of Beggesworth, then vacant by the death of John 
Gowry, the last vicar, on tlie presentation of the Prioress of Usk and the 
convent of the same place. 

Again, at London, Tliomas de Usk was admitted on the presentation 
of the Prioress of Usk and the convent of the same, by the same Venerable 
Father, as perpetual vicar. 

According to Atkyns, Gilbert de Clare was possessed of this manor in 
1314. This Gilbert was son of the Red Earl and the Princess Joan Plan- 
tagenet, was 10th Earl of Gloucester and Earl of Hertford, was born 1291. In 
1311, although only twenty years of age, he was made Regent of the King- 
dom, while Edward II. was in Scotland, and again in 1313, when he was in 
France ; but his early greatness was cut short at the battle of Bannockburn, 
June 23rd 1314, and with him the male line of the Clares came to an end. 
He was buried at Tewkesbury, July 2nd, 1314. His effigy, in the Chronicles 
of Tewkesbury, is entitled " Gilbertus III^ Comes Gloucestrife et Hert- 
fordife " and is clad in a surcoat, with the de Clare chevrons upon it ; has the 
shield of the lion guardant and the chevrons quarterly at his side, and bears 
in his left hand a torch, the burning end of which is being extinguished on 
the ground to signify that he was childess. In the grave of this last de Clare, 
uncovered in 1875, under the dust and rubble with which the grave had 
been filled up in the last century, there still remained, nearly entire, the 
skeleton of Earl Gilbert, who seemed to have been a man of very athletic 
build. 

On the apex west of the window of the north chapel of this cluirch is tlie 
sculptured head of King Edw. II., and below, on tlie north side, the head of a 



Vol. XIII. 



66 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



Knight ill annour ; and on the south side a woman, which most likely was 
his widow, who died tlie year after her husband. Are tliese the effigies of 
(lilbcrt de Clare and his wife Maud ? I think so, and for this reason — in the 
Registry of Worcester there is this entry during the Episcopate of Walter 
de Maydenstone. On the Kalends of July, 1315, " was dedicated the Church 
of Beggesworth with the higli Altar the Rector paid 5 marks the whole fee." 
You will see what appear to be the consecration 4^'s in several places upon 
the pillars of the north chapel : thus we see Gilbert de Clare was the owner 
here ; the vicarage was in the patronage of the Priory of Usk — the Clares 
were its founders and benefactors, and there was a cell of the priory in this 
place of considerable size, which has entirely disappeared, the materials 
having been used for other buildings. It was situated on the high ground 
to the south of the church. It is therefore reasonable to conclude that we 
owe the beautiful Decorated chapel and all the other Decorated work of the 
church to the munificence of the Clares. It is well to state that in the 
chancel walls, which it became necessary to rebuild in 1869, were found 
traces of an earlier building, such as blocks of Tufa and broken shafts of 
different sizes. The masonry of the chancel was of inferior workmanship, as 
well as that of the nave to the work of a later date, showing that in the 14th 
century the whole church was altered to the style of the Decorated 
period. 

The taxation of Pope Nicholas, P291 (p. 228), gives the following : — 
Ecct de Beggew'th cum Capell' de Schwrdinton et Hatherl' Dec. 
supiore 

Pret' h porcb Vicar' 

Prior de Strogoil 

Rector' Ecctie de Otendun 
Pret' h porcio ABtiis Cirenc' 



xxiii^i vj« viijtl 


ijli vjs viij<i 


iiijii vj« viij'i 


viijs viijd 


iijli vjs viijd 


vj« viijd 


iii vjs viij--' 




is 


id 


in pecun' 


Et restant 


duo den' indec' 


vii 


xs 


ili 




in decis 




i^i xiijs iiijci 


iijs iiijd 



Capeir de Hatherl' inferior 
Pret' h porcb Prior de Usk 

Pret' h porco Prior' de Strogoil 

Priory of Uske (Valor Eccles. Vol. IV. p. 366). 

Reddit'Assis'Badgesworth Hadderley et Down Hadderley 
in Com: Gloucestr' 

Imprimis the rents of assize there as appireth by the 

reiitall amounteth to the sume of - xxiij^ iiijd 

Item. For all man tythyngs issues oblacbns & pfitts 
comyng out of the pishe churches of Badgeworth 
Hadderley and a Chappell thereto annexed in the 
countieof Glouc'amounteth to the sume yerely of xviij^i vj^ viij^ 

Sum tot valor' - - Ixix^i ix^ viijdob. 

Deduct. Item upon Sherethursday in almes to pray for 
the founders viz. S^' Richard de Clare. S^" Gylbert 
his sone Erles of the marches Dame Elizabeth 
Borowgh counties of the marches. Edmond erle of 
marches my lord Richard duke of York xx*^ 



Ra DO F.WORTH. 



67 



From Valor Eccles. (Vol. II., p. 441). 
Decanatus Winchelcomb 
Bageworth cii Capella de Shorington 
P'orissa et moniales de Uske sunt pp'etarii rcoie i^m 

quaquiftm rcoia sunt responsur' Dno Regi in comp 

nionas^ii sui pdci. 
Thomas Tonys vicarius ppetuus ibm jur' dicit dca 
vicaria sua valet p auuu in fcio xxj acr' terr' arabil' 
dimid' acr' p"ti et unius pcell' pastur' xviij^ xjd in x°^i* 
gart et feni vj^i xij* in x°"^ lane Ixijs viij^ in x™^s agnell' 
iiijii in x^^^ psonaF ad pascha et oblacbibz iiij'i xvij^ iiijd 
in x™i=* porceir et aucaz xx^ in x™i^ vitul' et in aliis 
minutis x™'-^ ut lini fruct* et ovoz gallinac' vs in toto. 

Rep's' 

In pcur' anu'^i' solut' archno Glouc. - - - vjs viij^ 

In cenag' anu"' solut' Epo Wj'gorn' - - ij^ 

In iii'^" pte pcur' visitaconis triennal' Epi 

pdci ad iijs iiij^ cu acciderit .... xiij o^ 

Et valet ult-'^ clare p annu . . . . xx^i xj^ jdqr 

X' inde xij^ j^o^ 

At the dissolution of the Religious Houses, Usk, being possessed of less 
property than £200 a year, was suppressed by the Act 27, Henry VIII. , cap. 
20, in 1536. with its dependant cell of Beggesworth. The name of the last 
Prioress was Dame Ellen VTilliams ; her predecessor also was living and 
enjoying pension of £7 a year for her " mete & drynke. 

AtkjTis says the tithes in Badgeworth, which did belong to the Bene- 
dictine nuns of Usk, in Monmouthshire, were granted to Bergavenny, 34th 
Henry VIII. The Manor of Badgeworth, with the Rectorj- and Advowson 
of the Vicarage did also belong to the Xunnery of Usk, and were granted 
to James Gunter and Walter Lewis, 37th Henry VIII. 

Other tithes in Badgeworth belonging also to the same nunnery were 
granted to John Fernham, 22nd Elizabeth, and so the greater part of the 
church property passed into lay hands. The gi'eat tithes are in the possession 
of Jesus College, Oxford. Some tithe free land is charged with the repair 
of the chancel ; there remains to the church only the vicar's small tithe and 
a portion of the glebe of the Xunnery of Usk The whole church is built of 
stone found in the parish at Crickley, and the Peagrit is seen in many of 
the mouldings which are as sharp as when first cut. With the exception of a 
few traces of Perpendicular work in the east window of the north chapel, 
and another place or two, the whole of the work is, or has been, altered to 
Decorated. The positions of the thi'ee altars are apparent ; and there is a stoup 
for water at the west doorway of the tower, similar to the one at Upton St. 
Leonard's. It is well to observe that the base moulding from the tower to 
the east end of the north chapel, and also the ball flower ornament inside 
and outside the windows, increases in richness up to that point. A small 
portion of the original glass remains in a perfect state in the north eastern- 
most window of the chapel. The upper portions of the chapel windows 
are filled with little fragments of the glass collected from otlier portions of 
the church as relics of its former beauty. 
F 2 




68 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Such is the brief sketch of the history of this fine Parish Church, and 
its vicissitudes during the lapse of ages. We venerate it supremely as the 
House of God, where Praise and Prayer and Sacraments have been so long 
offered, preserved by His providence when every other building of the same 
age has perished, and we pray that it may still be venerated equally and 
kept sacred by those that succeed us. 

The next, and last, place visited was 

Prinknash Park, 

now the seat, by recent purchase, of Mr. T. Dyer-Edwardes, where, through 
the kind hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Dyer-Edwardes, the company was 
handsomely entertained at luncheon. Prinknash Park is one of the most 
picturesque and interesting residential houses in the county. It is not 
necessary, however, to give any account of it here, it having been visited by 
the Society in 1882, and is fully described by the Rev. W. Bazeley, and is 
admirably illustrated in Vol. VII. of the Society's Transactions. The 
members, many of whom had not seen the interesting old mansion before, 
were greatly gratified at their courteous reception, and heartily thanked 
Mr. and Mrs. Dyer-Edwards for their kind hospitality. Occasion was also 
taken to thank Mr. Bazeley for his manifold services during the meeting, 
who, in acknowlegement, expressed his obligation to the Local Committee, 
and especially to Mr. Blakeway, one of the local secretaries, for their kind 
assistance. The members then took leave of their kind host and hostess 
and returned to Gloucester. 

The Popular Meeting. 

With the object of cultivating a more general taste for, and knowledge 
of, History and Antiquities, and an intelligent interest therein among the 
middle and working classes, the Council arranged to hold a large popular 
meeting at the Shire Hall, on Thursday Evening, at which the citizens ot 
Gloucester were invited to be present as far as the accommodation would 
allow. The people were admitted by ticket, free of cost, upon the recom- 
mendation of any member of the Society, and the great hall was filled to 
overflowing by an intelligent and orderly assemblage, who appeared to 
take a warm interest in the proceedings. Some 900 persons were present, 
many of whom afterwards expressed themselves much gratified. 

Mr. A. Capener, Deputy Organist at the Cathedral, played a selection 
of music on the organ before the commencement of the Meeting. At eight 
o'clock the chair was taken by Mr. Vassar-Smith, the President of the 
Society, who said he thought it desirable to say a few words of explanation 
before entering upon the proceedings of the evening. He said he was glad to 
see that no words of apology were needed, as he was very certain that the 
large audience there was waiting with interest and pleasure for what had 
been promised. He mentioned that some thirteen years ago the first 
meeting of the Society was held in Gloucester, and since then a great and 
important work had been done of archaeological and historical interest in 
this county. It was resolved to let others than members of the Society 
know what had been done, and therefore this meeting was arranged for. 
The President concluded by remarking on the privilege it was to him to 



(iLOUCK:>TKR CaTHKL>KAL. 



69 



preside, and said the thanks of the meeting w ere due to those who had 
arranged the meeting and to the lad)' and gentlemen who were to speak. 

Roman Gloucester. 
Mr. John Bellows, who Avas the tirst to address the meeting, said he 
had been asked to give an outline of the Roman history of Gloucester : but 
iu the short time at his disposal he could only give what he might call an 
outline of the outline of so vast a history. Gloucester had a span of history 
eo\ ering more than any other town in the British Isles. The known history 
of the city went back to a time almost coeval with the Christian era ; it 
began in the year 48, some years before the Apostle Paul was summoned to 
Rome on his appeal, and many events interesting to the citizens of Glouces- 
ter took place before half of the books of the New Testament were written. 
He proceded to describe the establishment of a Roman garrison at Glouces- 
ter, and pointed out that many of the present streets corresponded in their 
position and measurement with tliose of the Roman camp. He alluded to 
the discovery in the London Road of a tomb-stone recording the burial 
of a Roman soldier, 1700 years after its being placed there, and also 110 urns 
containing the ashes of people burned and buried there. He stated his opinion 
that the present Gloucester Freemen were descended from the old Roman 
Freemen, their privileges being much the same. The London Road was made, 
he remarked, during the time of Domitian. Referring to the custom of 
" Borough English," he remarked that if a man died in Gloucester without 
making a will his property would go to the youngest son, and he believed 
this custom had origin in the fact that the Romans had a law to prevent 
things coming to a deadlock. It was their practice to take the elder sons 
for the arm}-, the youngest staying at home to manage the business. They 
avoided a great deal of litigation by allowing the youngest son to take the 
property at once, leaving the elder sons available for soldiers. If they 
looked into this old history for themselves they would find it very interest- 
ing.; and it would give them more interest in the city when they knew how 
ancient it is, and how much of the kind of thing he had indicated there was 
to learn. 

Gloucester Cathedral. 
The Dean, in the course of an address on this subject, said they were 
all proud of the city of which they were citizens. Gloucester had, perhaps, 
a history second to none in England, and second to very few in Europe, after 
Rome. One glory stood out prominently, and that was their Cathedral. 
Every citizen, every man and woman, and every boy and girl, was proud of 
their Cathedral, and well they might be. He proceeded to point out, and 
account for, the difference between the two styles of architecture seen in 
the nave and the choir — the massive nave, built at the time when defence 
was the prominent thought with architects, and the lighter choir, erected 
when the strong rule of the Conqueror had induced a feeling of security in 
the land, and the revival in the Church occurred. He was proud of the 
Cathedral, and if he was given strength and lived among them longer, he 
hoped to give them more detailed infoi matiou concerning it. He was per- 
suaded of this ; that the Cathedral must be something more than merely 
a beautiful example of architecture. Not many years ago Dr. Gumming 
said it was beautiful, but after all it was an empty shell. Was it an empty 
shell now ? He asked those who came to their winter services in the nave, 



70 



Transactions for the Year 188S-9. 



or to their great choral services, or to those who were present at the A.M.C. 
service when well-nigh 5.000 people, a large proportion of them stalwart 
English artisans, thronged the nave. It -was filled now from time to time 
with a reverent and devout congregation. One wrote : " After all, the 
jewels of the walls of a sanctuary are the flocks within those walls ; " and 
with that sentiment he concluded his remarks. 

Monuments in Gloucester Cathedral. 

Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, in a paper on the Cathedral Monuments, said 
she should have hardly attempted such a task except that she had had 
the help of the late Mr. M. H. Bloxam, who, sometime ago, wrote ofi"ering 
a description of the monuments in the Cathedral, and one of the last 
things he did was to send her some notes on the subject, asking her to 
use them for the city. She was sure she could not use them in a better 
way than to read them to this meeting. In the long time the Abbey had 
been existing it was strange that there were only three effigies of Abbots. 
She proceeded to describe, first, the effigies of Robert, Duke of Normandy, 
Edward II. ; Osric, King of Northumbria, whose effigy was dressed, she 
pointed out, in the dress worn at the period of the erection of the monument, 
and not in that worn during his lifetime. Then there was the monument 
of an Abbot, which she believed was that of Henry Folliett, though some 
thought it was the effigy of Serlo, and others of one of the later Abbots. He 
was dressed, or, more properly in ecclesiastical terms, habited as a priest and 
not as an Abbot. The next Abbot had a totally different habit, and this was the 
effigy of Abbot Seabrook. Abbot Parker's tomb probably did not contain his 
bones, and it was doubtful where he really was buried. The Abbey was then 
changed into a Cathedral, and there was Bishop Golesborough's effigy. The 
Bishop was dressed in the dress of a Protestant Bishop of the Reformed 
Church, and wore a ruff. Then came a great change in the style of archi- 
tecture, which became stiff and formal, the church no longer giving her help 
to the workers in stone. There was only one effigy of a Knight in armour. 
This was in the south aisle of the nave, and was composed of two recumbent 
figures — a warrior and his lady — no doubt persons of distinction, and 
probably members of the Bridges' family, of Cubberley, and not of the 
Bohuns, as generally supposed. Then there came yet another change, and the 
dead were represented in a half -rising position, instead of being recumbent, 
and afterwards there succeeded monuments of men looking down out of a 
sort of a medallion. There was one other style of monument, and that was 
of figures in a standing position. There were not many of these in Gloucester 
Cathedral, but there were the monuments of Judges Powell (1713) and 
Jenner in this style. Monumental art seemed to have fallen to the lowest 
ebb, but now it was rising again, and some beautiful recumbent effigies 
have lately been executed. They were now reverting to the graceful attitudes 
and the perfect repose of the figures of earlier days, and we once more 
saw really artistic designs. There were also good brasses now-a-days — there 
was a splendid modern one in Gloucester Cathedral to Haines, who wrote 
on Ancient Brasses. Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley then thanked her hearers for 
their attention, and resumed her seat. 

Mr. Bloxam's notes will be printed in extenso post 

The proceedings were here varied by an organ solo. Afterwards 



Old (tLoucester Buildings. 



71 



The Rev. Wm. Bazeley resumed by reading a very interesting Paper 
on the Ancient Guilds of the City of Gloucester, Avhich will be printed post. 

Mr. F. W. Waller then gave an Address On Old Gloucester Buildings^ 
which he illustrated by an exhibition of a fine series of photographs. He 
remarked that his attention to this subject was aroused by the fac ", that the 
picturesque old buildings of the city were rapidly disappearing under process 
of supposed improvements, and he determined to preserve the appearance of 
as many of them as he could. Alas, many of them, and some of the best, 
had already gone. Having made these few remarks, he exhibited and des- 
cribed the Gateway of Llantony Priory ; the Houses of the Black Friars 
(exterior and interior) and the Grey Friars ; the New Inn (past and present) ; 
the Angle-post between the New Inn Lane and Northgate Street ; the Town 
House of the Yate family, now occupied by Mr. Clark, grocer, in Southgate 
Street, with the two mantelpieces therein preserved ; the old Town House 
of the Cliffords of Frampton, now occupied by Mr. Beale, auctioneer, and 
some time used hy the Grocers' Guild as their hall ; a fine chimney piece in 
the residence of Mr. Johnson in Westgate Street and several other objects 
of interest. 

A vote of thanks having been given to the several speakers and readers, 
the meeting terminated with the National Anthem. 

Amongst those who attended the meetings were Lord Sherborne, Sir 
Brook Kay, Bart., Sir John Maclean, Col. Granville, Admiral Christian, the 
Rev. F. E. Broome Witts, S. E. Bartleet, W. Bazeley, W. H. Silvester 
Davies, Canon Madan, Canon J. Mayne, J. Emeris, A, C. Eyre, W. D. 
Stanton, Prebendary Scarth, W. Bagnall-Oakeley, H. Shaw, J. Bloomfield, 
and the Very Rev. the Dean, the Mayor (Mr. J. Ward) the Deputy Mayor 
(Mr. C. H. Clutterbuck), the City High Sheriff (Mr. A. C. Wheeler), and 
Messrs. R. V. Vassar-Smith ( President), W. J. Stanton, F. F. Fox, H. 
Jeffs, J. P. Wilton, E. A. Hudd, T. S. Ellis, C. Bowley, G. B. Witts, F. A. 
Hyett, W. C. Lucy, J. Graham Clarke, H. Medland, F. W. Waller, W. 
Washbourn, B. Bonnor, Bernard Matthews, C. Brown, R. Brown, H. W. 
Bruton, E. H. Perciv^al, J. Murrell, J. Mills, C. H. Dancey, A. Pouting, W. 
Leigh, W. H. St. John Hope, P. D. Prankerd, W. H. Stevenson, E. Gran- 
ville LI. Baker, E. A. D'Argent, F. F. Tuckett, T. H. Chance, A. Le Blanc, 
and W. Keeling, and many ladies. 



72 



Tkansaotio.ns b'oK THE Yeau lSbS-9. 



CTatalogut of i£.tt)tbtts m tijc ^Tcmporari? J^useum. 

Prepared by Messns. J. P. Wilton, C. H. Daucey and J. Milh. 



Portraits of Persons connected with the History of Gloucester. 



The Name at end of each siihject is that of the Exhibitor. 

ROYAL PERSONAGES. 

The Emperor Claudius. "Some write that Claudius, in favour of the 
valiant prowesse which he saw and found in Arviragus, honoured not only 
him with the marriage of his daughter Genissa, but also to the end to make 
the towne more famous where this marriage was solemnized, he therefore 
called it Claudiocestria, after his name, but now it is called Glocester." 
{Holimhed, quoted in Fosbroohe's History of Glouc, p. 1). The truth of this 
questioned by other writers. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

King Edgar resided in Gloucester A.D. 964, and one of his battles against 
the Danes is said to have been fought here [Counsel). Gloucester was then 
expressly called "this Royal City" {Rudder). Ditto 

Edmund Ironside, having been defeated at Ashden, Essex, came to 
Gloucester for the purpose of recruiting his forces. He w\as followed by 
Canute, who proposed that "under present circumstances it might be 
prudent for both to lay aside their resentments and divide the kingdom." 
Both armies unanimously agreed to the proposal a d. 1016 [Counsel). Ditto 

Harold, in 1063, by order of Edward the Confessor, set out for this 
place to punish Griffin, the Welsh King, for his incursions ( Fosbroke). 

Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

William I. often held his Court at Gloucester, and generally spent his 
Christmas here, attended by the principal nobility and ecclesiastics in this 
kingdom. In 1084, and again in 1085, he held his Court here for five days 
[Counsel). On one of these occasions he ordered the compilation of Domes- 
day Book. Ditto 

William IL was seized with a distemper while he was at Gloucester in 
1098, and in 1099 " agreeably to ancient custom " spent his Christmas here 
(Counsel). Ditto 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, " having been a benefactor to his house 
(the Abbey) was interred there about 1132 " [Rudder) Ditto 

Stephen, whilst engaged in war with Matilda, was taken prisoner and 
brought here by the Earl of Gloucester in 1142 [Counsel). Ditto 

Henry II. summoned here in 1172 a great Council of his Earls and 
Buions, and Reece and other Princes of Wales [Counsel) Ditto 



TEMroKARY Museum. 



73 



Henry III. was crowned at Gloucester in 1216, being then 10 years of 
age, and in 1238 summoned all the Vassals of the Crown to meet him with 
their troops at Gloucester. He also held his Court here in 1241 {Counsel). 

Ditto 

King John was sojourning herein 1216 {Counsel). Ditto 
Edward I., in the sixth year of his reign, 1278, held a Parliament in the 
long Workhouse belonging to the Abbey. The laws then enacted have 
since been styled the Statutes of Gloucester {Furney). Ditto 
Edward II. was frequently here. In the winter of 1321 this city was 
seized by the Barons, and the King hastened to Gloucester. In 1327 he was 
murdered in Berkeley Castle, and was buried in the Abbey of Gloucester 
{Counsel). Ditto 
Edward III. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Queen Philippa, and Ditto 
The Black Prince visited the Shrine of Edward II. in the Abbey at Glouces- 
ter about 1335 (Foshroke) Ditto 
Richard II. held a Parliament here October 1407 {Counsel). Ditto 
Henry IV. held a Parliament here 1407 {Counsel). Ditto 
Henry V. held a Parliament here 1420. Ditto 
Richard III., immediately after his coronation, came to Gloucester in 
1483, and continued here some time. " From this place he sent an express 
order to the Governor of the Tower of London to murder Edward V. and his 
brother the Duke of York " {Counsel). Ditto 
Henry VI., when a child (1430), was brought to the Abbey and made 
an oblation at the Shrine of Edward 11. {Counsel) Ditto 
Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, held a Parliament here in the reign of 
Henry VI. Ditto 
Henry VII. came to Gloucester from Worcester on Whitsun Eve, 1483 
{Counsel). Ditto 
Henry VIII. came here in 1535. Ditto 
James I. was at Gloucester "about 1605, and resided at the Deanery, 
where he touched for the King's evil " {Counsel). Ditto 
Charles I. summoned the city to surrender on August 10th, 1643. (See 
Picture). Ditto 
Charles II., as Prince of Wales, was present at the siege ; as was also 

Ditto 

James II., as Duke of York. He visited the city again in 1685, in his 
royal progress through the kingdom {Life of Framyton). Ditto 
George III, visited Gloucester in 1788. Ditto 

BISHOPS. 

John Hooper born 1495 ; appointed to the See of Gloucester in 1550 ; 
two years after to that of Worcester, which he held with the Bishopric of 
Gloucester. Burnt at Gloucester, February 9th 1555. Ditto 

Also an eng-raving of the stake to which he was fastened. The original is in Gloucester 
Museum. 

Edward Fowler, born 1632 ; appointed Bishop of Gloucester, 1691 ; died 
1714. Mr. H. W. Bkuton. 



74 



Transactions voii the Year 18S8-9. 



Richard Willis, Bishop of Gloucester, 1714 ; translated to Salisbury, 
1721, and in 1725 to Winchester, where he died. Mr. W", H. Bruton. 

Joseph Wilcocks, born at Bristol 1673 ; in 1721 made Bishop of Glou- 
cester ; in 1741 translated to Rochester ; died 1756. Ditto 

William Warburton, born 1698 ; Bishop of this See, 1750. A learned 
man and writer of many theological and controversial works. Ditto 

Honourable James York, translated to this See from S. David's, 1779, 
and to Ely in 1781. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Samuel Halifax, born 1733 ; Bishop of Gloucester, 1781 ; translated to 
S. Asaph, 1787 ; died 1790. Ditto 

Richard Beadon, elected Bishop of Gloucester, 1789 ; translated to Bath 
and Wells, 1802. Mr. W. H. Bruton. 

George Isaac Huntingford, Bishop of Gloucester, 1802 ; translated to 
Hereford, 1815. Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

Honourable Henry Ryder, Bishop of Gloucester, 1815 to 1824. Ditto 

Christopher Bethell, Bishop of Gloucester from 1824 to 1830. 

Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

James Henry Monk, Bishop of Gloucester, 1836 to 1856. Ditto 
William Thomson, 1861 ; Archbishop of York, 1863. Mr. John Mills. 

DEANS. 

Laurence Humphrey, Dean, 1570 ; made Dean of Winchester, 1580. 

Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

Thomas Morton, born 1564 ; became Dean of Gloucester, June, 1607 ; 
of Winchester, 1609 ; made Bishop of Durham, 1639 ; died 1659. 

Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

William Laud, born 1573 ; Dean of Gloucester, 1616 ; afterwards 
became Bishop of S. David's, of Rochester, of London, and Archbishop of 
Canterbury. Ditto 

Josiah Tucker, born 1712 ; Dean of Gloucester, 1758 ; died at the 
Deanery 1799. An eminent writer on many subjects, theological, contro- 
versial, and political. Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

Henry Law, Dean of Gloucester from 1862 to 1884. Rev. G. James. 

ARCHDEACONS. 

Richard Hurd, Archdeacon in 1767 ; Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, 
1774 ; and of Worcester, 1781 ; where he died 1808. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

James Rudge, Rector of S. Michael's, Gloucester, and Historian of the 
city ; he became Archdeacon, 1814. Ditto 

PREBENDARIES & CANONS. 

Gilbert Sheldon, born 1598 ; installed, 1632 ; afterwards Dean of the 
Chapel Royal, Bishop of London, and became Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1663. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Samuel Horsley, installed, 1764 ; made Bishop of S. David's, 1788 ; 
translated to Rochester, 1793 ; to S. David's, 1802 ; died 1806. Ditto 

Henry More, born 1614; died 1687; installed about 1675. Ditto 



TfMI'ORARY MrSFATM. 



Joseph White, born 174G in Gloucester (or Stonehouse). His father 
vas a journeyman weaver. In 17S3 he became Prebendary of this Cathedral. 
^^"as an eminent oriental scholar ; died in 1814. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Ralph Cudworth, installed Prebendary of Gloucester, 1678; die 1 16S8. 

Ditto 

George Bull, installed, 1678 ; made Bishop of S. David's, 1705 ; died 
1 709. Ditto 

Francis Jeune, D.C.L., Master of Pembroke College, Oxford, and Canon 
of Gloucester Cathedral. Rev. G. James. 

LORD HIGH STEWARDS OF GLOUCESTER. 
William Paulet, Marquis of Winchester, 1558. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Sir Edward Coke, 1615 Ditto 

Oliver Cromwell, 1651. Ditto 

Henry Lord Cromwell, 1653 Ditto 

Richard Cromwell, 1656 Ditto 

Henry, Duke of Gloucester (youngest son of Charles I.), 1660 Ditto 

James, Earl of Berkeley, 1710 Ditto 

RECORDERS OF GLOUCESTER. 
Richard Pates, 1556. Was benefactor to S. Bartholomew's Hospital 
and founder of the Cheltenham Grammar School. M.P. for Gloucester, 
1558. Mr. J. P. Wilton 

William Lenthall, 1638. M.P. for the city, 1654. Speaker of House of 
Commons. Ditto 
Sir John Somers, 1690. Afterwards Lord Chancellor. Ditto 
Philip, Lord Hardwicke, 1734. Afterwards Lord Chancellor Ditto 
The Honourable Charles Yorke, 1764. Ditto 
George Augustus, Lord North, 1769. Afterwards Earl of Guilford. Ditto 
Charles, Duke of Norfolk, 1792. Ditto 

TOWN CLERKS. 
Sir John Powell, 1674. Ditto 
Sir Robert Price, 1685 Ditto 

MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT 

General John Desborough, 1656. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

George Augustus Selwyn, 1760. Ditto 

Robert Morris, 1806. Ditto 

Robert Bransby Cooper, 1818 Ditto 

Admiral Sir Maurice F. F. Berkeley 1832. Afterwards Ld. Fitzhardinge. 

Ditto 

Sir Robert Walter Garden, Bart., 1857. Lord Mayor of London. Ditto 

Mr. J OHN Mills. 

MAYORS. 

Sir Berkeley William Guise, Bart., 1810 to 1823. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 
John Phillpotts, 1819. M.P., 1830, &c. Ditto 



7 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



OFFICERS PRESENT AT THE SIEGE OF GLOUCESTER. 
Prince Rupert, Commander of Cavalry in the Royal Army, third son of 



the King of Bohemia. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Prince Maurice (his brother), Royalist. Ditto 

Earl of Carnarvon, Royalist. Ditto 

Lord Edward Somerset, Royalist. Ditto 

Earl of Warwick, Royalist. Ditto 

Lord Wilmot, Royalist. Ditto 

Sir Marmaduke Langdale, Royalist. Ditto 

Lord Henry Somerset, Royalist. Ditto 

Sir Jacob Ashley, Royalist. Ditto 



Rev. Wm. Chillingworth, D.D., Royalist. He M'^as zealously attached 
to the Royal party, and at the siege of Gloucester, begun August 10th, 164.3, 
was present in the King's Army, where he advised and directed the making 
of certain engines for assaulting the town, but which the success of the 
enemy prevented him from employing." {Chalmers). See Dowling's picture. 

Mr. H. W. Bruton. 



Earl of Essex, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Sir Thomas Middleton, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Major-General Poyntz, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Sir W. Waller, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Major-General Skippon, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Lord Grey, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


John Wilmot Richard, Lord Rochester, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Major-General Morgan, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Colonel J. Girard, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Colonel Okey, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Lord Fairfax, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 


Earl of Manchester, Parliamentarian. 


Ditto 



PERSONS OF EMINENCE 
CONNECTED WITH THE CITY OF GLOUCESTER. 
John Taylor, " The Water Poet ; " born in Gloucester about 1580 ; died 
1654. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Sir Thomas White, Lord Mayor of London in 1554. -'Gave to twenty- 
three towns, of which Gloucester was one, as they succeeded each other in a 
table which he drew up, £100 per annum, clear, to be lent for ten years to 
poor clothiers, and to continue in the same order for ever." {Rudder). Ditto 
George Whitfield, born 1714 at the Bell Hotel, Gloucester ; died 1770. 

Mr. C. H. Dance Y. 

Rev. Daniel Lysons, born at Rodmarton, 1763. Author of '* Antiquities 
of Gloucestershire," and other works. Mezzotint, after Sir T. Lawrence^ 
touched proof before letters with writing in pencil by Sir Thos. Laiorence. 

Mr. H. W. Bruton. 

Robert Raikes, born 1735, died 1811. Editor of " Gloucester Journal," 
Founder of Sunday Schools (Four portraits). Mr. J. P. Wilton. 



TEMrORARY MUSEL'M. 



77 



John Moore, D.D., bom at Gloucester about 1731. Son of a butcher 
who resided in the Butcher's Row, Westgate Street (taken down 1750). 
He obtained the Townsend Scliolarship 1744, which provided for his residence 
at Pembroke College, Oxford. Took his D.D. degree 1763, held a arious 
important otiioes in the Church, and became Archbishop of Canterbury in 
1783; died 180-4. Portrait, and Caricature by D'lghton, "The Principal 
Arch of Lambeth Palace." Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Riilph Bigland, Historian of the County ; born 1711 ; died 1784. Buried 
in the Cathedral, where there is a monument to his memory. 

Mr. W. H. Brutox. 

Rev. Thomas Dudley Fosbrooke, Historian of the City and County of 
(rloucester, and author of many Archieological and Historical works. 

Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

James Wood, Banker and Millionaire. Two portraits. ditto 
Right Reverend Henry Phillpotts, D.D., Bishop of Exeter ; born at the 
Bell Hotel, Gloucester. Ditto 
Sir Charles Wheatstone, born in 1802, resided in Westgate Street. " His 
name will ever remain green as the scientific inventor of the Electric Tele- 
graph."' Was Knighted in 1863. Ditto 

ANTIQUARIAN & OTHER OBJECTS. 
A case of Tracts relating to the Siege of Gloucester and the Civil War. 

Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

Fifteen Deeds relating to the Tanners' Guild in Gloucester, and two 
flags belonging to the Guild. Ditto 
A case of Roman Antiquities, Fibulae, Buckles, Coins, &c., found at 
Gloucester. Ditto 
A Roman Spear-head (bronze), found at Kingswood. Ditto 
A Roman Statera found at Kingsholm. Ditto 
Surgical Probes (bronze). Ditto 
Early English Dagger found at Highnam. Ditto 
Old Oak, carved, from the New Inn, Gloucester. Ditto 

Old Oak, carved in linenfold pattern, from King's Head, Gloucester, 

Ditto 

Carved Spandril, from the Ram Inn, Southgate Street. Ditto 
Carved Oak, from a house in Westgate Street. Ditto 
Stained Glass, from the old Bishop's Palace. Ditto 
GoM Coin of Antonia, found at the Chequer's Bridge. Ditto 
Sculptured Tablet in bas-relief found in Northgate Street, at a depth of 
8 feet, in excavations under or adjacent to the Shakespeare Inn. It repre- 
sents two figures standing, of which different explanations have been given. 
One is that they represent Mercury and Minerva ; the other, which is given 
by the Rev. !S. Lysons in his Romam in Gloucestev.-iMre, that the deities 
represented may be /Esculapius and Hygeia. Mr. John Ward. 

A piece of Stencilled Wall Plaster, discovered behind panelling at 
" Margrett's " house, Eastgate, pattern of Pomegranate — the Badge of 
Queen Mary. Mr. .J, Dkuimmoxd Robektsox. 

A frame of Engravings of Pennies, from the Gloucester Mint. ditto 



78 



Transactiox« FOii THE Yeak 1888-9. 



A case containing — 

Roman Plaster from walls, found at Eastgate House. 
Stone Tiles for a roof, found at Eastgate House. 
Three Tiles found at Eastgate House. 

Necks of Jars, found, showing the mode of "Corking," one specimen 
has a recess for holding wax seal for wine, found at Eastgate House. 

Roman Kitchen Ware, Mortaria, with quartz bedded in the clay to give 
a rough rasping surface, found at Eastgate House 

Black Samian Ware, a pot for egg boiling, found with eggshell and 
spoon at Eastgate House. 

Fine Samian Ware, Hot Water Dish, showing the manner in which the 
upper vessel fitted to the rim of lower, found at Eastgate House. 

Bone Pins, &c. , found at Eastgate House. 

Glass (the silvered effect is from decay), found at Eastgate House. 
Fine Metal Lustred Ware of the 2nd century, found at Eastgate House. 
Ware from the New Forest District, found at Eastgate House. 
Common (query Cranharn) Local Ware, found at Eastgate House. 
Funereal or Cinerary (for holding ashes of the dead) Urn, Kingsholm. 
Tesserse (Glass ?) found on the site of the Porch of the Friends' Meeting 
House. 

Ditto, from the site of the National Provincial Bank, Westgate Street. 

Lead Pipe, from ditto. Mr. John Bellow?. 

An Iron Branck, formerly in use for punishment of quarrelsome and 
brawling women, found in a vault under a house in Northgate Street, 
apparently part of an underground passage in the direction of the New Inn 
and the Cathedral. The part marked A was inserted in the mouth, one 
metal ring was placed round each side of the jaw to the back of the head. 
The nose came between the upright bars, and the conjoint bar went over the 
head, where, with the other ring, it was fastened by a padlock. The ring in 
front was for fastening a rope by M^hich the offender was led about. These 
instruments appear to have been in common use to the time of the Common- 
wealth. Mr. E. Granville Bakkr. 

Two Carved Heads — Oliver Cromwell and General Massey. 

Carved and lent hy Mr. Howitt. 

An old Sword used at the siege of Gloucester. ditto 

A Cast (plaster) Head of Bishop Hooper ditto 

Three Plaques — of silver enamelled — connected with the City of Glou- 
cester. No. 1. The Arms of of Sir Thomas Bell, Knight (benefactor to the 

city). No. 2. The Arms of the City of Gloucester. No. ,S. Arms of 

Mayor Impaling the Arms of Gloucester. His Honour Judge Powell. 

Seal of Milo Fitzwalter, created Constable of Gloucester by Henry I. 
about a.d. 1200 (original in Bodleian Library). Mr. G. P. Moore. 

Memorial Crown-piece of William III., 1696, found in Gloucester. 
Engraved about 100 years ago. ditto 

Seal of Blackfriars' Monastery, about a.d. 1280. Original Brass was in 
the possession of the late Canon Lysons, ditto 



TKMroKAKY Museum. 



79 



A case of Roman and other Remains found in building the wall of Quay, 
ISSS. ^ir. A. H. Lewis. 

Two Horse-shoes and three Keys found in Westgate Street at a depth 
several feet. Mr. C}iapman. 

Streamers of the Butcher's Cuild (one of the ancient Guilds of the city). 

Mr. R. P. Chandler. 

Portion of a Monumental Cross of Celtic origin, from the vicinity of S. 
Oswald's Priory. Mr. Eossom. 

A Setting or Composing Stick used by Robert Rallies himself at the 
"Jouruar' Otlice. Mr. T. P. Bennett. 

A model of Gloucester Cross, taken down 1750. The Tolsej' (with a 
cage) and the Butcher's Row are shown. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

A cast of an old Knocker on the door of S. Nicholas Church, date 
unknown. ditto 

A piece of Tesselated Pavement from Longsmith Street. ditto 

A case containing the following silver pennies from Gloucester Mint : — 
Electrotype of unique Penny of Alfred the Great, three Pennies of .^^thel- 
rivd — Harold I., two of Harthcnut, Henry I., Hemy III., exhibited b}' Mr. 
J. Prummond Robertson ; and two Pennies of .^thelrsed and one of 
Cnute, with a Roman Gold Coin (Gratianus), a.d, 367, exhibited by Mr. 

J. P. Wilton. 

OIL PAINTINGS. 

The reply of the Corporation of Gloucester to the demand of Charles I. 
that they should surrender the City to him, delivered by Toby Jordan 
(Mayor of Gloucester, 1060) and Sergeant-Major Pudsey. The principal 
figures are the King, the Prince of Wales (Charles II.), James, Duke of York 
James II.), and the Rev. W. Chillingworth, the Messengers from the City. 
The interview took place August 10th, 16-43, in Tredworth Fields. The 
picture was painted by Mr. Dowling, a native of Gloucester, and presented 
to the city (and hangs in the Tolse}^), by his Honour Judge Powell, M.P., 
for Gloucester, 1862-4. 

The Talbot Inn. Painted and Exhibited by Mrs. Oscar Clark. 

Old Houses in Hare Lane. ditto ditto 

Lower Barton Mill (Brown's Mill). ditto ditto 

S. Catherine's Knapp. ditto ditto 

The River Twyer (meadows now covered by Midland Railway Station). 

Painted and exhibited by Mr. E. Smith. 
Gloucester from the Severn. ditto ditto 

Gloucester Quay, 1843. ditto ditto 

Entrance to the Cathedral Cloisters, 1847. ditto ditto 

Sketch of Old House." in Palace Yard near the Little Cloisters. 

Mr. Walter Lifton. 

Gloucester Quay and the Round House. ditto 
Bull Lane. Exhibited by Mr. Vassar Smith. 

Old India House. Exhibited by Mr. C. H. Dancev. 

Gloucester Cross. Exhibited by Mr. J. P. Wilton. 



80 



Tkansactions for the Year 1888-9. 



S. Margaret's Church and Hospital. Exhibited by Mr. J. P. Wilton. 
James Wood's House (site of National Provincial Bank). Painted by 
Mr. E. Smith. ditto 
Houses in Eastgate Street (removed for the site of the Capital and 
Counties' Bank). Painted by Mr. E. Smith. ditto 
" Margrett's " House, Eastgate Street, recently taken down. ditto 
West Gate and Bridge. Painted by Mr. E. Smith. ditto 
Old Picture of the New Inn. Mr. Long. 

Burning of Bishop Hooper. Mr. Beale. 

WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS. 
BroMai's Mill. Painted and exhibited by Mrs. T. S. Ellis. 

S. Oswald's Priory. The church was destroyed by the besieger's artillery 
in the Civil War {Counsel). ditto 
S. Mary Magdalen Church. ditto 
Refectory at Lanthony Abbey. ditto 
Gloucester from Kingsholm (Mrs. Kemp). Exhibited by ditto 

Interior of S. Mary-de-Crypt. Painted and exhibited by Miss E. H. 

Jones. 

Palace Yard with Parliament Chamber. Painted and exhibited by 

Miss M. BuRRUP. 

College Street ditto ditto 

College Court. ditto ditto 

Interior of S. Mary-de-Lode Church. Painted by the Rev. 0. Haweis. 

ditto 

Lanthony Abbey (ruins of). Painted by Mrs. Carzon. Exhibited by Mr. 

W. P. Price. 

S. Oswald's Priory. ditto ditto 

S. Mary Magdalen Church. ditto ditto 

An Antient Conduit (Scrivens'), which formerly stood in Southgate 

Street, now in Edgeworth Park. ditto ditto 

The South Gate. ditto ditto 

Old and New Over Bridges. Painted by Mr. E. Smith. ditto 
West Gate and Old Westgate Bridge (built by Nicholas Waldred Clerk, 

in reign of Henry II). ditto ditto 

Mary-le-Bone Park, stood at or about the site of the present Gaol. 

Exhibited by Mr. A. W. Webb. 
Old House formerly standing in Northgate Street, opposite S. John's 

Church. Painted by Mr. Kemp. Mr. J. Clutterbuck, 

S. Nicholas Church and Westgate Street. ditto ditto 

The Old Ram Inn, Northgate Street. Exhibited by Mr. J. H. Billett. 
S. Margaret's Church. ditto 
Lanthony. ditto 
Tanner's Hall, Hare Lane, present state. Painted Mr. E. Smith. Exhd. 

by Mr. P. Wilton. 

Brown's Mill. ditto ditto 



Temporary Museum. 



81 



S. Mary-de-Crypt Church. Painted by Mrs. Curzon. Mr. J. P. Wilton. 
Arcliway, Lanthony Abbey. ditto ditto 

The King's Board. " Formerly assigned for the selling of butter and 
cheese ; was built and repaired by King Richard II., but it is no^^ (1799) 
taken down" {Rudder). Removed in 1750. It stood in the Westgate 
Street below the Church of the Holy Trinity It is now erected in the 
grounds of Mr. \Y. P. Price, at Tibberton. ditto ditto 

The New Inn (from an old engraving). Painted by Mrs. Curzon. 

Exhibited by Mr. J. P. Wilton. 
White Ladies' Well, Hempstead ditto ditto 

Entrance to the Cloisters. ditto ditto 

Westgate Bridge ditto ditto 

Archway in S. Mary's Square. ditto ditto 

Another view of same. ditto ditto 

Blackfriars in Gloucester, 1721 and 1886. ditto ditto 

ENGRAVINGS & DRAWINGS. 
Full-sized Painted Photograph of the "Gloucester Candlestick." This 
elaborate work of art is made of a white alloyed metal, probably containing 
a good proportion of silver. It bears several Latin inscriptions, one of 
which records that it was given by Abbot Peter to the Abbey Church of S. 
Peter, in Gloucester, about the year 1110, now in the possession of, and lent 
by, the Authorities of the Science and Art Department, South Kensington. 
North-west Prospect of Gloucester (Buck). Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

West Prospect of Gloucester (Kyp). ditto 
Gloucester City (Kyp). ditto 
Gloucester Cross ditto 
Etching of S. Mary Magdalen Church. Mr. C. H. Dancey. 

James Wood s House ditto 
Blackfriars ditto 
Entry of Bromley Chester. ditto 
Drawing of a Key found at the Bishop's Palace. Rev. W. Bazeley. 
The West Gate, engraved by Walker, and a small etching of the West 
Gate, and pen and ink sketch of the same by S. Lysons. W. H. Bruton. 
Perspective View of the City of Gloucester, 1750, North-west View and 
Sketch of Lanthony Priories, by Lysons. ditto 
Grey Friars, Gloucester, a drawing in Indian ink, and a published 
etching of the same. Castle of Gloucester in Indian ink, by S. Lysons, and an 
engraving of the Castle, by Luker. Mr. W. H. BrutOxN. 

Blackfriars, drawing by S. Lysons, ditto engraved by Kirkall, and 
North-west View of the Priories of Lanthony and Gloucester (Buck), ditto 
Autographs of Historians of Gloucester, viz. : Sir Robert Atkyns, T. D. 
Fosbroke, Ralph Bigland, and Samuel Lysons. ditto 
North-west View of Priories of Gloucester (Buck), Blackfriars, a sketch 
and engraving by Kirkall. Henry VIII. granting the See of Gloucester to 
Abbot Wakeman, 1551, copy of an Illumination in the Archives of the Cor- 
poration of Gloucester. ditto. 
Vol. XIII. G 



82 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

Hempstead Church and two Engravings of the Ladies' Well. 

Mr. W. H. Bruton. 

A South-west Prospect of the City of Gloucester, taken on Lanthony 
Causey, by T. Lewis. ditto 

Entry of Bromley Chester into Gloucester (differs materially from the 
Engraving). ditto 
Scrivens' Conduit and the King's Board, Photograph. Mr. Medland. 
S. Mary Magdalen and Gateway. ditto ditto 

Seal of Isabel, Countess of Gloucester. Mr, John Mills. 

New Inn, Gloucester (proof of engraving by Bartlett). ditto 

Nine Plates of Roman Antiquities found in Gloucester (from Lysons' 
Britannia Magna). Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

Doorway of S. Mary Magdalen (in Sepia, by Mr. Monk). ditto 
Glevum (Stukeley). dittj 

Two Maps of Gloucester, Kyp, and from Hermandoe's Britannia Magna, 
published at Amsterdam, 1661. ditto 

Three Views — North-west View of the City of Gloucester, Westgate 
Street, and Hillfield. ditto 

Three Views of Gloucester Cross — Bond and Martin — one not known. 

Mr. J. P. Wilton. 

The White (Grey ?) Fryers in Gloucester, August, 1721 — Stukeley and 
Kerkall. ditto 

The White (?) Fryers and Church of S. Mary de Crypt (Lysons). ditto 

ditto 

Sir Thomas Bell's Hospital — Kimbrose (pen and ink drawing by the late 
Mr. John Jones). ditto 

Tracings and drawings of Figure dug up in the vicinity of Grey Friars, 
1862, of Armorial Bearings from Mr. Nest's (Partridge & Robins) house in 
Westgate Street, No. 154, and of the figures ^sculapius and Hygeia 
(exhibited in this collection) by Mr. John Jones. ditto 

No. 154, Westgate Street — Sketch of front facing passage (5 feet wide), 
originally known as the Mavordim Lane {Mr. F. W. Waller, 1877. ditto 

Sketches (engraved) of the remains of Ancient Gates — Westgate Street, 
S. Mary's Square, King Edward I.'s Gate in Palace Yard, in College Court 
{Mr. F. W. }Valler) Lanthony Friory {Bobfrts). ditto 

S. Nicholas Church and a ring on the door of the same {Carter, 1795). 

Glevum, or Roman Gloucester, and general appearance of the western 
wall during the early part of the second century. The buildings on the 
right of the Gate are Barracks, that on the left is a Temple. — From Mr. 
Bellows' Work on Roman Gloucester. ditto 

Bishop Hooper's monument. ditto 



Temporary Museum. 



S3 



CHARTERS, &c., FROM THE ARCHIVES OF THE CORPORATION 
OF GLOUCESTER. 

In a Long Glass Case. 

Charter of King John to the Burgesses of Gloucester, April 26th, 1200. 

Charter of Henry III. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. The First Charter 
of Liberties, April 6th, 1227. 

Charter of Henry III. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Second Charter 
of Liberties, August 10th, 1256. 

Charter of Edward III. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Grant of a Fair, 
Oct. 24th, 1302. 

Charter of Edward II. to the Prior of S. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
Licence to receive land in Mortmain, April 6th, 1314. 

Queen Margaret, widow of Edward I. to Prior of S. Bartholomew's. 
Confirmation of Edward the II. 's Licence to receive lands in Mortmain, 
April 6th, 1314. 

King Edward III. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
Dec. 20th, 1328. 

King Edward III. to the Bailiffs and Community of Gloucester. Pardon 
for acquiring a certain rent without licence {Great Seal 53, 54), April 1st, 
1347. 

King Edward III. Proclamation regarding the subsidy of a ninth 
{Great Seal 57, 58), April 16th, 1340. 

King Edward III. to William of Bobun, Earl of Northampton. Licence 
to assign the advowson of the Church of Newnham, to the Prior and Brethren 
of S. Bartholomew's Hospital, July 25th, 1343 {Seal of Absence 59, 60, used 
by the King, three months after his return). 

King Richard II. to the Burgessess of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
March 27, 1378. 

King Richard II. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Second Charter of 
Liberties, March 21st, 1398. 

King Richard II. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
Dec. 4th, 1399. 

King Henry V. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
Feb, 5th, 1415. 

In a Square Glass Case. 

King Henry VI. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
Oct. 26th, 1423. 

King Henry VI. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Licence to erect two 
Watermills under the Severn Bridge, July 10th, 1447. 

King Edward IV. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
May 5th, 1462. 

King Edward IV. Recited Act for the Paving of the Streets of Glou- 
cester, April 6th, 1473. 

G 2 



84 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



King Henry VII. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties, 
November 29th, 1489. 

King Henry VIII. to the Burgesses of Gloucester. Charter of Liberties. 

Two Frames of early 13th century Deeds and Seals and the Ordinances 
for the Brethren and Sisters of the Hospital of S. Margaret, written in 
Anglo-French, about 1225. 

Other Documents. 

Approval of the Kules of the Fraternity of Tanners by the Judges on 
Circuit. 34th Henry IIL (1250). Rev. W. Bazeley. 

Approval of the Rules of the Fraternity of Butchers by Queen Elizabeth, 
1572. ditto 

An Ancient Descriptive Rental of the Borough of Gloucester, dated 
1455, shewing every house in every street, the name of the owner with the 
substance of his title, the name of the occupier, the value of the premisses, 
and the amount of the *' Land-gable " due thereon. Corporation 

OF Gloucester. 



PLATE BELONGING TO, AND EXHIBITED BY, THE CORPORATION 
OF GLOUCESTER. 

Pair of Maces. "William Singleton, Esquire, Maior of the City of 
Gloucester, 1652." 

A similar pair. "Gloucester. Toby Jordan, Esquire, Maior, Anno 
Regni Regis. Car. ii-xii.. Anno Dom. 1660. 

Great Somers Salvers. (Francis Singleton), 1699. 

Pair of Quart Tankards. Gift of Keylocke, 1713. 

Pair of small Salvers, with shaped edges. 1743. 

Two-handled vase-shaped Cup. Gift of Charles Barrow, 1767. 

Large Punch Bowl, with handles, 1768. 

Punch Ladle, by George Smith. Date about 1785. 



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86 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



INAUGURAL ADDRESS 
By R. V. VASSAR-SMITH, President. 

Delivered at Gloucester, July 16th, 1888. 
Ladies and Gentlemen, 

The first meeting of this Society was held in this city 12 years 
ago, under the presidency of the late Sir William Guise, by whose 
death we have suffered an almost irreparable loss. That meeting 
was most successful, and Sir William Guise, in replying at the 
end of it to a vote of thanks accorded to him, spoke of the great 
pleasure he had received, and that he would liked to have stayed 
longer. Those members who were then present, and also those 
who have joined the Society since, I hope will be so far satisfied 
with the programme that has been prepared for them, that 
they will leave Gloucester with similar pleasant recollections, and 
feel that their time has not been wasted in paying a second visit 
to this ancient city, whose records I propose to make the subject 
of my address to-day. As a paper upon the archives of the 
Gloucester Corporation was read at the first meeting by the late 
Mr. K. H. Fryer, then Town Clerk, it may create some surprise 
that I should have chosen the same subject as the staple of my 
presidential address, but since Mr. Fryer's paper was written con- 
siderable progress has been made with the work of rendering more 
generally available the matter stored in our old Corporation records, 
the Corporation having engaged a reporter of the Historical MSS. 
Commission to arrange and calendar their archives. This impor- 
tant work is now all but completed, and I have therefore decided 
to deal with some of the results of the close inspection to which 
the records have been submitted, with the view of drawing the 
attention of Gloucestershire antiquaries to the store of information 
embodied in these archives. My predecessor, Mr. Fryer, has 
dealt in his paper with the Royal Charters of Liberties. I need not, 
therefore, detain you by reciting the privileges contained in these 
Royal Charters, but I would wish to call attention to the splendid 



Inaugural Address. 



87 



series of great seals which the Royal deeds have attached to them. 
The importance of the Gloucester collection can at once be seen 
by an inspection of Mr. Wyon's recently published work on the 
Great Seals of England. During the course of the calenaaring a 
score or more of impressions which were not examined by Mr. 
Wyon have been brought to light. Next in importance to the 
Royal Charters should come the Rolls of the Borough Court, but 
these have unfortunately not been preserved. Of their existence 
there can be no doubt, for several of the deeds have endorsements 
upon them testifying that they were enrolled in the rolls in the 
time of so-and-so, bailift' of Gloucester, and there is an extract 
from them giving copies of two deeds enrolled therein. It is very 
unfortunate that these important records should have so entirely 
disappeared, for similar rolls in other ancient boroughs give most 
interesting glimpses of life in mediseval times. Another regrettable 
loss is that of the early accounts of the chamberlain or stewards 
of the town, and we have also to deplore the loss of the whole of 
the records of the court leet. These are classes of records from 
which matters of popular interest might have been derived, and 
the fact that these records have not been preserved, has, I am 
afraid, rob])ed my paper of any interest it might have possessed 
for those who are not professed antiquaries. But if the Gloucester 
collection is weak in these departments, it is exceptionally strong 
in a branch that is more useful to local historians than merely 
curious cases in the borough courts would be. We have a truly 
grand collection of very early deeds. The importance of this 
collection may be readily brought out by a contrast with those 
preserved in other ancient borough records. The Nottingham 
Corporation possess only 13 deeds older than the year 1300, at 
Leicester there is one small packet of deeds of this period, at 
Southampton 14 deeds, and the King's Lynn Corporation possess 
12. But at Gloucester we have no less than 571 deeds of this 
time, and of that number 81 belong to the first quarter of the 
13th century, some are even earlier, 159 to the second quarter, 
and 232 to the third quarter. These early deeds relate to lands 
at Apperley, Badge worth. Barn wood, Brimpsfield, Cleeve, Cowley, 
Elmbridge, Elmore, Hardwicke, Hasfield, Hatherley, Hucclecote, 



88 



Transactions for the Year ] 888-9. 



Longford, Minsterworth, Newnham, Swindon, Uley, Witcombe, 
Woodmancote and Wootton. Incidentally they throw great light 
upon local and personal names, and they contain scores of field 
names. A large proportion of them relate to Gloucester, and they 
preserve the early forms of the street-names, &c., in the town. 
Of the value of these deeds to genealogists I need not here speak, 
for they will readily perceive the importance of this collection. 
It is to be regretted that they have remained for so long a time 
unused, and practically unavailable for want of arrangement. 
This obstacle to their use has now been removed, and it only 
remains to print the voluminous calendar of these records to 
render their contents available for local historians, genealogists 
and philologists. One of these deeds dating from about 1270, 
contains a very irregular way of making a good assurance of title. 
In it Agnes Cooperich sets out that she has granted to Thomas of 
Norfolk an annual rent of four shillings arising from land next 
the door of the Bothall, as contained in her charter, and by the 
present deed she witnesses that she had voluntarily taken an oath, 
submitting herself to the jurisdiction and correction of the Bishop 
of Worcester or the Archdeacon of Gloucester, so that either of 
them can, if they be required so to do, suspend or excommunicate 
her, or cause her to be beaten through the middle of Gloucester 
market, or inflict any other punishment upon her, without process 
of judgment, if she should do anything to challenge the title of 
the said Thomas to the rent. There are also some 500 or 600 
later deeds. These, although not so valuable as the older ones, 
nevertheless contain much interesting matter. From one of them 
dated August 5th, 1347, we learn that the Prior of the Hospital 
of St. Bartholomew's, the Hector of the Church of St. Nicholas, 
granted permission to the parishioners to build upon a piece of land 
between the wide door and wall of the church on the north, and 
the King's highway on the south, extending in length from the 
stone wall at the chapel of St. Mary in the same church on the 
east, to the stonework of the belfry of the said church in the west, 
on condition that all rent or profit arising from the said buildiaig 
should be applied to the repair of the church. This building would 
appear to be the south aisle of the church, which is such a singular 



Inaugural Address. 



89 



feature in the structure ; but another deed dated 1347 is a grant 
from the Prior of St. Bartholomew to the White Friars at Glou- 
cester of an aqueduct from the spring called " Goswhitt well, to 
be brought by means of a lead pipe under the land of the Hide 
(now part of Wootton). It is rather interesting to read of lead 
pipes at so early a date, but this is not the only case in Glouces 
ter records, for there was at this time a lead pipe bringing water 
from Robin Hood's Hill to the Abbey of St. Peter and to the 
Grey Friars. But I will not dwell further upon this subject, 
as it will form part of Mr. Sylvester Davies's paper on the 
Grey Friars. From the lengthy will of Eichard Manchester, a 
Gloucester burgess, dated in 1454. we learn that he was a collec- 
tor, and no doubt a reader, of books at a time when books were 
exceedingly scarce and dear. He bequeaths a book, that formerly 
belonged to John Trewpenny, to the Friars Minor for their 
common use, and to William Eckington a book in Latin, on 
arithmetic, and, more interesting still, he leaves his Latin book 
called the "Marrow of Grammar" {Medulla Grammaticce) to 
remain in a chest in the church of St. Mary in the South, under 
the care of the chaplains and wardens of the chantry of St. Mary 
there ; and another book of the miracles of St. Jerome, described 
as being bound by iron chains to the stall in which he used to 
sit in the same church, to be kept there under the care of the 
wardens of the church, for the increase of virtue of those perusing 
the same book. This looks like the foreshadowing of a free 
library. He leaves his next best book to one Richard Spilsbury, 
junior, and directs that his executors are to dispose of his other 
books by way of alms to such persons as shall seem most w^orthy. 
This will makes Richard Manchester an interesting figure in our 
ancient history. Before leaving these deeds I should mention 
that we are indebted to them for the preservation of the names of 
the bailifis of the borouo^h for more than two centuries. Thanks 
to the great number of 13th century deeds, we possess the name 
of almost every bailift' of that period. Most boroughs are fortunate 
if they can obtain the names of five or six of the officers of that 
time. An interesting and curious member of the collection is a 
book of ordinances, itc, beginning in 1487. It is still enclosed in 



90 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

the original binding, but the oak boards forming the sides are 
much worm-eaten. The contents of this book are most diverse. 
There is an interesting account of the reception and entertaiment 
of King Henry YIII. and Queen Anne Boleyn, who arrived here 
from Tewkesbury on Saturday, July 31st, 1535. They were met 
by the mayor, alderman and sheriffs, in scarlet gowns, and a hun- 
dred other burgesses, all on horseback, at the boundary of the 
liberties, beyond Brickhampton, the mayor riding up to the King 
saying : " Thanks be to God of your Grace's health and prosperity, 
which God long continue." After which the mayor kissed the 
town mace that he held in his hand, and delivered it with a bow 
to the King, intimating in a brief speech that he hereby surren- 
dered the franchises of the borough to his Majesty, that all the 
burgesses were loyal to their King and ready to do his commands. 
The King received the mace, but immediately delivered it back to 
the mayor, thereby confirming the liberties of the borough. At the 
White Friars, without the North Gate, the procession was met by 
the clergy of the town, in full vestments, with the Lord Suffragan * 
in his mitre. The Royal party were then escorted to the abbey, 
where they were received by the Abbot and his brethren, the King 
and Queen going up at once to the High Altar, preceded by the 
mayor bearing one of the town maces. Their Majesties lodged at 
the abbey. No account is given of the proceedings on the Sunday, 
but on Monday, about ten in the morning, they went hunting 
towards Pains wick, the mayor and his brethren presenting them 
before they started with ten fat oxen of the value of £20, " for the 
which his Grace gave unto them loving thanks." On their return 
they were met by fifteen torch bearers, who escorted them to the 
abbey, for which attention the Queen gave them "four angelet 
nobles." On the Tuesday morning, the mayor and his brethren 
presented the Queen, who was riding towards Cubberly, with a 
purse of gold containing twenty gold royals. The same day was 
spent by the King in hunting at Miserden. The account then 
records their departure on the Saturday, being escorted as far as 

1 This was Andrew Whitmay, Bishop of Chrysopolis, Suffragan of 
Worcester, 1526-1535. He is called Prior of St. Bartholomew's Hospital of 
Gloucester in deeds dated 1517 and 1534 in the Corporation Archives. 



Inaugural Address. 



91 



Quedgeley by the mayor and his brethren, and a number of the 
burgesses. The book also contains an account of the reception of 
Princess ^lary, tlie daus^hter of Henry VIII. and Kathirine of 
Aragon, who visited Gloucester on September 12th, 1525. She 
is described as the " Princess of England," and was at that time 
the only legitimate child of Henry VIII. She was then in her 
tenth year. We read that the mayor, aldermen, and sheriffs, in 
scarlet, and hundred burgesses rode to Quedgeley Green, and there 
awaited the Princess's arrival, "and then made their obeisance on 
horseback, showing one of the maces of the town." The mayor's 
brethren then set forth for the town, riding two and two, the 
sergeants at mace leading the way, knights, esquires, and gen- 
tlemen in the middle, and the ma or immediately in front of 
the Princess, Her Grace riding with the Serjeant at Arms bare- 
headed, and one of the Serjeant's maces in his hand." Next 
followed the ladies and gentlewomen of the Princess's train, on 
horseback, and then her servants in a livery, the rear of the pro- 
cession being brought up by other burgesses riding two and two. 
At the town end, the clergy with copes, crosses, carpets, and 
cushions, awaited their Highnesses, who "lovingly then kissed 
the cross on horseback." Then the procession proceeded through 
the town to the abbey gates, where the abbot and his brethren 
awaited them in the abbey porch. Here Mary alighted from her 
horse and kissed the cross, then proceeded to the high altar, where 
she offered a piece of gold. The mayor and his brethren, in scarlet 
robes, preceded her to the altar, and also to her lodgings. In 
accordance with the custom of the time the mayor and his brethren 
presented to her " two fat oxen of the best that might be gotten " 
and ten fat wethers. The contents of this valuable book also 
comprise regulations made by the Town Council for trades, 
markets, &c., and various other orders relating to town business. 
There is also a list of the deaths, resignations, or deprivation of the 
aldermen from 1505 to 1647, which is of value as giving the dates 
of death of the aldermen. There are also lists of the soldiers 
raised in the city at different times, and copies of the letters and 
commissions connected with these levies. The accounts of armins: 
and dispatching these levies are also sometimes given. These 



92 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



lists preserve the names of twenty-five men of Gloucester who 
formed part of the English expedition to the south of France in 
1512, an expedition that ended in complete failure and a mutiny 
of the troops. There are also the names of the forty men called 
out for Mary's French war in the autumn of 1557 ; the men 
raised for the relief of Calais, who left Gloucester for Cirencester 
on February 8th, 1558, and who went as far as the Isle of Wight 
at the city's expense. The contingent consisted of ten archers 
and ten pikemen, and they were accompanied by twenty-five men 
from the county of the city. In 1558 there is a list of twenty -five 
archers, thirty pikemen, and sixty-five billmen in Gloucester who 
are returned as fit to serve in war. Then we have the names of 
the tw^enty-five men from Gloucester who assisted Queen Mary 
against the Duke of Northumberland, who was maintaining the 
right of Lady Jane Grey to the Crown. Finally, there are twenty- 
four names of the Gloucester soldiers "that went to Ampthill 
when the insurrection was out in the North Country," i.e. they 
were embodied to resist the Pilgrimage of Grace. There is another 
book, commencing in 1622, that gives copies of all letters received 
connected with the mustering of the trained bands, the impressing 
of the trained bands, the impressing of soldiers, &c., with lists of 
the men. It has also a copy of the Proclamation of Charles I. as 
King. There are copies of commissions, &c., relating to the levy- 
ing of a company of volunteers to form part of the Marquis of 
Hamilton's force of volunteers for the assistance of Gustavus 
Adolphus of Sweden. This was in 1631. In Gloucester sixteen 
volunteers were found, and the names of the men are preserved. 
Another book of the same description contains a correspondence 
relative to the musters in the city on the eve of the civil wars. 
On March 15th, 1640, the Marquis of Northampton was com- 
missioned to raise 1500 men in Gloucestershire and 500 men in 
Warwickshire. There is a copy of the instructions sent out with 
this commission. In raising the men he was to take care that 
there was a good choice made of the men out of the trained bands. 
For drilling these levies the arms of the trained bands w^ere to be 
borrowed, but they were to be restored when the men marched 



IxAuorRAL Address. 



93 



away from the county. The men were to join the Earl of Nor- 
thumberland at Newcastle on May 10th. Their pay was to be 
Sd. a day, wliich was to be paid by the county until they joined 
the King's army. On the 26th March the Privy Cjuncil com- 
manded Lord Northampton to provide sixty strong horses and 
twenty carters from Warwickshire and fifty horses and seventeen 
carters from Gloucestershire, for the artillery train, to be at 
Newcastle by June 15th. On June 16th, the mayor wrote to 
Lord Northampton, that he and his brethren had enlisted 150 
men and had caused them to be drilled, and explaining that they 
could not despatch the men to the general rendezvous because they 
had been unable to raise the necessary funds. The names of 
persons who neglected or refused to pay their assessment were 
enclosed with this letter. The mayor complained of the number 
of men that the city and the county of the city had to provide, and 
requested that the number might be reduced to 100, but his request 
was unavailing. A list of 130 men who were provided by the city 
is given. These levies had only just been dispatched when orders 
came to hold the trained band in readiness to march at short 
notice to repel the Scotch army. On August 27th, the notice was 
limited to twenty-four hours. Instructions were also given to 
have in readiness a sufficient body of pioneers, carts and horses, 
spades, shovels, pickaxes, &c., "and all other tools necessary for 
the making of works for defence in those perilous -times," and to 
have the county powder magazine well stored with powder, shot 
and match, and the beacons were to be made ready and watched. 
After this there is a leap to 1643, when there is a copy of a letter 
from Thomas Pury and others, dated Nov. 30th, 1643, addressed to 
the mayor and aldermen of Gloucester, relating to the provision 
of money for the garrison of Gloucester. The next levy is that 
of twenty soldiers to form part of 500 men to be sent to Major 
General Skippon at Bristol, for garrisoning Bristol and Bath. 
This order came from the committee of both kingdoms, and is 
dated February 16th, 1645-6. Next we have the names of the 
horsemen raised by the city in 1651 to form part of the standing 
array of 4000 cavalry authorised by parliament. In this year also 
thirty men were impresed in the city to recruit the army in 



94 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Ireland ; one of whom, named William Hooke, "fled away from 
his quarters. Then there is a letter from the mayor and his 
brethren to the Speaker of the House, informing him that they 
have repaired the fortifications of the town, and raised in two 
days nearly seven hundred soldiers for the defence of the town 
against Prince Charles and his army. Cromwell's victory at 
Worcester shortly afterwards relieved the city of the fear of 
another seige. There are also many other interesting letters and 
memoranda connected with these disturbed days, but the time at 
my disposal will not allow me to dwell upon them. The book 
contains a curious account of the ceremony of proclaiming Crom- 
well Lord Protector, upon his Parliamentary appointment, in 
Gloucester. A scaffold was erected at the north end of the 
Market House, near the High Cross, about 4 feet high, draped 
with red cloth, upon which the mayor, aldermen and council 
stood. The procession met at the Cathedral at noon on July 11th, 
1657, and went to the scaffold accompanied by the wardens of the 
trading companies, the constables a dozen halberdiers, and the 
waits. After the proclamation, the mayor and his company pro- 
ceeded to the Tolsey, when cakes and wine were provided, the 
trumpeters meanwhile playing upon the leads of the Tolsey and 
the Cross, running claret wine at two cocks. At night bonfires 
were lit throughout the city and bells rang. Shortly after this 
date, on December 2nd, 1657, Cromwell wrote to the common 
council at Gloucester, that he had information that the cavaliers 
were planning a surprise at Gloucester, and he accordingly 
authorised the Council to raise the militia, and promised to send 
down a troop of horse. The Council replied on the 9th, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of this letter, and stated that they had ap- 
pointed four captains for the above purpose, and pointed out that 
they had only 150 muskets and no pikes, because their arms had 
been seized and sent to Chepstow Castle. This refers to the time of 
the dismantling of the garrison. In the following March, Crom- 
well wrote to say that he had information of an intended Royalist 
invasion, the Royalists having twenty-two ships of war ready at 
Ostende. Hereupon the militia were again embodied at Glouces- 
ter. On March 15th, 1657-8, the Mayor and Council write to 



Inaugural Address. 



95 



say that in addition to the four companies of militia, there are 
many citizens who are willing to provide and bear their own arms 
for the defence of the city, and they request that Alderman Kobert 
Tyther may be commissioned as the captain of these volunteers. 
We have next the letter of Henry Lawrence, President of the 
Council announcing the death of Oliver Cromwell, followed by a 
copy of the proclamation of his son Richard, as Protector, issued 
by the Mayor and magistrates of the city. This brings the war- 
like records of these troubled days to an end. At a council held 
March 26tli, 1658, the stewards were authorised to lay out £5 in 
the purchase of chains for the books in the library in the college, 
and twelve volumes of Aldrovandi, then in the library, were 
purchased for £25 from Thomas Pury. This probably refers to 
the Encyclopaedia of Natural History written by Aldrovandi. 
The remainder of the records are chiefly minutes of the proceedings 
of the Corporation, which, perhaps, do not come within the scope 
of this Society, but they will be fully set out in the report of the 
Historical MSS. Commission. 



96 



Transactions at Stratjford-upon-Avon. 



ON THE STRUCTUKE OF ROMAN HOUSES & THEIR 
ORNAMENTATION WITH TESSELATED PAVEMENTS 
AND OTHER DECORATIONS. 

By The Rev. Prebendary SCARTH, M.A. 

Read at Gloucester, 17th July, 1888. 

No county in England is richer in Roman remains than Glouces- 
tershire, and none have yielded a better harvest to the efforts of 
the investigation of those remains in past and in present times. 

Not to mention Gloucester, with its traces of Roman occupation, 
its walls, pavements, and other indications of former importance, 
and the fact of its having been a Roman colony, with the many 
remains of villas that surround it, — and Cirencester with its well- 
defined walls, and beautiful pavements, and the many inscribed 
stones, as well as articles of Roman use which are deposited in 
the museum at Cirencester — there are dispersed along the course 
of the ancient roads, the remains of villas of more than passing 
interest, — large in extent, and yielding specimens of the most 
finished art in mosaic work. 

It will not, therefore, be out of place at a meeting like the 
present, to venture some remarks upon the conditions of life, and 
the character of the times, to which these remains carry us back. 

Much attention has been paid in recent times to the study of 
the remains found on the sites of Roman villas, but much more 
yet remains to be known, and the structure and the ornamentation 
of them has hitherto rested too much upon mere conjecture. It 
will be my purpose, therefore, in the few remarks T have to make, 
to endeavour to throw some light upon these points. Altars and 
inscribed stones have been carefully recorded, and historical 
information has been drawn from their examination. I will not, 
therefore, touch upon these further than they may serve to illus- 
trate the object I have in view. 



The Structure of Roman Houses. 



97 



It has been observed by a leading authority on Roman 
antiquities, and one well entitled to speak on such a subject, — 
" that it cannot be denied that the study of antiquity moulds and 
enlightens the human intellect in a manner which sometimes 
guards it from making serious and deadly blunders. 

When we o.nce see that the circumstances under which English- 
men are now led to carry out great works both in literature and 
in arts resemble those which developed and modified Roman 
energy, then we cannot help feeling a great interest and value in 
the study of this branch of Roman history." 

The importance of Britain as a province of the Roman empire 
has been well, though only imperfectly, dwelt upon by Professor 
Mommsen in his late work on the " Provinces of the Roman 
Empire." He observes that " the internal condition of Britain, 
must, in spite of the general faults of the imperial government, have 
been, when compared with other regions, not unfavourable. If the 
people in the north knew only hunting and pasturing, and the 
inhabitants there were always ready for feud and rapine, the 
south developed itself in an undisturbed state of peace ^ especially 
by means of agriculture, cattle rearing, and working of mines. 

.... The network of roads was uncommonly developed, . . . 
the British troops were reckoned alongside of the Illyrian as the 
flower of the Roman army at the very beginning. Seven cohorts 
were raised from the natives, and were constantly increased on- 
ward to the time of Hadrian. There was an earnest and brave 
spirit in the people." 

This statement, drawn from historical records, is certainly 
confirmed by the remains of Roman occupation in the south and 
west of Britain, where we have not only the fortified camp, but 
the remains of villas, and the traces of agriculture, and the re- 
clamation of land, and the vestiges of extensive mining, as well as 
the introduction of plants and gardening. 

The villa of the Roman ofiicer, or ofiicial, was a wonderful 
advance upon the hut of the native, and, from recent discoveries 
in Wilts and Dorset, made by General Pitt Rivers, we have 
reason to think that the natives soon imitated the example of 
their conquerors. 



Vol. XIII. H 



98 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Before entering upon any description o£ the form and adorn- 
ment of the Roman villa in Britain, it may be well to say some- 
thing about the original Roman house and its arrangement. 
Those who would study the subject more fully, may be directed 
to Castle's Villas of the Ancients, and to Dr. Daubeney's Lectures 
on Eoman Agriculture. 

Mr. Burn in his recent vol. on The Relation of Roman Liter- 
ature to Roman Art, remarks that " in domestic Architecture as 
as well as in civil, the E-omans borrowed the most ornamental 
and luxurious parts of their houses from the Greeks " — their 
peristylia, their triclinia, oeci, exedrse disetse, sphseristeria, pina- 
cothecse, and bibliothecse, are all of Greek derivation, as their 
names shew, but all these belong to the unessential and extraneous 
appartments attached for the sake of recreation to the normal 
Roman house. 

" In the primitive times of Rome the houses of the citizens 
consisted of one principal central room, the atrium, round which 
the other parts were grouped. In the atrium all domestic 
transactions took place ; the family hearth, and the image of the 
Penates were there, meals were taken there, the mistress and her 
slaves worked there, the kitchen was there, the waxen masks of 
ancestors, the marriage bed, and the money-chest of the Pater- 
familias stood there, visitors were received, and it was in all 
respects the common room of the house. The name atrium is 
probably Etruscan/ and the primitive Atria were such as Vitruvius 
describes under the name CavcEdiu Tuscanicum, a large room, 
with a roof supported on four beams, two placed across from wall 
to wall, and two others at right angles to them, so as to leave a 
square opening in the centre, towards which the roof sloped down 
on all four sides from the walls. The opening in the centre was 
possibly in the earliest times only as a vent for the smoke, but as 
the Atrium became enlarged, it took the form of the impluvium. 

In the course of time, most of the domestic acts originally 
performed in the common hall were transferred to separate rooms, 
and the Atrium came to be used only for the reception of guests, 
for the symbolical marriage bed, for the images of ancestors, and 
for the lying in state of the dead. 

1 See Varro, L. L. V., 161. 



The Structure of Roman Houses. 



99 



The extention of the Atrium naturally caused the introduction 
of columns to support the roof, which had been unnecessary in 
the old fashioned Atria. ^ 

The enlargement of the dwelling house at Rome is contem- 
poraneous with the enlargement of the empire. Horace asks : ^ 
Cur invidendis postibus et novo 
Sublime ritu moliar Atrium ? 
Cur valle permutem Sabina 
Divitias operosiores ? 

In after times the Atrium was left as the reception room for 
clients and visitors, while another and larger court was built 
beyond it for the use of the family ; this was called the Cavoedium. 
The space between the Atrium and the Cavaedium was filled up 
by a central square room called the Tablinum, where family 
records and documents were kept, and on each side of it were 
passages, — fauces, — which formed the communication between the 
Atrium and Cavaedinm. 

The Cavaedium was only a repetition of the Atrium on a 
larger scale. These two were the central points to which the 
other parts of the house converged, and into them the ciobicula, 
or sleeping chambers, and the culina^ or kitchen, opened, and 
received light and air through the doorways. The room devoted 
to the Penates, or household gods, after their removal from the 
Atrium, was called the Sarcarittm, and was usually on the left of 
the Atrium. 

This was the typical or national Roman house, but in after 
times the form was varied, and it would be tedious to point out 
the successive changes. 

The beautiful Roman villa uncovered at Woodchester, and so 
well described and delineated by Lysons, fulfils the conditions of 
the Roman house just described, and those at Lydney and at 
Chedworth and other places in a greater or less degree. The walls 
remaining only to a certain height, and often destroyed to the 
foundation, leave only a very imperfect idea of the wall-painting 
and ornamentation of the rooms, portions of the plastering still 
remain to show that they were painted after the manner of the 

^ See Rom. Lit. and Art, by the Rev. Robt. Burn, M.A., LL.D., 1888. 
2 c. lii., I., 45. 

H 2 



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houses in Pompeii. We are therefore obliged to infer from the 
graceful ornamental pavements which remain, what must have 
been the style of wall-decoration of the chambers. The question 
is often asked if the houses in Britain had an upper story 1 

It is well known that the houses built in Rome had several 
stories, and that it was necessary to limit this height by law. The 
height to which they were carried is satyrised by Juvenal : ^ 

Tablata tibi jam tertia fumant, Tu Nescis. 

and again : 

Quod spatium tectis sublimibus unde cerebrum 
Tecta ferit.2 

Mr. Burn observes "that the houses at Pompeii were mostly 
small and mean, and of the simplest plan : — scarcely any of them 
had upper floors, with the exception of those placed on sloping 
ground, where the first floor formed a kind of receding higher 
terrace. 

The fear of earthquakes, and the facility with which extensions 
could be made on the ground floor, probably prevented the Pom- 
peians from building lofty houses." 

The latter was, doubtless, the reason why the Roman houses 
in Britain cover generally so large a space of ground, and we find 
so many small rooms on the ground floor. 

Doubt has been cast upon the use of glass in E-omano-British 
houses, but sheet-glass has, undoubtedly, been found on their sites.^ 
This was the case at Tockington and in Bath, on the site of the 
present Grand Pump^^ Room Hotel, when the foundation was 
laid. The subject is discussed by the German writer, Hirt,^ who 
considers the expression " Specularia " to mean glass windows, 
specularia vitra The Palace of Caligua at Rome seems to have 
had glass windows, and in the public baths at Pompeii a bronze 
casement with panes of glass was found. ^ 

We are not to suppose that the roofs of the Roman houses in 
Britain were flat, they appear to have been always gabled and 
covered with shingles or thatched with straw; — the quantity of 
shingles or roofing stones found on the site of most villas proves 

1 Sat. III., 199. 2 Idem, 269. 

3 Wright's C.R. and S., p. 170. * Gesh. der Bank, TIL, p. 1, Bailage. 
^ See Burn's Roman Lit. in relat'on to Roman Art, p. 304. 



The Structure of Roman Houses. 



101 



that they were gabled, and the paintings of Roman houses in 
Pompeii represent them so in Italy. Flat roofs were also used for 
large houses, and were planted as gardens. 

At Rome there were two classes of domestic buildings, the 
Doimts and the Insula, the latter consisted of flats for dwellings, 
such as are now becoming (I) common in London, but which have 
long been known in Edinbro' and in foreign cities. 

The recent discoveries made at Tockington, so well and care- 
fully described by Sir John Maclean in Vol. XII., part 1, of the 
Transactions of this Society, are not sufliciently advanced to 
enable anyone to say the purpose for which the house was 
designed There evidently remains much more to be uncovered, 
if means can be provided. The' plan cannot yet be satisfactorily 
ascertained, like that at Lydney or Woodchester, but the execution 
of the pavements and the number of the chambers point to a 
residence of no ordinary kind, and probably occupied during a 
considerable period. 

The appropriation of the site in mediaeval times is a proof of 
its being well chosen, and the decorative art of the pavements 
point to an early period, and manifests the same taste and skill as 
those found in and around Cirencester. Decorative pavements 
imply elegant costly fittings, and choice furniture, as bronze 
couches and tables, and the polish of luxurious living. 

At any rate, what has been done already at Tockington has 
added another villa of no common interest to the many found in 
the county, and every discovery thus made contributes something 
to our exact knowledge of the condition of this Island under 
Roman rule. 

It is to be regretted that no standard work has yet appeared 
treating of the many beautiful pavements discovered in this 
county. A work treating on Romano-British Mosaic Pavements 
has recently been published, hut it only treats of a portion of 
those hitherto discovered, and omits entirely some of the most 
interesting, as those found at Lydney. Not more than sixty sites 
are recorded, and in these 183 pavements ; many from the sites 
of Roman cities, but even these are not all given. We are glad. 
See Romano-British Mosaic Pavements, by T. Morgan, F.S.A. 



102 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



however, to welcome that as the harbinger of some future eflfort. 
It is a happy thing for this county that the beautiful remains of 
Roman art at Cirencester should have found such able illus- 
trators, but much remains yet to be done before this subject of 
Mosaics has been exhausted, and practical results obtained from 
its investigation. 

Mosaics are now becoming much more common in the floors 
and walls of buildings, and the art might be extended with 
advantage. 



Anna LI A Dubkexsia. 



103 



A N N A L I A D U B R E N S I A. 
By F. a. HYETT. 

Read at Gloucester, 16th July, 18S8. 

The little book bearing this title, is much prized by English biblio- 
philes. It has, however, a special interest for the inhabitants 
of this county, ^^'ot only is it one of our rarest Gloucestershire 
books, but it relates to a local gathering which, more than two 
centuries ago, had a national reputation. The book is a collection 
of verses in praise of one Robert Dover, and certain sports and 
games which he had established or revived at the very beginning 
of the 17th century, and w-hich were held in Whitsun week on a 
hill in the parish of Weston-sub-Edge, and which, with the ex- 
ception of a temporary suspension during the Commonwealth, 
were continued annually at the same place for about 250 years. 
Of these games 1 have not been able to find any very full account. 
There is a very quaint notice of them in Wood's A thence Oxon- 
ienses, which seems to have been the source from which almost all 
later writers on the subject have drawn. 

It has often been quoted before, but as it is brief, and is, as 
far as I know, the only description which has any kind of claim 
to authenticity, I will give it in full : — 

"The said games were begun, and continued at a certain time 
in the Year for 40 Years by one Jiob. Dover an Attorney, of 
Barton on the Heath, in Warwickshire, son of Joh. Dover of 
Norfolk, who being full of activity, and of a generous, free, and 
public Spirit, did, with leave from K. Jam. I., select a place on 
Cotsioold Hills, in Gloucestershire, whereon those Games should 
be acted. Evdymion Porter , Esq.;i a Native of that County, and 

^ Endymion Porter's mterest m those games may perhaps be accounted 
for by the fact that he was born in the parish of Aston-sub-Edge, which 
adjoins the parish in which Dover s Hill is situated. A fine portrait of him, 
by Vandyke, is in Thirlestane House, Cheltenham. 



104 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



a Serv^ant of that King, a Person also of a most generous Spirit, 
did, to encourage Dover, give him some of the King's old Cloaths, 
with a Hat and Feather and E-ufF, purposely to grace him, and 
consequently the Solemnity. Dover was constantly there in Person 
well mounted and accoutred, and was the chief Director and Man- 
ager of those Games frequented by the Nobility and Gentry (some of 
whom came 60 Miles to see them) even till the rascally Rebellion 
was began by the Presbyterians, which gave a stop to their Pro- 
ceedings, and spoiled all that was generous or ingenious elsewhere. 
The Verses in the said Book called A7inalia Duhre7isia were 
composed by several Poets, some of which were then the chiefest 
of the Nation, as Mich. Drayton, Esq.; Thos. Randolph of Cam- 
bridge, Ben Johnson, Owen Feltham, Gent., Capt. J oh. Mennes, 
Shakerley Marmion, Gent., Tho. Hey wood, Gent. &c. Others of 
lesser note were J oh. Trussel, Gent, who continued Sam Daniels^ 
History of England, Joh. Monson, Esq.; Feryman Rutter, of Oriel 
Coll., Will. Basse, of Moreton, near Thame in Oxfordshire, some- 
time a Retainer to the Lord Wenman, of Thame Parke, Will. 
Denny, Esqre.; kc. Before the said Book of Annalia Dubrensia 
is a Cut representing the Games and Sports, as Men playing at 
Cudgels, Wrestling, Leaping, pitching the Bar, throwing the Iron 
Ham mar, handling the Pyke, leaping over the heads of Men 
kneeling, standing upon their hands, &c. Also the dancing of 
Women, Men hunting and coursing the Hare with Hounds and 
Greyhounds &c., with a Castle built of boards on a hillock, with 
Guns therein firing, and the Picture of the great Director, Capt. 
Dover on Horseback, riding from place to place." 

In Notes and Queries, Vol IX., 3rd series, p. 80, is an extract 
from a MS. History of Broadway, then (1866) in the possession of 
Sir Thos. E. Winnington, which contained an account of the sports 
practised on the Cotswold Hills, on Thursday and Friday of Whit- 
sun holiday week. It is there stated that "the Sports were football, 
skittles, quoits, shovel board, cudgell, and single stick; bull baiting, 
cock-fighting, bowling, wrestling, leaping, dancing, pitching the 
bar, horse racing, ringing of bells, jumping in sacks, tfec.''^ 

1 If this history could be examined, we might obtain some more inform- 
ation. Does anyone know if it is in existence ? 



Annalia Dubrensia. 



105 



In an article in the Cornliill Map^azine, Vol. XXXVII., pages 
710-720, headed " Captain Dover's Cotswold Games," and signed 
E. W.G.," it is stated that at tlie opening of the games, " A yellow 
flag was unfurled on the battlements of the portable castle, and a 
bugle was blown to summon the quality. Captain Dover himself 
rode out on his palfrey to survey the scene, wearing a 3 ellow 
favour in his hunting cap ; " but whence E.W.G. obtained this 
information he does not tell us. 

These games are not mentioned by Atkyns or Fosbrooke, and 
only briefly noticed by Bigland and Rudge. Rudder (pp. 23, 24, 
25) devotes a little more space to them, and quotes at length from 
one of the poems in the Annalia, but gives little original infor- 
mation. There is, however, one point he alludes to deserving 
mention. 

" On the Coteswolds," he says (page 23) "is a customary 
annual meeting at Whitsuntide, vulgarly called an Ale or VVhitsun- 
ale," and then, after describing how these sports were conducted, 
he proceeds to say that " all these figures handsomely represented 
in basso-relievo, stand in the north wall of the nave of Cirencester 
Church, which vouches sufiiciently for the antiquity of the custom." 
A writer in The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. LXII., p. 714, con- 
siders that Rudder is here guilty of a great anachronism, as " the 
Cotswold Games were only the freaks of a Warwickshire attorney 
in the reign of James I., and ended with the civil wars, whereas 
the figures at Cirencester are a century older, co-£eval with the 
rebuilding of the nave between 1504 and 1522 ; and tradition 
says they represent a Whitsun ale. They may be nothing more 
than the grotesques common on all gothic churches." In justice 
to Rudder, it must be pointed out that although his language is 
ambiguous, it may mean that the figures in question represent 
any W"hitsun-ale and not the particular gathering known as 
Dover's games. Engravings of these sculptures will be found in 
Carter's Ancient Sculpture and Painting, Vol. II., p. 9, and they 
have been described by Mr. Francis Douce, who thinks the tra- 
dition that they represent a Whitsun-ale probable, but adds that 
they may be intended to represent characters in the old mysteries 
or moralities, or they may be altogether emblematical. 



106 



Transactions for the Year 18S8-9. 



There is no mention of the Games, as might be expected, in 
Clement Barksdale^s " Nympha Libethris or the Cotswold Muse " 
(1651), but the following couplet occurs in the verses prefixed to 
that work. 

" If your Muse hither makes her oft resorts, 
She'll be as much lov'd as were Dover's Sports." 

And in Bromes Jovial Crew (1651), "Dover's Olimpicke on the 
Cotswold Games " are referred to as "merriments." 

I cannot fix with certainty the date at which these games were 
commenced. Grosart shares the opinion expressed by Hone in 
his preface to Stuhhs^ Sports and Pastimes that they were revived 
but not instituted by Dover, and from our general knowledge of 
the times this is not improbable. It may well be that a Whitsun- 
ale had been held somewhere in the neighbourhood for many years 
before heroic Dover's day, and that when he came from his native 
county of Norfolk and settled at Stanway, finding it falling into 
disrepute through the hostility of the growing spirit of Puritanism, 
he rescued it from extinction, and rehabilitated it under the name 
of Olympic Games. But however this may be, and it is but con- 
jecture, the argument by which Grosart seeks to establish that this 
gathering existed before the days of Dover will not bear exam- 
ination. His contention is based on the following lines by 
Hey wood, printed between in 1546-56 : — 

" He fometh like a bore, the beast should seem bolde, 
For he is as fierce as a lyon of Cotswolde " ; 

"The lyon of Cotswolde,"' says Grosart, " having been one of the 
sportive assumptions by the youth in games involving mirth fast 
and furious." Now " as brave as a Cotswold lion " is an old 
Gloucestershire proverb, meaning as brave as a Cotswold sheep, 
and I believe those lines of Heywood's but embody this proverb, 
and have no sort of an allusion to Dover's games. 

According to Wood, as we have seen, the games were begun in 
the reign of James I., and continued for forty years by one Kob. 
Dover. The Winnington MS. and Warton, in his notes on the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, also assign their commencement to the 
same reign. But, Hunter, in his N'ew Illustrations of Shakespeare, 



Annalia Dubrensia. 



107 



thinks they were established in the reign of Elizabeth, apparently 
calculating forty years back from the date of the publication of the 
Aniuilia. In the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. 67, page 8*^7, it is 
stated that these games were instituted by Robert Dover about 
the year 1600, but no authority is given. 

The familiar quotation from the Merry Wives of Windsor has 
been thought by some to afford grounds for fixing the date in 
question. 

Slender says to Page : 

" How does your fallow grey hound, Sir ? 
I heard say he was outrun on Cotsale." 

As the passage is not found in the first 4to edition of the play, 
pub. in 1602, nor in the 1619 reprint, but first aprears in the 1622 
fob, it has been argued, E.W.G. tells us, that the Cotswold games 
were established between 1619 and 1622. This is not a con- 
vincing argument, but, I think, we may reasonably infer that it 
was between 1602 and 1622 that these games became suJQSciently 
famous to be worthy of mention by Shakespeare. 

It is rather amusing to find that not only has this allusion to 
Master Page's fallow greyhound been used to fix the date of the 
establishment of Dover's games, by reference to the date of the 
Merry Wives of Windsor, but it has been used by Shakesperian 
critics to fix the date at which that play was written, by refer- 
ence to the institution of Dover's games. 

But though the actual date at which these sports were com- 
menced cannot be proved, I think we may be satisfied that they 
were either founded, or more probably revived, by Dover very 
soon after James I. came to the throne. I should say between 
1603 and 1610. 

According to the Winnington MS. " They were carried on 
with great spirit in the reigns of Charles I., Charles II., and 
William and Mary." In the time of the Georges, however, they 
appear to have deteriorated in character. Mr. Graves, of Mickle- 
ton, in the Spiritual Quixote, pub. circa 1770, makes Wildgoose 
deliver his first harangue at Dover's games, and thus descril;es the 
scene : 



108 



Transactions foe. the Year 188S-0. 



They now approached the place of rendezvous where the 
revel was held, which was a large plain on the Cotswold-hills. 
Their ears were saluted with a confused noise of drums, trumpets, 
and whistle pipes ; not those martial sounds, however, which are 
heard in the field of battle, but such as those harmless instruments 
emit, with which children amuse themselves in a country fair. 
There was a great number of swains in their holiday clothes, 
with their belts and silk handkerchiefs ; and nymphs in straw 
hats and tawdry ribbands, flaunting, ogling, and coquetting, 
in their rustic way, with as much alacrity, as any of the gay 
flutterers in the Mall. 

A ring was formed about the wrestlers and cudgel players, by 
the substantial farmers on their long tailed steeds, and two or 
three forlorn coaches sauntering about with their vapourish pos- 
sessors ; who crept from their neighbouring seats — ^to contemplate 
the humours of these awkward rustics." And while Wildgoose and 
his friend were refreshing themselves a "proclamation was made 
that a holland shift, which was adorned with ribbands, and dis- 
played upon a pole, was going to be run for, and six young women 
began to exhibit themselves before the whole assembly, in a dress 
hardly reconcilable to the rules of decency." 

Nor do they appear to have improved in 1797, for a writer in 
the Gentleman^s Magazine (October of that year) speaking of the 
institution of the Cotswold games of which, he says, a faint 
imitation is continued to the present time," and from its founder 
still retains the name of Dover's Meeting. He adds, " It is usually 
attended by a vast concourse of people ; and the athletic manoeu- 
vres, manly exercises, and rural diversions, are still practised, 
though not countenanced by persons of such rank and consequence 
as Justice Shallow, Knight of the shire and custos rotulorum." 

In the present century these games seem to have sunk still 
lower in reputation, until they degenerated into nothing but 
scenes of riot and disorder, and Dover's Hill was enclosed in 
1853-4 in order to put an end to what was demoralising the 
neighbourhood. It is erroneously stated in the Winnington MS. 
that'the enclosure took place in the reign of George III. 



Annalia Dcbrensia. 



109 



Of Robert Dover little is known beyond what has already 
been stated in connection with his establishment of the Cotswold 
games. All who have sketched his biography state that he was 
born about 1575. Mr. Vyvyan gives the date of his death as 
1652, but Mr. Grosart, who appears to have seen a certified 
extract from a parish register, gives it as June 6th, 1641, and 
that date is also given in the Dictionary of National Biography, 
Vol. XV., page 381. 

That he was genial and kind-hearted may be gathered from 
many of the verses in his honour, especially from the following 
couplet : — 

*' Whilst Dover (that his knowledge not Imploy's 
T' increase his neighbors Quarrels, but their joyes ;)" 

to which a foot note is added that " He was bred an Attorney, 
who never try'd but two causes, always made up the difference." 
And Caulfied, in his Memoirs of Reniarkahle Persons^ 1794, 
p. 168, notes, that when Dover wore the King's clothes, it was 
observed that " he appeared with more dignity in his carriage 
and deportment than was ever seen in James I." 

I would refer those who wish for a more elaborate notice of 
these sports and their popular founder to the article in the Corn- 
hill, to which I have already alluded, and to the interesting 
prefaces to the two modern reprints of the Annalia Dubrensia, of 
which I shall have something to say presently. 

I will now pass to the book itself, which is the more immediate 
subject of this paper. 

The original edition of the Annalia Dubrensia appeared in 
1636. It is a small 4to, of the size known among printers as a 
" Pot " 4to, from the water-mark of a vase or pot often found on 
the pap«r of that particular size. It contains 36 leaves, comprising 
a frontispiece, a title, and 68 pages of letterpress, unnumbered, 
but signed a 2-k. The signatures on the first few pages are 
somewhat irregular. Considering the title as page 1, the first page 
signed is p. 3, and it bears the signature A 2. Page 5 is signed b, 
and the signatures then proceed regularly on a system which is, I 
believe, unusual. The first three out of each four consecutive 



110 



Tr-\x>!actions for the Year 1SS8-9. 



leaves are signed M'itli the same letter, the fourth being always 
blank. Thus, after p. -i, the foot lettering runs B, b 2, b 3, blank ; 
c, c 2, c 3, blank, 6:c., ^c, and the book ends on the back of the 
leaf signed K, the letter J being, as usual, omitted. Lowndes' 
collation is inacurrate, and appears to have been taken from a 
reprint, of vrhicli I shall have occasion to speak later. 

The frontispiece is a wood-cut, which has been already des- 
cribed in the extract from Anthony "Wood : — 
The Title is as follows : — 

A N K A L I A 
Dubrensia 
Ypon the yeerely celebration of 
Mr. Robert Dovers Olimpick 
Games vpon Cotsicold Hills 
Written hy 



Michael Drayton. Esq. 


J ohn Trvssell. Gent. 


John Trussel, Gent. 


William Cole. Gent. 


William Dyrham. Oxon, 


Eerriman Rvtter. Oxon. 


William Denny Esq. 


John Stratford. Gent. 


Thomas Randall. Cant. 


Thomas Sanford. Gent. 


Ben: Johnson. 


Robert Griffin. Gent. 


John Dover. Gent, 


lohn Cole. Gent. 


Owen Feltham. Gent, 


Robert Dvrham. Oxon. 


Erancis Izod. Gent, 


A. Sirinx Oxon. 


Nicholas Wallington. Ox. 


lohn Monson. Esq. 


John Ballard. Oxon. 


Walton Poole. Gent. 


Timothy Ogle. Gent. 


Richard Wells. Oxon. 


William Ambrose. Oxon. 


William Forth. Esq. 


William Bellas. Gent. 


Shack: INFarmyon. Gent. 


Thomas Cole. Oxon. 


RN. 


William Basse. Gent. 


Thomas Heywood. Gent. 


Captaine Menese. 





London, 

Printed by Rohert Rav:orth, for Matheice WaJhancke, 1636. 



ANNALIA DrBKF.N-ilA. 



Ill 



From a MS. insertion on the title of the Grenville copy of the 
Annalia in the British Museum (which, by the way, contains 
Rol>ert Dover's autograph) it appears that the verses by " R. X." 
were by Robert Xewburgh. 

The publisher, Mat. Walbancke published many of the Civil 
War Tracts which appeared a few years later. Robert Raworth, 
the printer, seems to have belonged to a family of printers, or at 
least he had namesakes in the trade, whose reputation appears 
to have differed. For in Sir John Lambe's List of Printers, 
licensed by the Star Chamber, in July, 1637, I tind the following 
entry: "21. John Raworth is said to be an honest man and 
may come in instead of his father Richard Raworth yat is an 
Arrant Knave.'' 

But to return to the book. After the title comes a letter to 
Robert Dover from his publisher, Mat. Walbancke (pp. A 2, back 
and front). The rest of the book (pp. b-k) consists of 34 poems, 
acrostics and anagrams, 33 by those whose names appear on the 
title, and one by Robert Dover himself, headed '•'A Congi*atula- 
tory Poem to My Poeticall and learned Xoble Friends, Compilers 
of this Booke." This poem (on p. i 3 back and following pages) 
is inserted between those by R. X. and Thomas Heywood. 

This book was reprinted some years later, and so well was the 
original imitated that even experts cannot always tell the reprint 
from the original. There are, however, certain marked discrepan- 
cies by which the reprint may be known. The chief of these are 
(1) The substitution in it of a copper-plate for a wood-cut frontis- 
piece ; (2) the addition of two lines on p. a 2 back, and (3) the 
addition of an anonymous poem after Heywood's, necessitating 
an extra leaf. This poem ends on the page which, if signed, would 
be K 2 front. 

(1) The copper-plate may be readily distinguished from the 
wood-cut frontispiece, though it is. perhaps, as accurate a copy as 
the difference of process would admit. Most of the shading (i.e. 
smoke from the guns, the spaces between the figures seated at the 
table, dress of the middle dancing woman, the under side of 
Dover's hat, ike.) is a black mass in the original, and effected by 



112 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



fine lines in the copy. The doors of the two outside tents are in 
the original shaded with a few thick horizontal lines, and in the 
reprint with many fine perpendicular lines — of the three horses on 
which men are seen riding, in the wood-cut, the first is white and 
the second black, and in the copper-plate these colours are reversed. 
The labarynth, as it has been called, or conventional scroll, on the 
right of the picture, is in the w^ood-cut formed by one thick line, 
and in the copper-plate by two fine lines. There are other minor 
differences, but I think I have given enough to guide even the 
tyro book-buyer. Those who have a knowledge of engraving 
would know the two apart without any of the above hints. 

(2) The additional words on A 2, back, which I have alluded 
to are as follows : " Dr. Dover thought it his duty to perpetuate 
the Memory of that good man his grandfather." They occur after 
Mat. Walbank's epistle, and they probably imply that the reprint 
was the work of Dr. Dover. 

(3) About the anonymous poem, ending with the line : 

" Sung by a Poet that conceals his name." 
many mistakes have been made. It has been copied in MS. into 
a copy of the original edition in the British Museum, and is alluded 
in the Cornhill, 1873, by "E.W.G.," as a unique copy of verses 
in Dover's honour, and the writer of the article on Robert Dover 
in the Dictionary of National Biography appears also to think that 
it has never been printed. Mr. Yy vyan conjectures that it may be 
by the hand of Dr. Dover himself. Thanks to a MS. note in a 
copy of the reprint at Chestal,^ which, through the kindness of 
Mr. Phelps, I have been allowed to inspect, I have been able to 
ascertain its authorship. It is by no less a person than Will 
D'Avenant, and is to be found at p. 236 of the 1673 edition of his 
works, and there is a curious variation in the reading as it there 
occurs. In the Annalia, verse 4, is as follows : — 
'* Here you Alcados, whose sterne faces looke 

Worse than your Pris'ner's that's deny'd his Booke ; 

Than Pilat painted like a scalded Cooke." 
The last line of this verse in D'Avenant's works runs as 
follows : — 

" Than Pilat painted like Sir Edward Cook." 
1 There is a MS. note to the same effect in the Bodleian copy. 



AnNALIA DuBRENSlA. 



113 



The allusion to Alcados may refer to Sir Edward Coke's well 
known aversion to Spaniards, and, possibly, an incident at the 
trial of Sir Walter Ealeigh was in D'Avenant's mind when he 
penned this line. At that trial, " the weakness of the evicence," 
says Sir James Stephen, "was made up for by the rancorous 
ferocity of Coke, who reviled and insulted Raleigh in a manner 
never imitated, so far as I know, before or since in any English 
court of justice, except, perhaps, in those in which JefFeries 
presided. Addressing Ealeigh, Coke said, " Thou hast a Spanish 
heart, and thyself art a spider of hell." 

Besides these three important ones, there are several minor 
differences, of which I will only notice two (1), a very slight dif- 
ference in the arrangement of the words of lines three and four 
of the title, and (2) a different apportionment of the number of 
lines of Mat. Walbancke's letter on pages a 2 front and back. 
With these exceptions, the reprint follows the original line for 
line. The type is of the same character in both, and, generally, 
of the same size, but it is cleaner cut in the reprint and more 
i-egularly arranged, and the intervals between the words are 
longer, hence the length of the lines is longer throughout. All of 
the reprints which I have seen are larger than any of the originals, 
but as all of the latter have been mercilessly treated by the binder, 
it is impossible to say for certain that they were printed on smaller 
paper. The greater length of lines in the reprint, however, rather 
points to this.^ Some clerical and orthographical errors in the 
original have been corrected in the reprint : e.g. an " e " omitted 
at the end of " Fame " (e back), and an " 1 " from " publique " 
(e front) have been supplied in the reprint ; " Sheapherds " in 
the original is spelt " Shepheards " in the reprint (i 3 front), but 
three different spellings of the word on pp. (c 4) back and (d) front 
in the original are faithfully reproduced in the reprint, as are 
variations of spelling in many other places ; and " glories," 
revived," and " pretty " (on pp. D 2 front, and d 4 front) in the 
original are mis-spelt, " Clories," " Vevived," and "petty," in the 
reprint. 

^ The largest originals 1 have seen measure respectively Gf^y" by 5^" 
and 65" by .5|", and the largest reprint measures 7f by 6f . 
Vol. XIII. I 



11-4 Tkansactions for the Year 1888-9. 

It is quite impossible, I fear, to fix within narrow limits the 
date at which this reprint was published. 1 have searched in 
vain for an entry respecting it at Stationers' Hall. Grosart is 
obviously wrong in assigning 1794 as the date of its publication. 
He has evidently jumped to a conclusion from seeing this date 
on the copy of the frontispiece by Caulfield, about which I shall 
have occasion to say something directly. The only kind of clue 
we have as to the time of its appearance is in the two lines added 
after Mat. Walbancke's epistle. If the surmises are correct, that 
Dr. Dover, who wrote these lines, was a certain John Dover, of 
Gray's Inn, who was born in 1644, and that he was perpetuating 
the memory of that good man, his grandfather, by reprinting the 
verses written in his honour, the reprint must have appeared in 
his life time. On this hypothesis Mr. Yyvyan assigns 1680 as 
about the date of its publication, adding that Dr. Dover died in 
1682, aged 38 years. I think Mr. Yyvyan has misread the Dover 
pedigree, which he has copied from some MS. notes of the late 
Sir Thomas Phillipps. All that this pedigree says is that this 
John, of Gray's Inn, was aged 38, and unmarried in 1682. I 
find in the Dictionary of National Biography that this John, 
who was 38 in 1682, lived to be 81, and died in 1725. Hence all 
we can say is that the reprint must have appeared between say 
1664 (when John attained 20 years) and 1725, when he died — 
and this only on the assumption that in J ohn we have got hold of 
the right grandson. I have a strong impression, however, that it 
was much nearer the latter than the former date, as the paper, 
printing and general style are much more those of an 18th than 
of a 17th century book. 

Purchasers of this little book have, however, a much greater 
difiiculty to contend with than in distinguishing the original 
edition from the reprint, or the wood-cut from the copper-plate, 
and that is in distinguishing the copper-plate from the wonder- 
fully accurate copy by Caulfield, which appeared in his Memoirs 
of Remarkable Persons in 1794. It is generally called the Coun- 
terfeit Copper-plate, but I do not think it was intended to be used 
for purposes of deception, as it bears the words " Published by 
Herbert and Caulfield 1794," immediately under the engraving. 



AXNALIA DUBREXSIA. 



115 



I have seen it, however, with all the margin cut off close to the 
edge of picture, inlaid, and inserted in copies wanting the frontis- 
piece, and then without very close inspection it is difficult to detect 
it from the original plate. I looked at the two, side by side, for 
a long time before I observed any difference. In almost all cases 
the number and length of lines in each patch of shading is the 
same. There are, however, certain minute differences. Of these, the 
most obvious and the easiest to bear in mind, is that in the original 
all of the three men on horseback have something, either a whip 
or a sword, in their hands, while in the counterfeit the two last have 
nothing. Under the near forefoot of Dover's horse are two tufts of 
grass in the original and only one in the counterfeit ; and between 
the hand of the man standing on his head and the square enclosing 
the labaryntli there are three blades or tufts of grass in the 
original, and none in the counterfeit. The size of the original plate 
is Gins, by if ins, and that of the counterfeit Gins, by 4fins., while 
the letters of the words " Cots wold Games " at the head of the 
plate are in the former i of an inch high and the latter ^ inch. 

The book is decidedly rare, especially with the wood-cut frontis- 
piece, but not as rare as has been supposed by some. E.W.G. 
calls it one of the rarest books of the period, and Grosart says he 
knew of only three copies besides his own. 

I have examined eight copies of the original edition and eight 
of Dr. Dover's reprint, and I know of the existence of four others, 
whether originals or reprints I cannot say. Of these sixteen copies, 
four only have the wood-cut, eight have the original, and two the 
counterfeit copper-plate and in two the frontispiece is wanting. 

Davis, in his " Second Journey round the Library of a Biblio- 
maniac," 1825, gives the prices which this book had realised : — 
Steeven, £1 2s.; Townley, (reprint) £3 3s.; Sanders (1818), £13 
2s. 6d. ; Bindley (1818), £12 12s.; Nassau, 1824 (reprint), £2 
lis. 6d.; and it vras priced in Thorpe's catalogue at £8 8s. Grosart 
says the reprint had once fetched £12 10s. ; and Vyvyan, with 
some of the above prices, quotes £7 7s. as the cost of one of the 
originals. 

A copy of the original edition is very rarely in the market, 

and I cannot say what price it would now command. The reprints 
I 2 



116 TkaiN.sactions tor tiik Yeak 1888-9. 

(Dr. Dover's) may be sometimes picked up at prices varying from 
3 to 5 guineas according to condition. 

The book has been twice reprinted, quite recently ; first by the 
Rev. A. B, Grosart in 1877, and, secondly, by Mr. E. K Vyvyan 
in 1878. 

Only 50 copies of Mr. Grosart's reprints were issued to sub- 
scribers. The frontispiece (a wood-cut) is a rough copy of the 
original wood-cut, and was cut at the instance of Sir William 
Chambers for the "Book of Days," where it will be found at 
p. 712 of Vol. I. 

Mr. Vyvyan's reprint is, I believe, out of print, but copies are 
just now often in the market, although only 100 were printed. 
The frontispiece (although only a lithograph) is a far more satis- 
factory production than that in the Grosart edition, and gives a 
really good idea of the original. 

There is much interesting information in the Prefaces to both 
of the modern reprints, not only about the book and the games 
but also about its authors. I am indebted to the writers of both 
Prefaces for much direct and indirect assistance. 

If we look at this little book with the eye of a Literary Critic 
rather than (as we have been doing) with that of Bibliomaniac, I 
fear we must put in a lower class. 
John Ballard, of Oxford, wrote : 

" The Cots wold sports are taske and subject fitt 
The highest raptures of a Heaven borne witt." 

But, alas, in the verses before us, the traces of Heaven-born 
wit are as rare as angels' visits. Most of these verses it would be 
rank flattery to call poetry, and many of them may with justice 
be designated as doggerel. 

The praises of Dover are grotesquely extravagant, and the 
name Olympic, given to his games, offered a wide field for the 
indulgence in those classical similies and illusions that were so 
much the fashion among the poets of that day. A few samples 
taken almost at random will suffice to show their character. We 
are told by Robert Griffin that 

" On Cotswold-hills there meets 
A greater troop of gallants than Rome's streets 
Ere saw in Pompey's triumphs." 



ANNALIA DrBRENSIA. 



117 



According to Randall (whose verses, by the way, have, in 
places, some real poetic feeling in them) : 

*' The Xemcean and the Isthmian pastimes still, 
Though dead in Greece, survive on Cotswold Hill." 

Thos. Cole says : 

*' Cotswold that barren was and rough before 
Is Tempe now become, Cotswold no more." 
From Ben Jonson we should expect better things, but disap- 
pointment is in store for us. His ten lines are free from the 
afiectations of his associates, but they are also free from any tittle 
of claim to rank as poetry. The first two lines : 
" I cannot bring my muse to dropp Vies 
'Twixt Cotswold and the Olympic exercise." 
are difficult either to scan or to understand. "Dropt Yies " is, I 
presume, equivalent to " draw comparisons," but I know of no 
irxstance where Vies is used as a noun by any other w^riter, 
nor is it to be found in any of our older dictionaries. E.\y.G. 
sees no difficulty, if, he says, we take " Muse " as a dissylable and 
"Vie" to be a noun — a method by which many difficulties could 
be removed. A writer in Notes and Queries, 3rd series. Vol. IX., 
page 115, suggests with more audacity than success, what he is 
pleased to call an " emendation " of Ben Jonson's " Epigram." 
" The Cotswold with the Olimpic vies 
In manly games and goodly exercise." 

The first line halts almost as much as that for which it is substi- 
tuted, and the meaning of the couplet is exactly the reverse of 
that intended by Ben Jonson. Grosart very properly redicules 
this suggestion, but his own is not much more happy, viz.: that 
" vies " is to be read as a dissylable. 

For my own part I expect, that either by a slip of the poet's 
pen, or the printer's hand, a word has been altered or left out. 
My last quotation shall be from Izod : 
" Achilles name had bin interr'd with him (Brave Dover) 
Had not queint Homer's muse, so queintly nam'd it over 
And thou pechance (sweet Sir) shouldst' have out-liv'd thy fame 
Hadst thou not chanc'd to find these trumpets for the same." 

a truth that we shall all endorse, for had it not been for the little 
book which is the subject of this paper, the Olympic games on 
Dover's Hill, which were once so highly popular and so widely 
known would have been long ago forgotten. 



118 



Transactions for ttik Yeak 1888-9. 



ST. OSWALD'S PRIORY, GLOUCESTER. 
By henry MEDLAND. 
Read at Gloucester, \*lth July, 1888. 
There is some doubt with regard to the foundation of the Priory 
of St. Oswald. Joceline, an early writer, says : "They report that 
the King and his Consort (speaking of Merval, who was the 
third son of Penda, and who jointly with his brother Wulfer, was 
Viceroy of the Western part of Mercia, and Domneva, his wife), 
built the Monastery of St. Oswald, at Gloucester, in honour of the 
glorious King and Martyr, which house was not only endowed 
with large estates, but so decorated with ornaments that from the 
abundance of these it is called golden by the vulgar." 

The Priory was esteemed a Free Chapel Royal because an an- 
nexation to the Mercian palace called the King's Hall. The King's 
Hall was situated at Kingsholme, close to the point where 
Sandhurst Lane joins Worcester Street. This early presumed 
foundation is dated about 660. Oswald died in 642. 

The more generally accepted theory is that in 909 Ethelred, 
Prince of Mercia, and his wife, Ethelfleda, daughter of Alfred 
the Great, built here a Monastery and filled it with Monhs^ 
dedicating it to the honour of St. Oswald, King and Martyr, 
whose relics (with the exception of the head, which was taken to 
Durham and the hands to Bebbanburh (now Bamborough) were 
transferred here from Bardney in Lincolnshire. 

Bardney Monastery was destroyed by the Danes in 869, 
therefore the removal of St. Oswald's relics would be forty years 
after that event. 

In the wars with the Danes the monks were driven away, and 
it subsequently became a College for Secular Canons^ and was 
accounted a Free Chapel Royal, exempt from the jurisdiction of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Worcester, and 
subject only to the Archbishop of York. 



8t. Oswald's Pkiory. 



119 



In the year 1083, tlie Canons refused to acknowledge the 
authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury, when tliat Prelate, 
for their contumacy, excommunicated the Prior and several of 
the principal officers, and sent his mandate to the Bishop of the 
Diocese (Worcester) to execute the sentence publicly in all his 
churches, which he did with bell, book, and candle. The dispute 
was afterwards settled in favour of the College. 

It will be convenient now to give some account of St. Oswald 
and of Ethelred and Ethelfleda. 

Oswald. 

Oswald having defeated Cadwalla, (a heathen who had usurped 
his throne), in a great fight near Hexham, recovered his Kingdom 
of Nortliumbria in 634. The battle was fierce and protracted, 
but at last Cadwallan gave way and fled towards the south. At 
a place called Deniseburn he was overtaken and slain, and the 
power of the Britons was utterly broken. 

Having previously embraced Christianity through the teaching 
of the monks of lona, under whose protection he lived during 
certain troublous times, he restored it to Northumbria. He 
obtained from lona a Christian teacher named Aidan who was 
consecrated to the Episcopal office, and who, in the summer of 635, 
arrived in Northumbria to found a new community identical with 
that from which he had come. King Osw^ald gave him for that 
purpose the small island of Lindisfarne, a few miles south of the 
Tweed. There a Church and Monastery were built, and Schools 
and Colleges for the training of Missionaries w^ho could speak the 
Anglian tongue. Aidan could not speak the English language 
and King Oswald had to interpret to his subjects the Apostle's 
chief discourses. The men thus trained were soon in sreat 
demand, and by their means the Monastic settlement of Lindis- 
farne was able to introduce the Celtic customs and the rule of 
lona over the greater part of Britain. 

In 635, Oswald sought the hand of Kyneburga, a daughter of 
Cynegils, a West-saxon King. Whilst on this errand he met with 
Birinus, a Missionary Bisliop, and through their united eflbrts 
Cynegils embraced Christianity. This liappened at Dorclioster, 



120 



Tkansaotions kok the Year 1888-9. 



in Oxfordshire, where the rivers Thame and Isis meet, both Kings 
giving land to Birinus for the support of the episcopal seat which 
they founded for him there. 

For eight years Oswald ruled Northumbria. He was a wise 
and sagacious sovereign. His administrative capacity was great, 
and to that was added the deepest and most sincere piety. But his 
reign was to end all too soon for the onward march of Christianity, 
at that time, in Northumbria. Penda, the ancient enemy of his 
predecessor (Edwin), was biding his time for striking another 
blow at the power of Northumbria, he was in Mid-England, the 
impersonation of heathendom. He longed to abolish the suprem- 
acy of Northumbria's Christian King, who had regained the 
district of Lindsey from his grasp. He gathered his forces to- 
gether for a decisive blow. The two armies met at Maserfield, 
near Oswestry. Oswald was overpowered and fell fighting bravely. 
The conqueror caused the head and arms of Oswald to be struck 
off, and fixed upon stakes of wood set up on the battle-field. 
They were afterwards recovered by the pious care of some of his 
Christian subjects. The head was buried at Lindisfarne by Aidan, 
and eventually placed in the coffin of St. Cuthbert, at Durham. 
His hands were placed in a reliquary of silver, and reverently 
preserved in the Church of St. Peter, at Bamborough. Popular 
veneration soon associated miracles of healing with the place 
where he fell, and his name soon became inscribed in the Church's 
calendar as Saint Oswald, King and Martyr. 

Ethelfleda. 

When Ethelred died Ethelfleda, his widow, assumed the 
government, and made for herself a name and fame as a warrior 
queen, which overshadowed that of Boadicea. She assisted her 
brother in driving the Danes beyond the Humber, and still 
further restricted the territory of the Welsh. Wherever an 
advantage was gained over the enemy she would raise earthworks 
and build fortifications, which became bases for further operations : 
thus Tamworth, Stafford, Warwick, Derby, Leicester, and Chester 
became fortified towns. 

Ethelfleda was known as "The Lady of the Mercians," and 
after her death in her fortress of Tamworth, a.d. 918 (the eighth 



St, Oswald's Priory. 



121 



year of her rule over the Mercians), the Mercian province was 
annexed by Edward, her brother, to Wessex. 

There is some doubt as to where Ethelfleda and her husband 
were buried. Bede says " the sepulchres and bodies of both were 
found in the south portions of St. Oswald's Priory, whilst William 
of Malmesbury, Robert of Gloucester, and other chroniclers have 
stated that they were interred in St. Peter's Church. It seems 
reasonable to suppose that they would be buried in the church 
which they founded. 

Thurstan, who was Archbishop of York from 1114 to 1144, 
pulled down the old church, which was very spacious, and built a 
new one at great expense, and enlarged and repaired St. Oswald's 
tomb. 

The existing Norman remains testify to the massive and 
substantial character of his work, of which more hereafter. 

Thurstan also granted to the heirs of the Crown two-thirds of 
the yearly income of the Canonry, and appropriated the other 
share to the reparation of the fabric. 

Of churches, antecedent to Thurstan's, two very interesting 
fragments remain. 

The first is the jamb of a probably arched or pyramidal opening 
[see elevation, flan and section, Plate IV. figs. \ and 2) and is the 
" respond " to an independent baluster. It is 2 ft. 6 ins. high, 
and 9 ins. in diameter. It was found in the trench for the foun- 
dation of the south wall of the nave of St. Catharine's Church, 
when that church was built in 1867. It was found chopped flat, 
and is now built into the west wall of the north transept of 
Thurstan's Church {see Plate IXa.) and no doubt was a portion of 
the church built by Ethelfleda. 

The other fragment is the very remarkable sculptured stone, 
illustrated in Plates F.l; F/., VII. and VIII I have known of 
its existence for the last twenty years. It was built into the 
garden wall on the south side of Pattishall's Alley, belonging 
to Mr. C. Bossom. Had it not been for this Meeting it would 
probably have remained there for many years unnoticed. As 
it is, I thought I would have a cast made of it, and asked 



122 



Tkansactions I'OR the Year 1888-9. 



Mr. H. Frith to get one for me. His assistant, on examining 
it, found, in consequence of the mortar joint being decayed, that 
it was carved on more than one face. We therefore asked 
and obtained permission of Mr. Bossom to remove it. It is 
evidently the lower portion of the shaft of a cross of very early 
design, and exhibits a great variety of grotesque subjects, I am 
very much inclined to think that it is evidence in favour of the 
tradition of the foundation of the monastery in 660 by Merval 
and Domneva. The style of the carvings on the stone is very 
similar to those at lona, the place where Oswald embraced 
Christianity. It is formed of an oolitic stone, probably from 
the neighbouring hills, and therefore carved on the spot. May 
it not be that the monks of lona, or Lindisfarne, sent a skilled 
artificer to erect this elaborate cross to the memory of their 
o-^-^at friend and patron 1 

The front {Plate Vf), which is 14 ins. wide at the bottom, and 
which faced outwards in the wall, bears the representation of 
apparently a dog trampling on another dog. They are entwined 
with <cords, the ends of which tenninate with knots in the dogs' 
mouths. The figures though rudely executed are well grouped. 

The right side {Plate VI.), 11 inches wide at the bottom, is 
panelled. The lower panel contains the figures of two dogs facing 
each other, likewise entwined with cords terminating with knots 
in their mouths. The upper panel bears the representation of, 
apparently, a bird. 

The left side {Plate VII.) is also panelled. The lower panel 
contains the figures of two saurians, or lizards, most artistically 
arranged in graceful outlines. They also are entwined with cords. 
The upper panel contains a well-defined bird. 

The back of the stone {Plate VIII.) is partly broken. The 
lower part bears a well -arranged pattern of interlacing cords. 

Whether these carvings have any symbolical meaning I am 
not prepared to say. They represent a variety of animal forms, 
and are all, more or less, bound or entwined with cords. ^ 

1 Since this Paper was read some interesting letters on the subject of this 
stone have appeared in The Builder for Sept. 15th, 22nd, 29th and Oct. 6th. 



Plate V* 




FRONT. 

iNi<-PHOTO. SCHtGUE * C>: LONDON. 

ANCIENT CROSS FOUND AT GLOUCESTER. 



REPRINTED BV PERMISSION PBOm"tmE BUIUOEk" 



Plate VI 




RIGHT SIDE. 

|NK-PH0T<'. SPRAGUe S C" LONC^l^- 



ANCIENT CROSS FOUND AT GLOUCESTER. 

REPRINTED BY PERMISSION FROM'thE BUILDER* 



Plate Vll 




LEFT SIDE. 

Ink-photo. spnAGUE «C9 LONDON. 

ANCIENT CROSS FOUND AT GLOUCESTER. 



REPRINTED BY PERMI6SI0N FROM'tHE BUILDER' 



1 



Plate Vlll 




BACK. 



NK - PHOTO, SPRAOUE « C. LUNOON. 

Al^CIENT CROSS FOUND AT GLOUCESTER. 



REPRINTED BV PERMISSION FROm"thE BUILOEr" 



St, Oswald's Priory. 



123 



Of Archbishop Thurstan's church there remains the north 
arcade of the nave consisting of four arches, the east wall of the 
north aisle, and a portion of the north-west turret of the north 
transept {PL IX.) Foundations, with stones of Norman date, have 
been found by Mr. C. Bossom by the boundary wall in Water St. 
These may probably indicate the extreme length of the church 
eastwards. We may conclude that the church consisted of nave 
and aisles, transepts, probably a central tower, and choir, with 
aisles. 

The internal dimensions of the Norman Church would probably 
be as follows : — 

Nave - - - - - 70 feet x 28 feet 

N. and S. Aisles, each - - 70 x 15 

N. and S. Transepts, each - - 30 x 25 

Choir - . - - 70 x28 

Choir Aisles, each - - - 70 x 15 

The character of the work is massive and heavy. The arches 
of the nave arcade are of two orders, supported on square piers of 
two orders. An unusual and clever specimen of masonry may be 
observed on the south side of arches, the lower voussoirs of 
the arches have the labels worked on, which, in consequence of 
the length of the stones, add greatly to the strength of the arches. 

At some little height above the easternmost arch is another 
arch ; whether it was constructed with the original work, or 
subsequently, is a matter for conjecture, as is also the reason 
for its introduction. It is possible that the builders may have 
observed some sign of weakness in the piers, and introduced 
this second arch so as to throw the weight more into the centre of 
the piers, or it may be that they thought the piers looked very 
heavy, and contemplated the engineering feat of shoring up the 
superstructure^ removing the heavy piers, and the introduction of 
something lighter. 

One of the piers has been cut away on the south side, and an 
aumbry, or closet, formed therein, and in the wall above a niche 
has been formed for the purpose of holding a figure or a lamp. 

The eastern arch of the north aisle is of Transitional style, 
from Norman to Early Pointed. There are indications of thin 
plaster witli coloured decoration on this archway. 



124 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



The donations to the Priory were confirmed by Henry I. 

In 1153, in the reign of King Stephen, Henry Murdac, Arch- 
bishop of York, converted it into a Priory for Regular Canons of 
the Order of St. Augustine, of which Leland gives the following 
account : "A certain Bishop of Lincoln, who was also the 
Chancellor, and highly in favour with the King, entreated the 
King to intercede with the Archbishop of York for some lands in 
Lindsey and Moteham, which belonged to that See. The Arch- 
bishop granted the King's request, but on condition that the 
House, which was the King's Free Chapel Eoyal, should ever 
afterwards be appropriate to the See of York, which the King 
readily complied with." When the Archbishop had got the 
House into his hands he treated with the possessors of it about a 
new foundation of Regular Canons. Some of them complied, but 
others at first refused ; however, at length prevailing, he appro- 
priated benefices to them, but reserved several of their lands for 
the Church of York. 

Geqffry, of Malmesbicry, says that the Archbishop drove out 
the possessors by force, but preserved several of their lands and 
bestowed them upon his own Canons. 

Radburn accounts differently for this Priory being appro- 
priated to the See of York, and Sir Wm. Dugdale agrees in part 
with both accounts, viz. : That the King gave this House and the 
Monastery of Selby, at his own charge, in satisfaction for the 
claim which the Archbishop had in Lincoln and Lindsay. After 
the King's grant had been confirmed by the Popes, Honorius, 
Paschal, Alexander, and Innocent, the Priory again denied the 
jurisdiction of the See of Canterbury, whereupon the members of 
the Priory, and the Clerks and officials of the See of York were 
summoned to the visitation of the Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
not attending, were suspended. They appealed to the Pope, and 
the next year a Cardinal of the name of Hugezun, or Hugh, was 
despatched from Rome to settle the difference, which was done 
at a council at Winchester ; when it was agreed that the Arch- 
bishop should quit his claim to this Priory (being esteemed the 
King's Chapel, and should absolve those whom before he had. 
excommunicated. 



St. Oswald's Priory. 



125 



Probably soon after the introduction of the regular canons in 
1153, the church was enlarged by lengthening it two bays west- 
ward. Such remains as are left of this work (consisting of two 
north-west arches of the nave arcade and a piscina, subsequently 
built into the north side of the north arcade) give evidence of 
very elegant Early pointed architecture. The west end, with the 
exception of the lower part of the west buttress to the north 
arcade^ is destroyed. There is no evidence of a corresponding 
Early pointed arcade o.i the south side of the nave, the w^all is 
quite plain and solid, and on the south side thereof there are 
evidences of a vaulted passage. It is probable that the conventual 
buildings (no vestage of w^hich remains above ground) were united 
with the church at this point. It would be interesting to dig 
over the adjoining gardens, and to trace the foundations of these 
old buildings. 

Hall & Pinnell's Map of Gloucester, of the date 1780, shews 
w^hat then remained. I have copied them into the accompanying 
plan {PI. X.) They stood on the south side, and in aline with the 
later portion of the church. Probably a cloister existed to the east 
of the conventual buildings just mentioned. Tradition says that 
there was once a small quadrangle with a gate on the south side, 
and another on the north, leading to the church adjoining. 

Mr. G. Armstrong Howitt tells me that the Priory, as shewn 
in Hall k Pinnell's map, existed in his young days, and that he 
went there to school. He says that the walls were massive, and 
that the interior was filled with oak panelling, carving, &c. 

In 1174, Pichard, Archbishop of Canterbury, coming to 
Gloucester, suspended the clerks and officials of the House because 
they refused him the canonical obedience paid by the other clerks 
of the province. On this account great discord ensued between 
the two metropolitans. As usual, the canons appealed to the 
Pope, and upon the legate's interference succeeded. 

In 1217, Richard de Marisco was consecrated Bishop of 
Durham by Walter de Grey, Archbishop of York, at this Priory. 

In 1218, the Prior sued St. Peter's Abbey for St. John Cliurch 
at the North gate, St. Bridget's Chapel and land below the abbey 



126 



Transactions for the Year 188S-9. 



wall, descending from the garden in a straight line through 
the refectory, larder and bakehouse as far as the new wall next 
to St. Oswald's, and for certain tythes in Sandhurst and Abbe- 
lode, all which was adjusted for 20s. rent given to the Priory 
towards the King's Hall. 

In 1241 Nicholas de Fernham was consecrated Bishop of 
Durham here by the Archbishop of York in the presence of the 
King (Hen. III.), Queen and numerous Bishops. The new Bishop 
did not sign the profession which he then made, but subscribed 
a cross with ink and delivered it to the Archbishop. 

In 1242 the Bishop of Worcester celebrated an ordination here. 

At a provincial council held at Lambeth in 1280, Archbishop 
Peckham pronounced his sentence against the Prior and convent, 
by which he commanded that no pf^rson should presume to sell 
them any bread, wine or victuals for their sustenance, to pay 
them any tithes, to buy anything of them or to have any commerce 
with them. It was also put under a like severe sentence by 
Godfrey Gifford, Bishop of Worcester, which was afterwards 
ratified by Robert Winchelsey, Archbishop of Canterbury ; but 
the King (Edward I.), by his writ, commanded the revocation of 
their decrees, and the Archbishop was afterwards attached to 
answer the Prior in the King's Bench in the octave of Candle- 
mas for excommunicating of him and his canons to the contempt 
of the King, and to his prejudice, and in damage of <£200 to the 
Priory. Notwithstanding all this the Archbishop still refused to 
absolve the Prior, therefore the King issued his mandate to the 
keeper of the spiritualities of the province to have him absolved, 
which had its proper effect. 

In the grants of the tenths of the clergy to Edward I. in 
1290, their temporal property in the county of Gloucester was 
valued at £23 13s 8id., and was situated at Colewell, Norton, 
Parthon, Compton (Abdale) and Havenepenne, Ellsworth and 
Aston, besides a portion of 8s. from Lassindon and 13s. 4d. from 
Wydecomb. 

About the year 1303 William de Geynesborough, Bishop of 
Worcester, and his official were prohibited by Boyal mandate 



St. Oswald's Priory. 



]27 



from exercising any ecclesiatical jurisdiction over the Priory, and 
its peace was entirely established in 1318 by a general prohibition 
against any encroachments on its liberties and privileges. 

The donations to the Priory were confirmed by King Eich. II. 

In the grant of the tenths of the clergy to the King, 2nd 
Henry VII., the Prior is rated at £23 3s. 9d. for temporalities. 

At the dissolution of the monasteries, the Priory was valued 
at £90 10s. 2^d., and about seven canons were found in the 
House. 

The church had a chapel dedicated to St. Katharine for the 
use of the laity, and in the churchyard a chapel to St. Michael. 

At the dissolution, the King, in consideration of £100 and of 
former services, granted to John Jennings Esquire the site of the 
Priory with all its houses and lands in the city and suburbs of 
Gloucester, &c., to be held by the service of the twentieth part of 
a Knight's fee and the yearly tenths of iJl 10s. 4d. 

Several other lands, tithes, &c., at Longford, Compton Abdale 
and other parts of the county of Gloucester were granted to the 
Bishop and to the Dean and Chapter of Bristol upon the erecting 
of that See, and a fishery which had belonged to the Priory was 
granted to the Chapter of Gloucester. 

The north aisle of the Priory church would appear to have 
been ceded to the parishioners of St, Katharine for a parish church, 
the remainder being taken down. In order to convert the said 
aisle into a church, it became necessary to wall up the archways 
of the nave arcade (this was done with stones from the old build- 
ing, many arch-stones with zig-zag mouldings thereon may still 
be seen in the remaining wall), and to insert a doorway and 
windows. At this time the archway at the east end of the aisle 
was blocked up and the altar placed against it. The Early English 
piscina was removed to its present position and a recess for a 
sedilia was formed adjoining the piscina. 

At the siege of Gloucester in 1643 the church was almost 
totally destroyed. 

By an ordinance of parliament in the year 1648 the parish 
w^as united to St. John's^ and the church with its materials given 



128 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



to the corporation of the city. This ordinance was annulled at 
the Restoration in 1660, and the parish was again separate. 

In 1665 the corporation made use of the roof and some other 
parts of the church to build a barley market-house in the East- 
gate Street. 

Fragments of the old church, of various dates, were found 
during the building of the present St. Catharine's Church and 
boundary walls — these have been carefully preserved and, with 
one exception, have been built into the old ruins ; this exception 
is a small Norman piscina in the form of the capital to a column, 
which was found in digging the foundations for the church. 
When exposed to the air, it shewed such evident signs of decay 
that I had it reproduced, with the addition of a shaft and base, 
and built into the south wall of the vestry to the church, where 
it may now he seen. 

The site of the Priory is N.N.W. of St. Peter's Abbey, upon 
the bank of one of the artificial watercourses which were formed 
for defensive purposes by the Romans. It is said that a quay or 
wharf was near the Priory, but that it was removed in conse- 
quence of a dispute between the monks and the townsmen. 

The following List of Priors is given as collected from the 
Register Books of York and Worcester and other records : — 

1153. Humphrey, a member of Llanthony, and the first Prior 

after the introduction of regular canons. 
1260. William, when Geffrey Cuttstick and Walter Huich were 

Propositi of Gloucester. 
1281. Richard de Bachampton. 
1289. Guidodied. 
1289. Peter de Malburn elected. 

1301. Walter de Bingham on the resignation of the last. 

1310. Humphrey Lavyngton on the resignation of the last. 

1312. John Ayshwell on resignation of last. 

1312. Richard Kidderminster on resignation of John Ayshwell. 

1312. John Ayshwell restored. 

1352. William Heved. 

1398. Thomas Dick. 



St. Oswald's Priory. 



129 



1404. John Players. 
1408. John de Shipston. 

1433. John Suckley. 

1434. John Higins. 

1447. John Inglis, Canon of Cirencester, collated by Archbishop 
of York. 

1491. Nicholas Falkner, Canon of Llanthony, collated by Arch- 
bishop of York. 

1530. William Eylford, alias Jennens or GifFard, alias Jennins. 
He held the Rectory of Rudford by presentation from St. 
Peter's Abbey in commendam with the Priory till 1536, 
when he resigned it. After the Dissolution of the Priory 
he became a monk of St. Peter's, and in 1541 was made 
the first Dean of the Cathedral. 



Vol. XIII. 



130 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



GLOUCESTER TOKENS 
OF THE Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. 

By JOHN PLEYDELL WILTON. 

Illustrations drawn hy Walter Huntley. 

It is difficult in these days, when we have a silver coinage of 
crowns, half-crowns, shillings, sixpences, and threepenny pieces, 
and bronze pennies, half -pennies, and farthings, to understand 
how trade was carried on in this country when the silver penny 
was the principal current coin, and when a smaller payment 
was made by dividing it into half, and sub-dividing it again into 
quarters. But we know that such was the case ^in the early 
days of our history. There were in addition to the penny, in the 
northern provinces, coins called " stycas," struck in copper, the 
current value of which was one-eighth of a penny. In one of the 
translations of the Gospels, the words "two mites " are rendered 
" two stycas." 

The farthing, or one-fourth of a penny, and its double, or half- 
penny, began to be coined of silver about the year 1273, under 
Edward I., and continued to be minted in this manner — the 
farthing for near 300 years and the halfpenny for a century longer, 
until the restoration of Charles II. 

A farthing originally weighed about 5| grains Troy, and the 
halfpenny 11 grains, and from their size and lightness were liable 
to be lost. In consequence of their scarcity, the use of foreign 
coins, the so called "Abbey tokens " became general in England, 
and the quantity of them found in all parts of the country, shows 
that their currency was universal. The weight of the farthing, 
although small, became gradually less, so that in the reign of 
Edward lY. it was but 3 grains, and the halfpenny 6 grains, and 
they were coined at these weights in small quantities for many 
years. They are almost all lost, as are those coined for the 
previous 100 years, so that the best collections contain hardly any 
but those of the first three Edwards. 



Gloucester Tokens. 



131 



As the farthings could be minted no longer of good silver, 
being lost almost as fast as they were coined, and as no other 
methods remained of striking them except of base silver, or of 
pure copper, considerable difficulties arose The great scarcity of 
silver halfpence and farthings, was, doubtless, the cause of the 
appearance of the private lead tokens. In what King's reign this 
practice began, is uncertain. They were in use in the time of 
Henry VIII., when Erasmus spoke of them, and other authors 
mention the leaden money current in England, whereas they were 
only pieces of necessity, tickets, tokens, or pledges for money, 
but not money itself. 

We learn that in Queen Elizabeth's reign there were frequent 
complaints of private persons, such as grocers, vintners, alehouse- 
keepers, and others, stamping and using tokens of tin and lead 
and even of leather, for halfpence and farthings, as Snelling wrote 
in 1763 "to the great derogation of the princely honour and 
dignity, and at a great loss to the poor, since they were only to be 
repaid to the same shop whence they were first received, and 
nowhere else ; of which abuse that great Queen, who was sin- 
gularly attentive to the coinage, was very sensible, as also that 
there was a great want of farthings and halfpence." 

Although, as Snelling says, the Queen was sensible of the 
difficulties arising from the want of small change, she declared 
when she was pressed on the subject, even as late as three years 
before her death, that she would never consent to a currency of 
copper money, although patterns for such a coinage were made 
and are still found. 

During her reign she granted a licence to the City of Bristol 
to make farthing tokens, which were struck with a ship issuing 
from a castle (the arms of the city) on one side, and on the other 
C.B. (Civitas Bristol). Although not a Gloucester token, I des- 
cribe it as being of interest to us as a county token, and because 
it is one of the earliest known tokens. Boyne says that " having 
been issued in the reign of Elizabeth, it must be regarded as the 
earliest English token, and it is the only one of this kind sanc- 
tionedby the State before the 18th century. It is a scarce piece," 
K 2 



132 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



It is diamond shaped, and was current at Bristol and ten miles 
about. 1 Ruding writes : "I do not know the date of this licence, 
but on May 12th, 1594, a letter was sent to the Mayor and 
Aldermen of Bristol, requiring them to call in all the private 
tokens which had been uttered by divers persons without any 
authority, and that none should make the same, without licence 
from the Mayor." 

In 1609 two of the King's servants petitioned James I. for 
licence to stamp farthing tokens for the cities of Bristol and 
Gloucester, as Bristol had received authority from Queen Eliza- 
beth to stamp copper farthing tokens, which authority ceased 
upon His Majesty coming to the throne. The answer to the 
petition is not known, but we may conclude, as no such tokens 
are preserved, that it was not granted. 

In the reign of James I. many proposals were made for the 
coinage of copper halfpence and farthings. 

In 1613 " notice was given by proclamation, that His Majesty, 
being willing to continue to his subjects the good arising from the 
use of such small moneys, under such directions and cautions as 
might restrain the abuse of them, had given power and authority, 
by letters patent, to John Lord Harrington, Baron of Exton, in 
Rutlandshire, and his executors, administrators, deputies and 
assigns, to make such a competent quantity of farthing tokens of 
copper, as might be conveniently issued amongst his subjects 
within the realm of England and Ireland, and the dominion of 
Wales, during the term mentioned in the said letters patent. That 
it was not His Majesty's intention thereby to make them moneys, 
nor to force his subjects to receive them in payments, otherwise 
than with their own good liking ; but only to give more licence and 
means to use them according to their occasions, and that without 
any fee, charge, or constraint in anywise imposed upon them . . . 

Such farthing tokens to pass for the value of farthings 

within the King's realms and dominions, with the liking and 
consent of his loving subjects." ^ 

1 See ante Vol. VIII., p. 315.— En. 

2 Introduction to " Akerman's Tradesmen's Tokens, current in London 
from 1648 to 1672." I have quoted fully because it is sometimes asserted 
that these tokens nicknamed " Harrington's " were actual money. 



Gloucester ToKE^"'s. 



133 



On the granting of Lord Harrington's patent, the currency of 
all other farthings was forbidden. Charles T. issued various pro- 
clamations to continue their circulation in 1625-26, 30 and 34. 
Other patents were afterwards granted, and, at last, the number 
of counterfeits mixed up with them, and the patentees refusing to 
exchange them, put an entire stop to their currency. But as there 
was an almost absolute necessity for some such sort of money for 
small change, and the disorder of the times preventing the legis- 
lature from paying proper attention to the coinage, private 
tradesmen and the authorities of villages, boroughs, towns and 
cities began again to issue tokens. " Some of the devices and 
legends are curious enough, as may be seen by the following list ; 
some blazon their utterer's loyalty, whilst many were glad to sink 
politics to save their property from confiscation. Some bore 
promises to pay in sterling coin on demand ; some circulated with 
the request, 

THOUGH i'm but BRASS, YET LET ME PASS 

while others were inscribed with profane attempts at wit, as the 
tokens of a provincial tallow-chandler : 

TOVCH NOT MINE ANNOINTED, AND DO MY PROFITS NO HARM. 

[Akermav.) 

The issue of these tokens continued from 1648, and increased 
until 1672, and pennies, halfpennies, and farthings are found with 
every date on them within that interval ; but in the latter year 
they were all cried down by Royal proclamation. In the years 
between 1618 and 1672, it is computed that there were 18,000 or 
20,000 different penny, halfpenny, and farthing tokens. 

There are two lists of those issued in Gloucestershire, one in Mr. 
Phelps' Collectanea G loucestriensia, printed for private circulation 
in 1842, the other published in 1858 by Mr. Boyne, F.S.A., who is 
the recognised authority on the subject. Each of these lists contains 
165 named specimens, but as some are mentioned in each, which 
are not found in the other, and as recently several others in the 
British Museum have been recorded in The Numismatic Chronicle, 
and others, not named in either Boyne or Phelps, are known to 
be in private hands,^ it is probable that there were at least 200. 

' For a copy of this list, see Glouc. Notes <b Queries, Vol. III. p. 284. 



134 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Of those belonging to the city, Boyne gives a list of 20; Mr. 
Pheps 25 ; but I think some of these are errors, probably arising 
from illegibility resulting from wear. For instance, he gives 
" Walter Taynton " and " Walter Paynton " with the same date 
and arms. 

The following is a list of City Tokens, compiled from Boyne 
and Phelps. They are all farthings. The contractions used are 
(O) for the obverse and (R) for the reverse ; the mark (=) signifies 
that what follows it, is in the central part or field of the token ; 
unless otherwise specified the specimen is described by both Boyne 
and Phelps. On the tokens the initial of the surname, is usuallj'- 
placed over those of the christian names of the husband and wife, 
though sometimes the wife's initial is at the top. For the con- 
venience of printing, the three initials are placed in one line. 

LIST OF 16th century GLOUCESTER TOKENS. 

(0) LVKE • NVRSE * MAIOR * 1657 = C.G. (City of Gloucester). 

A small R, the initial of Thomas Kawlings the engraver (large 

(E-) FOR • NECESSARY ' CHANGE. The arms of the City of Glouces- 
ter ; three chevrons between ten torteaux. 

A similar one with date 1659 1 Phelps only. 

(0) A • GLOCESTER ' FARTHING = The arms of Gloucester (large i). 

(R) THOMAS • PRICE ' MAIOR * 1667 = C.G. 
(O) A • GLOVCESTER * FARTHING = C..G 1669. 




(R) THE • ARMES ' OF ' GLOUCESTE = The Arms of Gloucester. 
A similar one with date 1668 ? Phelps only. 

(0) MATTHIAS • BOWER =1666. 

(R) IN * GLOSESTER = M.B. conjoined. 



Gloucester Tokens. 



135 



(O) AT • THE • neg's * HEAD = A iiag's head. 

(R) IN • GLOSTER * 1654 = I. A.C. 

(O) RICHARD • CHANDLER = A pack Saddle. 

(R) SADLER • IN • GLOCESTER = R.C. 

(0) RICHARD • COCKES = A COck. 
(R) IN • GLOCESTER • 1652 = R.S.C 

(0) DANIELL • COLLINS = Amis : a griffin rampant. Crest : a demi 
griffin holding a hatchet. 

(R) MERCER • IN • GLOSTER = D. B.C. 

(0) THOMAS • COOKE * IN = A man making candles. 

(R) GLOVSTER • CHANDLER = T.M.C. 

(0) lOH • DONNE • OF " THE = A postman on horseback, blowing 
his horn. 

(R) CIT • OF • GLOCESTER * =J.D. 

(0) THOMAS • GOODWIN = R. GLOCESTER. 

(O) JOHN • HOBSON * MERCER = I. I.H. 
(R) IN • GLOVESTER ' 1652 = 1. 1. H. 

(0) HENORY KNOWLES = A fleslipot. 
(R) OF • GLOCESTER = H.K. 

A similar one in Phelps', without h.k. 

(0) NICHOLAS • LANE ' APOTH = The Apothecaries' arms : Apollo 
holding a bow and arrow supplanting a serpent. 



(R) IN • GLOCESTER * 1656 = N.L. 

(0) GILES • LYE • CHANDLER = G n. II. 
(R) IN • GLOTSTER = G.II.L. 

(O) THOMAS MOOR = A head. 

(R) CHANDLER, GLOCESTER. 




136 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



(0) THE ROOSE • AND * CROWNE = a rose crowiied. 

(R) IN • GLOSTER ' 1654 = W.I. P. 

(0) WALTER • TAYNTON = The Grocers' arms: a chevron between 
nine cloves, three, three and three. ^ 

(R) IN . GLOSTER • 1651 =W.E.T. 

(0) AT • THE • RAEN ' TA VERNE = A raven. 




(R) IN • GLOCESTER ' 1650 = W. A. W. 

(0) NATHANIELL ' WEBB = The Brewers' arms. 

(R) OP • GLOVETER BROWER = N.M.W. 

(0) PAYNTON • WALTER = Arms. 

(R) IN • GLOSTER * 1651 = w.E.p. Phelps only. Probably a mistake 
for Walter Taynton. 

(0) PURBEAL(QU) ' JOHN. 

(R) IN GLO. Also in Phelps only. Probably a poor specimen of 
the following, in my collection, not mentioned in Boyne. 

(0) JOHN • PURLENT = 3 tuns. 




(R) IN • GLOSTER * 1653 = P. J. B. 

The workmanship shown in the manufacture of the dies of 
these farthings, is very different ; in some it is good, in others 
poor. It is curious to notice in how many ways Gloucester is 
spelt. 1 find Glocester, Glovcester, Glouster, Gloster, Glovster 
and Glovcter. 

Mr. W. H. Stevenson, of the Historical MSS. Commission, 
who is calendaring the Corporation Records, prior to reporting 



Gloucester Tokens. 



137 



upon them to the Commission, and to whose conrtesy ^v-e are 
much indebted for assistance at this meeting, has been good 
enough to point out to me four passages in the minute books of 
the To^NTi Council, relating to the issuing of City Tokens. The 
first is dated February 19th, 1656-7. 

It is likewise agreed that Mr. Edward Xourse, a member of 
this House, shall take care that farthings may be provided for 
exchange of moneys at the charge of the Chamber of this City, 
soe as ye same exceed not ye summe of twenty pounds, and the 
benefitt that shall arise thereby, to go to the Chamber of this 
city." 1 

The next extract is dated April 30th, 1657. 

" AHiereas there was twenty pounds to be layd out for far- 
things, according to a former act, it is agreed at this House, that 
the summe of tenn pounds shall be layd out for tokens, and to be 
disposed of according to the said act." 

In the minutes of a meeting of the To'v^'n Council, on May 
23rd, 1662, it is recorded : " It is agreed by this House that 
thirty pounds shall by (be) layd out by the stewards for the 
making of tokens or farthings, according to the same stampe or 
inscription as formerly, and that Mr. Edward Xourse shall be 
desired to effect the same, and that notwithstanding the doeing 
thereof, and the inscription of Luke Xourse, Esq., Maior, the 
said Luke Xourse, and IVlr. Edward Xourse shall be indemnified 
and saved harmlesse from all damages touching the same." 

And on June 23rd, 166-1 : "It is agreed at this House that 
there shall be a newe stampe made for the farthings lately agreed 
upon for this City in Mr. Xurse's name, that now is, as it was 
formerly, in the name of Aid. Xurse in the time of his Maioralty, 
because the former stamp is lost, and Mr. Maior to be secured for 
the same by this House. " 

I have been able to learn but little about any of the persons 
who issued tokens. Luke Nourse was elected Mayor of the City 
in 1644:, the same year in which Toby Jordan (one of the mes- 
sengers who carried the answer of the citizens to King Charles I., 

^ Edward Nourse was probably a brother of Luke, tlie Mayor. 



138 



Transactions foe, the Year 1888-9. 



ill Treworth Field, when he summoned the city to surrender) 
was Sheriff. Luke Nourse was elected Mayor again in 1656. He 
died April 25th, 1673, aged 89 years, and was buried in St. 
Michael's Church, Cornhill, London. His son issued a remarkable 
and rare token in Bishopsgate Street, London. This following is 
a description of it from a specimen I have been fortunate enough 
to obtain. It is a large token, exactly an inch in diameter, and 
on the one side is inscribed in six lines, edw. | novrse | his far- 

I THINGE"^ I WORTH OF | COPPER. | and Oil the other, next I THE 

BULL I IN BISHOP | "^GATE* | STREET, | 1666. | Other members of 
the family were benefactors of this City and County. Edward, 
probably the member of the Council already mentioned, left money 
to the Parish of St. Mary de Grace ; Timothy, to St. Catherine 
and St. Mary de Grace in the City, and to the Parishes of Newent, 
Lea, and Longhope in this County ; and according to the inscrip- 
tion on the monument in the Cathedral erected to his widow, who, 
after his death, married Dr. Harwood, a Prebendary of the 
Cathedral, he was "the first founder of the workhouse in this 
city." Walter Nourse was a benefactor to Newent. William to 
Mitcheldean. There is a monument with a long Latin inscription 
in the Church of St. Mary de Crypt to " the most skillful Dr. 
Anthony Nourse," probably another member of the family. 

In St. John's Church is a monument to "Tho^ Price, Alderman, 
twice Mayor of this City, and Major of Horse to King Charles L, 
who died January 14th. 1678," eleven years after the date on 
his farthing. 

Walter Taynton, mercer, was buried in St. Nicholas Church- 
yard, in 1646. He was probably the father of Walter Taynton, 
grocer, whose farthing bears the date 1651, and who died in 1658, 
and was buried in St. Nicholas. 

Respecting Matthias, or Matthew Bower, it is recorded by 
Fosbroke that in the North aisle of St. Nicholas Church is a 
monument on which is this inscription : " Near this place lies 
Susannah, late wife of William Jordan, one of the Aldermen of 
this City, who in her lifetime gave order for the erecting of this 
monument, in memory of her two former husbands, Richard Ly 



Gloucester Tokexs. 



139 



and Matthew Bower, gent., by whom she had 11 children, all 
which lie here interred." She died Aug., 16th, 1682. 

The names of Richard Chandler and Richard Cockes appear 
in the list of men selected for the defence of the city in 1651. 
Richard Chandler died April 17th, 1695, and was buried at St. 
Mary de Crypt. 

Thomas Cook's name appears signed to a petition presented in 
1651 " to the supreme authority, the Parliament of the Common- 
wealth of England." This petition prayed that the parish of St. 
Mary de Lode might be joined to the Cathedral for parochial 
purposes, so that payment of a minister for St. Mary might be 
made from the funds of the Cathedral, as there were no funds 
for such payment belonging to the Parish. It is stated in the 
petition that the Church of St. Mary had recently been used as a 
place of detention for 1500 Welshmen, taken prisoners. This was 
after the battle at Barber's Bridge, near Rudford. Fosbroke 
mentions that this Church, and that of the Holy Trinity, were 
used as prisons for the Welshmen taken from Lord Herbert in 
the Civil War. 

Nicholas Lane probably resided in the Parish of St. Michael, 
as there is a monument to his wife and daughter in that Church, 
with a Latin inscription which runs, translated : " Here rests in the 
hope of a blessed resurrection the earthly part of Mary, the 
dearest wife to her husband, Nicholas Lane, of this City ; also of 
her very much beloved offspring, Esther." 

Daniel Collins was also probably a resident in the same parish. 
Bridget Collins, wife of Daniel Collins, mercer, died 1671, and 
was buried in that Church. 

Of none of the other issuers can I find any trace. " The Rose 
and Crown " stands in Hare Lane, and probably The Raven " 
was in the neighbourhood. The Rev. Wm. Bazeley tells me that 
looking through the records of the Tanners' Company, he finds 
frequent mention of convivialities at The Raven." As the 
Tanners' Hall was situated in Hare Lane, it is probable that " The 
Raven " was not far from it. 



140 



Transactions for the Year 1S88-9. 



The dies from which the tokens were struck were probably 
made in London ; as Birmingham and Sheffield, places where they 
could now be procured, were then of much less relative size and 
importance than they are now, hardly of as much importance as 
the Gloucester of that date. " The coining seems to have been 
often performed by the issuers themselves. In the Gentleman's 
Magazine, Yol. 27, p. 499, there is an account of the discovery of 
a Token press and dies, which were used by Edward Wood and 
his son Richard, at Chesterfield ; they were found in their house 
after the death of Edward, the son of the last-named Richard. 
The dies were cast on two small pieces of steel, each welded on a 
larger block of iron. The press consisted of four pieces of good 
oak, not less than four inches thick, very strongly dove-tailed 
together. In the upper cross-piece was fixed an iron box and 
screw, on the bottom of which was one of the dies, whilst the 
other was received into a square hole, made in the bottom cross- 
piece, where it lay as in a bed. The screw was wrought by hand, 
in the manner of a capstan, by means of four handles, each about 
nine inches long" (Boyne). The dies here described correspond 
exactly with those of Luke Nourse and another, which are still 
in the possession of the Corporation, and which by their permission 
I am enabled to show at this meeting. I believe that but few 
exist elsewhere. 

I need hardly ask the members of the Society not to confuse 
these tokens with genuine money. We know that money was 
minted in Gloucester from a very early period. Mr. J. Drummond 
Robertson, who, before he made Gloucester his home, had earned 
his spurs as a Numismatist, by producing an elaborate work on 
Scottish money, has evinced his interest in this locality, by 
devoting his attention to the Gloucester Mint. The result of his 
study was the exhaustive paper on the subject which has appeared 
in the Transactions of the Society. In it he shewed that the first 
Saxon monarch who regulated the coinage of this country by law 
was jiEthelstan (grandson of Alfred the Great), who died in Glouces- 
ter in the year 941. Gloucester at that period was expressly styled 
"this Royal City," and was one of the towns which received at 
least one moneyer, and silver pennies were issued from this, one 
of the Royal Mints, with occasional interruptions, to the reign of 



Gloucester Tokens. 



141 



Henry III. These were real money, not tokens of money like 
the subjects of this pcaper, and were current throughout the whole 
of England. 

Some writers speak disparagingly of these tokens. Evelyn, in 
his 2i^umis7}tata, printed in 1697, writes: "the Tokens which 
every Taverne and tipplinsj house (in the days of late Anarchy 
among us) presum'd to stamp and utter for immediate exchange, as 
they were payable through the neighbourhood, which though seldom 
reaching further than the next street or two, may haply in after 
times, come to exercise and busie the learned Critic, what they 
would signitie, and fill whole volumes with their conjectures, as 1 
am perswaded several as arrant trifles have done, and still do, 
casually mentioned in Antient Authors." 

Notwithstanding this condemnation by the learned medallist, 
I think there are some points of interest connected with these 
trifles. One is that they show by the number issued in the 
different towns, the relative importance of each at that period of 
our history. I said that Birmingham and Sheffield were then of not 
more importance than Gloucester. Birmingham issued 17 tokens 
and Sheffield 17, whilst at least 20 are known of Gloucester. We 
know, too, that Cirencester and Tewkesbury were at that period of 
much greater relative importance than they are at present. 
Tewkesbury w^ould appear to have been a more important place 
than Gloucester, as there are 30 described tokens ; Cirencester 
had 21. Stroud, now a large flourishing town, is not mentioned 
by Boyne. He attributes all the tokens under titles of Strood, 
Strowd or Stroud, to Strood, in Kent. But there are only 11 
described of that place. Some of them, he says, may belong to 
Stroud, in Gloucestershire. ^ Painswick, now part of the borough 
of Stroud, issued two. 

Tokens have certainly handed down to posterity the names 
of their issuers ; for instance, I know of no apothecary of that 
period, except Nicholas Lane, whose farthing is one of the illus- 
trations of my paper. And one use of them we must not despise 
in these days of extensive advertising. They were, doubtless, used 
for the purpose of making their issuers known to the public. This 
must be considered as only subsidiary to the objects for which they 

1 See ante Vol. VIII. p. 320.— Ed. 



142 



Transactions foe, the Year 1888-9. 



were struck, which were, as an old writer says, " for charitie and 
change." — a legend which also appears on one of the old true 
farthings. 

Towards the close of last century, to meet the requirements of 
trade, and in consequence of the scarcity of current coin, which 
scarcity was increased in the first quarter of the present century 
by the exportation of money during the wars in which this country 
was engaged, the issuing of tokens, as equivalents of money, was 
renewed. A city through its local authority, probably the 
municipal corporation, or an individual, issued silver or copper 
tokens, by which the issuer was bound to give current coin of the 
realm in exchange for them when presented, either at some central 
place, in the case of the town, or when issued by a private 
individual, either at his residence, or frequently at some address, 
specified on the token, in London. Of those issued in Gloucester 
the following is, as far as I know, a complete list. 

A set of ten copper tokens, of which there are three illus- 
trations. The obverse is different in each of them. 

1. GLOUCESTER CROSS = (0) THE HIGH CROSS PULLED DOWN IN 1751, 

surrounding a view of the cross {fig. 8.; 




Fig. 8. 

2. GLOCESTER CATHEDRAL Ex = FIRST BUILT 1061 (Jig. 9). 




Fig. 9. 



Glofcester Tokens. 



143 



3. ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH = Yiew of the Church, with the spire 
before it was shortened {fig. 10). 




Fig. 10. 



4. (0) ST. John's church. = View of the Church. 

5. (O) ST. MARY DE CRYPT CHURCH AND SCHOOLS. = Yiew of the 

Church. 

6. (0) ST. Michael's church. = View of the Church. 

7. (C) ST. MARY DE LODE. = View of the Church. 

8. (0) THE NEW COUNTY GAOL. = View of the Gaol. 

9. (0) ST. Bartholomew's hospital, rebuilt ]789. = View of the 
Hospital. 

10. white friars. = View of the building. 

The reverse of this set is the same in all of them, viz : — 
THE ARMS OF GLOUCESTER, 1797. = The Cap of Maintenance and 
the City Arms ( fig. 11) with city token, and the name of the 




Fig, 11. 



engraver, W. Kempson, fecit. Proofs of these are sometimes 
found in silver. A set of them is in the Gloucester Museum. 
There is a similar set, of which I have six specimens, issued 
in white metal. The obverse is the same as that of those 



144 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



described as engraved by Kempson. The reverse is somewhat 
different, as the words city token are omitted, and the en- 
graver's name is Ottley. 

Although Kempson's pieces are inscribed city token, no 
value is named. They are about the size of our bronze pennies. 
From the state of preservation of all the specimens I have seen, 
I regard them rather as medals than tokens. 

The other 19th century Tokens I have are — 

1. (O) GLOUCESTER COUNTY AND CITY TOKEN, MDCCCXI. =The 

Cathedral. 

(R) FOR XII PENCE, a wreath of leaves. — The Cap of Main- 
tenance and City Arms (silver). 

2. (0) GLOUCESTER TOKEN, TWO SHILLINGS AND SIXPENCE. — City 

Arms. 

(R) In 8 Lines. A pound note | for eight tokens | given by 

J. WHALLEY^ I GLOUCESTER | AND AT | No. 10, CHARLOTTE bT. 
I FITZROY SQUARE | LONDON | . (Silver). 

3. (O) GLOUCESTER TOKEN, ONE SHILLING. — Arms of City. 

(R) In 7 lines, payable at | jas whalley's | Gloucester 

I AND at I No. 10 charlotte ST | FITZROY SQUARE | LONDON 

! (Silver). 

4. (0) GLOUCESTER CITY TOKEN, ONE SHILLING. — City ArmS. 

(R) TO FACILITATE TRADE OCT. 25tH 1811. — (6 lines) PAYABLE 
I ON DEMAND | BY SAUNDERS | & | BUTT | (Silver). 

5. (0) GLOUCESTER & BERKELEY CANAL ACT OBTAINED 1793 — A 

ship sailing. 

(R) SUCCESS TO THE TRADE AND COMMERCE OF GLOUCESTER 

1793. — View of the old Westgate and Westgate Bridge. 
Round the edge, payable at Gloucester. (Copper, also proofs 
in silver). 

1 Mr. Whalley was a draper who lived in the Westgate Street^ next 
door to the Tolsey. 



Glocckster Tokens. 145 

6. (O) A Barge sailing. Gloucester and Berkeley canal 
COMENCED 1793. 

(R) RESUMED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE DUKE OF GLOUCESTER 

15 JUNE AND COMPLETED APRIL 1827. (White u etal. ) 

In Phelps' Collectanea two other tokens are described, which I 
have not seen. 

(O) N. VIEW OF CATHEDRAL ST, PETER GLOUCESTER. Ex. Bt. 1201. 
JACOBS. 

(R) A cypher "t.g.'' between palm leaves, bkitish penny 1797. 

Ed. I promise TO PAY ON DEMAND ONE PENNY. 

(O) A distant View of the City, success to the trade and 

COMMERCE OF GLOUCESTER 1797. 

(R) A Ship sailing. Gloucester and Berkeley canal act 
OBTAINED 1793. 

Ed. PAYABLE AT GLOUCESTER. (Ill Bronze and Brass). 

I have heard that a copper token was issued by the celebrated 
" Jimmy " Wood, but i have not seen one. It is reported that at 
his death, large quantities of old copper coins were removed from 
his house and sold to the marine store dealers. Possibly these 
may have been his tokens that were re-exchanged at his bank. It 
would be interesting to have one, issued by so remarkable a 
citizen of Gloucester. 



Vol. XIII. L 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



NOTES ON THE MANOR AND CHURCH OF HEMPSTED. 

Hy the Rev. B. S. DAWSON, Rector. 

Bead at Bempsted, Tuesday, Jidy ]7th, 1888. 

The earliest mention I find of Herapsted, as an ecclesiastical 
Benefice, is that Walter, Constable of Gloucester, when he founded 
the Church of St. Owen, in Gloucester, obtained the grant of the 
tithes of some adjacent rural churches or chapels, of which Hemp- 
sted was one, as a perpetual alms and prebend to his chaplains. 

Subsequently, at the time of the founding of JVew Lanthovy 
by Milo, Constable of Gloucester, in 1136, the Church of St. Owen, 
with its appendages — amongst them the Chapel of Hempsted, with 
all the tithes of the tenants in villenage — was conferred by him on 
the Priory Church, and this gift, for greater security, was inserted 
in the act of its dedication : " Capella de Heyhamstede cum 
omnibus decimis villanorum in omnibus — banc donationem feci 
canonicis Lantlion^ in ecclesia sanct?e Marije apud Gloiic die et 
hora qua ipsa dedicabatur. a.d. mcxxxvii." 

Later on, in 1141, Milo, upon his advancement to the Earldom 
of Hereford by the Empress Maud, (jamque consulatiis honorem 
adejytus) conferred upon the Priory his Manor and Lordship of 
Hempsted, and solemnly confirmed his gifts before the altar of 
the Church in the presence of his sons, Roger, Walter, and Henry. 

To this gift, ten years later, Sept. 1151, Milo added the ViW 
of Hempsted as a perpetual alms, " which donation, made for the 
health of his own soul, and his ancestors and his sons, was attested 
by the Empress Maud." 

i may mention here, that, previously to this, another portion 
of the tithes of Hempsted, probably the tithes of the demesne and 
some glebe had been purchased from the Abbot and Convent of 
Lira, in Normandy, and made over to Lanthony, of which William 
de Wycomb was then Prior. 



Manor and Church of Hempsted. 147 

These separate gifts of tithes to Lanthony were confirmed by 
Henry II. ; and there are also found the following Papal confir- 
mations : — by Pope Alexander III. (1159-1181), by Honorius III. 
(1216-1227), by Gregory IX. in the 6th year of his Pontiicate, 
i.e. 1233, (specialiter auteni ecclesiain Sancti Audoeni apud Glouc. 
cum Capella de Hecamstede, de Elmore et Quedesley et omnibus 
pertinentiis suis, ikc.) ; and by Alexander lY. (1254-1261). 

The Canons of Lanthony being thus in possession of the 
Vicarage of St. Owen's with the Chapelries of Hempsted, Elmore 
and Quedgeley, and all their ecclesiastical revenues, put a secular 
priest into the cure of St. Owen's, together with these chapelries, 
and assigned him a certain portion of the tithes from each of these 
places. The portion of tithe from Hempsted is thus described : 
" the small tithes and obventions of the altarage of the Chapel of 
Heyhamstede, which ' communibus annis ' are computed worth 60 
shillings and more, with the manse, curtilage and garden, belong- 
ing to the said chapell, which garden is large and very fruitful 
(amplum et bene fructuosum). Also the Prior added to the same 
all the tythes, as well in Hay as in corn, arising from three yard 
land (sic ) in the Vill' of Heyhamstede, the tythe of every yard 
taken separately was " communibus annis " worth seven shillings 
and more." (It may interest some to know that the names of the 
three tenants of these yards of land were Adam Kinemon, Roger 
Keys, and Alice Drake). This was in the reign of Henry III., say 
about 1240. The total income assigned to the Vicar of St. Owen's, 
from St. Owen's, Hempsted, Quedgley and Elmore was £15 6s. 
8d., together with the manse and garden at Hempsted. f 15 in 
those times, would, I suppose, be the equivalent of £150 now, 
perhaps more. 

Before long, however, a controversy arose between the Canons 
of Lanthony and the Vicar of S.Owen's. He complained that while 
they waxed in wealth he was left with a mere pittance, that " his 
vicarage was insufiicient, and that if he were bound to reside upon 
it, the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, according to agreement 
with his predecessor, were bound to build an Habitacle for him." 
It would seem likely from this that the " manse," before spoken 
L 2 



148 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



of, liad fall(>ii into decay, and if so, the vicar had surely some 
i^oimd for complaint, for tlie Lanthonians, hav^iiig absorbed all 
the ecclesiastical property of Henipsted, might reasonably be 
expected to have kept the parsonage in repair. Arbitrators 
were appointed to examine into and settle the matter. They 
decided that the arrangement with the vicar had been assented 
to by him on his appointment, and confirmed by the Bishop 
and that he had consequently no grounds for complaint. The 
Vicar had to submit, and by the advice of his friends with- 
drew his claims upon the canons to build a " Habitacle " for 
him. Upon his making submission, the referees granted him 
" six marks of silver so that three-and-a-half of the said six 
marks were expended, at the discretion of the Ordinary, upon the 
building of an habitation at Heyhampstede for the use of the 
said vicarage of St. Owens." The remaining 2^ marks the Vicar 
was allowed for his private use. How long this arrangement with 
the Vicar of St. Owen's for serving the Parishes of Hempsted, 
Quedgeley and Elmore lasted, there is, as far as I know, no record 
to show. Gibson thinks it did not continue very long, and that 
the Priory of Lanthony soon got these parishes entirely in its own 
hands. If he is right in this conjecture, may it not have been then, 
or soon after, that the old Chapel of Hempsted (of which we may 
conclude the fine Norman font to be a relic) was superseded by 
the present Church : — i e. about 1400'? 

After an existence of 402 years, the Priory of Lanthony was 
dissolved on the 10th May, 1539. On this, Gibson remarks : 
" And indeed it was so utterly dissolved then, or at least is so 
now, that of the Conventual Church, not one stone is left upon 
another that is not thrown down. All the buildings belonging to 
the Priory are likewise destroyed ; except some of the meanest 
offices. Neither remain there any marks of its former greatness 
but the west and south gates, with part of the court walls, which 
were anciently moated round." 

In the following year, 1540, the site of the Church of Lanthony 
Priory, together with certain lands now forming the estate of 
Ne\\"ark, were granted by the crown to Arthur Porter, Esq., (of 



MaXOK and CHtJRCH OF HeMPSTED. 



149 



Quedgeley) for the sum of £73 16s. 8d. Six of his children are 
buried at Hempsted. The brass in the tower, date 1548, is to their 
meniorv. He had previously buried two at Quedgeley in 1532. 

Five years later (37th Henry VIII.) the Manor of He npsted 
was granted to Thomes Atkins and Margaret his wife. You will 
have noticed the handsome recumbent effigy of Sir Richard 
Atkins in the Chancel, and the tablet to Elenora his wife, bearing 
the following epitaph : — 

Hir godly life, hir blessed death 

Hir hope and consolation 
Were signes to us and seals to her 

Of joyful Resurrection. 

The estate of Podgmead, or Podsmead, which belonged to 
Lanthony, had previously been granted by Henry VIII. to Joan 
Cook, widow of Alderman Cook. From her it passed to the family 
of Hoskin, and from them to the Corporation of Gloucester, its 
present possessors. In this way was disposed of the whole of 
Hempsted, which for several centuries had been parcel of the 
possessions of Lanthony Priory. 

To revert to the Porter family: — A.rthur Porter, who purchased 
Lanthony and the adjoining lands (now Newark) from Hen. VIII, 
left a son, Thomas Porter, who had livery of the estate granted 
him in the first year of Elizabeth. He left a son and heir. Sir 
Arthur Porter, Knight, who had an only daughter and heiress 
married to John Scudamore, of Home-Lacy, Esq., afterwards 
created Viscount Scudamore, who thus, in right of his wife, 
became proprietor of the lands and tithes conveyed in Arthur 
Porter's grant. Lord Scudamore was a staunch churchman, the 
intimate friend and follower of Archbishop Laud, and, in 1635, 
was sent by Charles 1. to Paris, as ambassador to Louis XIII. 
Accordingly Ave are not surprised to find that at the very begin- 
ning of the Great Rebellion his Hempsted property was seques- 
trated by the Parliament army for delinquency. As soon as he 
was restored to possession (1652), he charged himself with the 
arrears of tithes, to the amount of .£1200, and disbursed them 
among ejected Bishops and distressed clergy, and this he continued 
to do up to the Restoration, thus distributing in all £1756. 



150 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



After the Restoration, as soon as certain difficulties connected 
with his marriage settlement were removed, Lord Scudamore 
formally conveyed these tithes for the maintenance of a clergyman 
at Hempsted. 

But, meanwhile, the church, churchyard, parsonage and glebe 
of Hempsted, with a portion of the tithes (probably that portion, 
which, in the reign of Henry III., had been allotted to the Vicar 
of St. Owen's) had passed into the possession of Henry Powle, of 
Williamstrop (Williamstrip), in the County of Gloucester, Esq., 
These Lord Scudamore set himself to recover, and after, what is 
described as rather a hard bargain, lie purchased, January, 1661, 
for £376, "the Vicarage-House and garden and orchard, the 
Parsonage, Close and Barn, and a parcel of Meadow ground in 
Hempsted Moor, the Church-house and Church and Chancel and 
Churchyard of Hempsted, together with the perpetual advow- 
son, or perfect and absolute patronage of the said Church, and 
all the said Henry Bowie's Portion of Tithes, Oblations, and 
Obventions whatsoever renewing and growing within the Tithe- 
able places of the said Parish of Hempsted." 

By this gift of tithes, great and small, Hempsted became a 
rectory. 

George Wall was the first Rector, and he has left the following 
memorandum in the Register of this munificent gift : — 

Anno Domini 1662. 

Ad Perpetuam Rel Memoriam. 

Hoc anno Rectoria de Hempsted, appropriata et in manibus 
Laicorum tanquam feodum seculare diu detenta, mutata fuit et 
erecta in Rectoriam perpetuam prsesentativam, institutivam, et 
inductivam k Presbyteris, futuris successive temporibus, guber- 
nandam : per piam munificentiam nobilissimi et honoratisimi 
Domini Johannis Scudamore, Vicecomitis de Sligo in Regno 
Hibernise ; Qui (glorioso et imitatione dignisimo exemplo) cum 
eandem Rectoriam appropriatam, una cum perpetua Advocatione 
Ecclesiae pretio satis magno perquisivisset ; et Prioratum de Lan- 
thoni, cum omnibus et singulis ad eundem pertinentibus terris 



Manok and Ohitkch of Hempstki>. 



151 



pratis, pascuis et pasturis dominicis, Parochise de Hempsted, eadem 
eonjungi et uniri providisset ; oinnes et omnigenas tarn ParochiEe 
quain Prioratus predict' decimas, oblationes, glebam, domos omnes 
ad dictam Rectoriam spectantes, necnon antiquum Prioratus 
Caemeterium, et obventiones quascunque, Deo et Ecclesite predict' 
restituit et consecravit et Rectori (qui pro tempore fuerit) in per- 
petuam eleemosynam donavit : Eaque omnia et singula, speciali 
actu Parliamentario confirmari curavit. Deinceps Georgium 
Wall, Presbyterum, A.M. ad eandem ecclesiam prsesentavit ; qui 
protinus primus ejusdem Rector, institutus, et in realem et 
actualem ejusdem possessionem inductus est 4^ die Junii 1662. 

"An instance," says Gibson, "of what excellent use Parish 
Registers would be, if, as Bishop Nicholson saith, ' care were 
taken to register all remarkable occurrences relating to the public 
concerns of the several Parishes.'" 

A few years later. Lord Scudamore began to build, at his own 
expense, the present rectory house, but, dying before its com- 
pletion, ("eheunimis propere," writes Archdeacon Gregory) the 
work was carried on by his executors (Sir William Gregory and 
Mr. John Hereford). The cost was £700. Its first inhabitant was 
John Gregory, second Rector, and also Archdeacon of Gloucester, 
who has recorded his grateful appreciation of his patron's muni- 
ficence in the Register {see beloiv), and by an inscription over 
the door in golden letters : 

" Who'ere doth dwell within this door, 
Thank God for Viscount Scudamore. " 

The letters still remain, but the gold is new. 

A.D. 1671. 

Sciant Poster i. 

Hoc anno extructas ac finitas fuisse vere amplas et decoras petris 
hujus Ecclesife sedes ; solis sumptibus prjenobilis viri ac Domini 
Yicecomitis Scudamore de Sligo in Regno Hibernije, hujus Ecclesiam 
patroni in £eternum honorandi : Quas ipse superiori anno vivus 
fundavit ; hoc antem (heci nimis propere') mo'-iens, executoribus 
suis Domino Gulielmo Gregory e civitate Herefordiie jurisconsulto 
integerrimo, et J ohanni Hereford, Gen. ultimo testimento finiendas 



152 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



deincandavit ; Johannique Gregory Archidiacono Glouc' hujus 
Ecclesifie Rectori primuin incolendas reliquit. 

Sit memoria ejus in omne tempus benedicta 

Et exemplum ejus sequentes 
Sub Scuto amoris Divini piotegantur 

Omnes in posterum ecclesise patroni 

Upon this Gibson pompously remarks : — 

"Here I leave you to reflect a little and consider what an 
opulent and noble Priory that of Lanthony was, and how poor 
and mean the Vicarage House of Hempsted that depended on it. 
How the former is reduced to ruine and desolation, and the latter 
risen to a state of magnificence to be admired. What a vast 
difference and disproportion there must needs be between that 
" ancient habitacle " which cost three marks and a half of silver, 
and this noble Manse which cost three hundred times as much. 
For Sir Hobert Atkins saith, ' The Lord Scudamore built the 
strong handsome Parsonage House in Hempsted, which cost seven 
hundred Pounds.' " 

Archdeacon Gregory lies buried beneath the altar. At Hemp- 
sted he was enabled (" otium adeptus ")to complete his edition of 
the Greek Testament, with its laborious Greek Scholia, which 
was published by his son and successor in this Rectory, with the 
assistance of Dean Aldrich and others at Oxford. A copy may 
be seen in the vestry 

The following notes on the Church are contributed by Messrs. 
Waller & Son : — 

St. Swithin's Church, Hempsted. 

This church consists of a South Porch, 10 ft. by 8 ft.; a nave, 
56ft. by 25ft. ; and Chancel, 29ft. by 23ft. ; with a Tower carried 
on very peculiarly constructed arches between the Nave and 
Chancel. There is also a modern Yestry and Cloister approach 
to it. Of the old Church nothing remains but the w^alls of the 
Porch, Nave and Chancel, and the whole of the Tower, all of which 
were erected, probably, in the early part of the fifteenth century. 

About forty years ago new roofs were placed on the Nave and 
Chancel, a new Vestry v\"as erected on the north side of the Nave, 



MWOK AND ChPRCH OF HkMPSTED. 



153 



and new windows were erected in the west wall of the Nave and 
on the east wall of the chancel. 

In lS8o much of this last named work, which was in very 
bad taste, and of inferior workmanship, was removed, anc' new 
erected in its place ; in no case, however, was the old work 
interfered with excepting in adding 12 feet to the length of 
the Xave, that being the only part where an addition could be 
made for the necessary increase of accommodation ov. ing to the 
interments on the north and south sides of the Church. 

The Tower is a singularly picturesque feature of the building, 
and the details of it are very bold. 

The CavaHers Tomb in Hempsted Clt-urclnjard. 
The following is the inscription on the tomV> of Captain Freeman, 
who was killed in the siege of Gloucester : — 



In Dorneys Diary of the Siege of Gloucester (London, 1643) 
there occurs the following : — 

"Monday, Aug. 14. We had some suspition and kind of intelli- 



and that it lay in some grounds undiscovered between the 



150 musketeers commanded by Captain Mallery sallied forth 
of the Xorthport to surprize it ; but not finding any retreated 
without losse, but killed four of the eneinies,^ and took two 
prisoners tfe fired some of their quarters at the Margarets . . . 
This day the enemy played with their ordnance from Gaudy 
Greene, lir battered the town wall on the south side of the 
Fryers Orchard, but we quickly made up the breach witli 



Hie jacet Johannes Freeman 
Centurio Equestris, Filius Johannis 
Freeman de Bushleij Comitatu 
Wigorn: Armiyeri, Castris Regiis 
Obsidione Gleuensi Sclopetarioe 
Gland is Ictu Traj edits, 




gence that they were drawing ordnance to the Kingshome ; 



Xorthgate and the Margarets. AYhereupon a party of about 



154 



Transactions for tub Ykak IS88-9. 



woolsacks and canon-baskets. By this time they had drawn 
their trench in Gaudy Greene neer the moat at Rignall Stile, 
where they inade a kind of mine to drain the moat which 
much sunk the water of the moat between the south & east 
ports." 

As this is the whole of the entry in the Diary of the Siege for 

14th of August, the day on which Captain Freeman was killed, 

it seems tolerably clear that the musket ball by which he lost his 

life was fired by one of these 150 musketeers. 

A brass in Bushley Church records the death of his brother, 

Roberts Freeman, who was four years his junior, at the age of 27. 

ROBERTS FREEMAN, Gent. 

Deceased Dec. 13, 1651. 

Here Reader reade Thine own estate 
Though young, wise, pious, such thy fate 

Must shortly be 

For such was he 
Serve thou thy God as he hath done, 
This service makes a servant son 

Heaven's Freen^an be 

For such is he. 

Aged 27. 

Hempsted Bells. 

5. Tenor F sliarp. 1694. Ab. Ruddall fecit. John Gregory, 

Rector. 

2. B 1694. A.R. of Gloster, cast us. 

1. C sharp. 1764. (probably recast) Burris and Driver, 

Churchwardens. 

3. K sharp. 1817. J. R., fecit. Rev. S. Commeline, Bene- 

factor. 

(Re-cast at the expense of Saml. Ly sons, Esq.) 

4. G. sharp, 1817. Samuel Lysons, Esq., Benefactor. J.R, 

fecit. 

6. D sharp. 1885. B. S. Dawson, Rector, dedit. Mears 

and Stainbank, fecerunt. 



Inscription on Brass in Tower of Hempsted Church. 
Nere this place lyeth buried ye hodyes of Nicholas Porter, Henry 
Roger and Nicholas junr. Cecilly and Brigid sonnes and daughters 
to Arthur Porter Esquir and Alys his wife a<^d^ mdxlviii. on whose 
soides Jesu have mercy. 



TnK Abbev of St. Peter. 



155 



THE EARLY DAYS OF THE ABBEY OF ST. PETER, 
GLOUCESTER. 

By the Rev. WILLIAM BAZELEY M.A. 

liead at Gloncester, 16th July, 1888. 

The Cathedral Church which we have visited to-day was for 
860 years before the establishment of a Gloucester Bishopric, the 
Church of the Abbey of St. Peter. 

The early history of this monastic foundation is extremely 
obscure. 

You will remember that Gloucester was captured in 577 by 
the West Saxon invaders who appear to have laid it in ruins. If 
there were Christian churches here in the time of the Roman 
occupation they were destroyed, and, like Bath and Chester, 
Gloucester became for awhile the habitation of the wolf and the 
bittern. 

While the West Saxons ruled in the Severn Vale, the sound 
of the Gospel was unheard. The British Christians who survived 
either fled westward or renounced their belief in Christ, 

Nor in 628 were matters improved when Penda, King of the 
Mercians, became overlord of the Hwiccas who inhabited what 
is now Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. ^ 

Penda was a great warrior and a devoted adherent of the gods 
of his anciestors. In 631 he slew Edwin the Christian King of 
Northumbria at Heathfield ; ^ and in 642 he slew Oswald, Edwin's 
successor, at Maserfield. The fallen King was beheaded on the 
field of battle, and his mutilated limbs were set up on stakes of 
wood. 3 

270 years later Ethelred, the sub-King of Mercia, and his wife 
^thelflfeda, the brave lady of the Mercians, brought the bones of 

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Church Historians of England, Vol. II., Part I. 
p. 14. 2 i(^em. 3 iJem., p. 15. 



136 



Tkansactions i'oh tiik Vkar 1888-9. 



8t. Oswald from Bardnoy to Gloucester and laid them in the monas- 
tery which they had built and dedicated to liis memory.' The 
remains of St. Oswald's Priory are still to be seen on the south side 
of St. Catherine's Church,- and Oswald, the Christian King of 
Northumbria, may in some sense be said to be the patron saint of 
Gloucester. 

The introduction of Christianity into Mercia was brought 
about by intermarriages between the children of Penda and the 
children of Oswiu, Oswald's successor. Alchfrid, the second son 
of Oswiu, married Cyneburh the daughter of the Mercian King, 
and his influence led Peada, the eldest son of Penda, to become 
a Christian in order that he might wed Alchfleda, Alchfrid's sister. 
Moreover, ^thelred, the third son of Penda, married Osthryd, a 
younger daughter of Oswiu. 

In 659 war broke out between Mercia and Northumbria, and 
Penda was slain by Osw^u at the battle of the Winwaed.'* 

The defeat of the Mercians led to the disruption of Mercia, 
and the Hwicca^^ as well as the East Anglians came directly under 
the influence of Oswiu. Northumbrian missionaries penetrated 
far and wide through the middle of England ; and, after a lapse 
of 100 years, the Standard of the Cross was once more uplifted 
in the Severn Vale. At Deerhurst, at Tewkesbury, and in the 
woods near Malmesbury, hermitages were erected. 

Wulpher, the son of Penda, succeeded in regaining his father's 
supremacy; but, being a Christian, he did nothing to hinder the 
spread of Christianity in these parts. Oswiu died in 670, and was 
succeeded in turn by his sons Eggfrid and Alchfrid. Wulpher, 
King of the Mercians, dying in 675, was succeeded by his brother 
^thelred. 

I have mentioned these facts in order that I may explain the 
appearance of two Northumbrian princes, Osric and Oswald, as 

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Church Historians of England, Vol. II. Part 1 , 
p. 57 ; also W. of Malmesbury, Ch. Hists., Vol. III., Part I., pp. 43 and 109. 
- See ante p. 118, and Plates IX. and X. 

Bede's Ecclesiastical Hists., Ch. Hists., Vol. I., Part II., p. 418. 

Anglo Saxon Chronicle, p. 16. 



The Abbey of St. Petkk. 



157 



siib-Kiii<;s of the Hwiccas in 680. I have no doubt that they were 
youno-er sons of Oswiu, who died in 670, and brothers of the 
Mercian Queen Osthryd. I am led to think so for two reasons : 
first, because Osric succeeded to the throne of Northumbria after 
the death of his nephew Osred ; ^ and, secondly, because Ivyne- 
burgh, who is spoken of by various writers as Osric's sister,- is 
said to have been youngest daughter of Oswiu. ^ 

^thelred, King of the Mercians, was not fond of war like his 
brother Wulpher. Although the first years of his reign were 
marked by conflicts with Kent and Northumbria, his temper was 
peaceful and religious, and his activity showed itself in establish- 
ing Bishoprics and Monasteries. 

In 680 Tatfritli. a pupil of Hilda, the Abbess of Whitby, was 
made the first Bishop of the Hwiccas, with his episcopal seat at 
Worcester. But he died before his consecration, and Bosel, 
another pupil of Hilda's, Avas made Bishop in his room.'* 

The influence of the Northumbrian dynasty, and the influence 
of Hilda, herself a Northumbrian Princess, who went to her rest 
that very year, 680, led to the foundation of St. Peter's Abbey, 
Gloucester. 

There w-as very little in common betwee]i the monasteries 
founded after Hilda's pattern and the Benedictine monasteries of 
later times. The earlier monasteries were distinctly missionary 
colleges, like S. Augustine's, Canterbury, in the present day. The 
only difference was that men and women lived in the same monas- 
tery under the rule of an Abbess, who was, in most cases, a lady 
of royal birth. The object of such a life was two-fold : first, to 
escape from the troubles and vicissitudes of every day life at a time 
when warfare formed the business and the recreation of kings and 
their nobles ; and, secondly, to prepare for the work of Christian 
teachers amongst the heathen population of the land. Such a 
monastery or college it was that Ethelred, the Mercian King, 
founded at Gloucester and committed to the charge of Osric, the 

^ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, p. 27. 

- Historia Monasterii S. Petri, Gloucestrise, Master of Rolls Series, 
Vol. I., p. 4. 

Ch. Hists., Vol. n., Part 1, pp. 389, 390. 

Florence of Worcester's Chronicle, Ch. Hists., Part I., p. J 89. 



158 



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sub-King of the Hwiccas, as patron, and to Kyneburgh, his wife's 
sister, as first Abbess. Such a college would revive the civili- 
zation of the past by bringing fresh life to the ruins of the Roman 
city. It would be a home of peace to those who dwelt within, 
and a centre of light and joy for those who inhabited the forests 
of Dean and Kingswood and dwelt on the banks of Severn or the 
uplands of the Cotteswolds. 

The Roman church had nought to do with the foundation of 
St Peter's or the conversion of the Severn Vale. Hilda, the 
great rival of Bishop Wilfrid, clung to the traditions and the 
customs which St. Columba had brought from Ireland and lona, 
and which Aidan and his fellow missionaries from lona had 
introduced into Northumbria. 

We can picture to ourselves " the family " — for thus they 
loved to style themselves — over whom Kyneburgh presided at 
Gloucester. The elder monks would be engaged in the services 
of the church and in reading and transcribing the scriptures. The 
younger monks would teach the Gospel to the heathen around, 
returning, at stated intervals, to report the progress of their work 
to the lady mother, and to gain fresh stores of knowledge and of 
zeal. The nuns would teach the boys and girls whom their heathen 
parents had committed to their charge, or whom cruel warfare 
had left orphans. And besides these there would be brothers of 
a lower grade who, under the superintendence of the monks,, 
would be employed in reclaiming and cultivating the woodland 
and the marsh. 

Such a community it was that Osric, at the command of his 
overlord, established on the banks of the ancient bed of the Severn. 
I say " ancient bed " because the river has now^ entirely receded 
from what was in Roman times it principal course. In these 
early days the river ran through what is now St. Catherine's 
meadow from Kingsholm past the site of St. Owald's Priory, down 
what is now called Priory Road, under a bridge of seven arches 
which still lies beneath Westgate Street and was known as Foreign 
Bridge, and into the present bed of the river at the Quay. 

We know nothing of the struxjture of Osric's monastery. 
It was probably built of wood, perhaps of wattle aiid dab ; for 



The Abbey of St. Peter. 



evorvtliing connected with the Irish missions was of the most 
simple description ; and oak and beech were easier to obtain than 
stone, for dense forests covered the hills and vale from the Bristol 
Avon to the gates of Gloucester. 

The monasteries which were built by the Koman missionaries 
or by English Christians, like Wilfrid, who had imbibed Roman 
tastes and submitted to Roman customs, were far different. 

While Osric was laying the foundation of St. Peter's Abbey at 
Gloucester, Biscop w^as completing a church of stone at Monk 
Wearmouth. He had crossed the seas to Gaul and had brought 
back with him workmen who knew how to build after the Roman 
method, and till the windows of the church, cloisters, and dwelling 
rooms with painted glass. At the same time Bishop Wilfrid was 
building a church at Ripon ; and what we read of Wilfiid's 
church may have been equally true of the consecration of Osric's 
Monastery of Gloucester. " When all was ready," Eddi tells us, 
" Wilfrid invited the Kings of Northumbria and Bernicia, the 
Abbots, the Earls and all the noblemen. 

After Solomon's example, they consecrated the church and 
its services. They dedicated the altar and marked it with the 
cross, the symbol of Christ's passion, and they put over it a purple 
cloth interwoven with gold. Then King and clergy and people 
received the sacrament of Christ's body and blood ; and Wilfrid, 
the Bishop, stood at the altar with his face to the people and read 
aloud the list of benefactors to the church. All being completed, 
the Kings and the people feasted together for three days and three 
nights." 

Wilfrid's church was of polished stone from the foundations to 
the roof, and the windows were filled with the painted glass 
which he had brought from Rome and Gaul. I cannot picture to 
myself such a stately building as this at Gloucester 1200 years 
ago ; I like best to think of a simple, half-timbered church, with 
its conventual buildings, a range on the one side for the monks, 
and on the other for the nuns and children. 

There was an altar in the early church dedicated to St. Petron- 
ilia, the daughter of St. Peter, and no doubt the patron Saint of 



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Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Kyiiel)ur;:ifli. In front of this altar Kyiieburgh was buried in 
710, after a peaceful rule of 29 years. Osric, her brother, after 
presiding many years over the Hwiccas, succeeded to the throne 
of his father Oswiu. He died in 729 in advanced age, and, by 
his dying request, they brought h^s body to Gloucester and laid 
it in the church he had built, by the side of the Abbess Kyne- 
burgh, in front of the altar of St, Petronilla.^ The rude monu- 
ment which commemorates him lies in a chapel of 16th century 
architecture. This chapel was built by the last Abbot, William 
Parker, for it bears his arms as well as the arms of the Northum- 
brian sovereign. j 

Kyneburgh was succeeded, as Abbess, by Eadburg-h, who is 
said to have been the widow of Wulpher ; and when she died in 
735, Eva, a Mercian Queen or Princess, ruled over the Abbey till 
767. Then there came a period of disaster. The nuns were driven 
out with cruelty and disgrace, and the abbey lay in ruins for some 
years uncared for and uninhabited. ^ 

Let me say a few words in conclusion about the site of Osric's 
monastery. The history of St. Peter's tells us that Bishop Aldred 
in 1058 rebuilt the monastery a little nearer the bounds of the 
city than heretofore ; and this has led some to believe that the 
older structure lay outside the walls of the city, close to the 
stream, which we now call Twyver.'^ I venture to think on the 
other hand that it lay within the walls, a little more to the east 
than at present. 

We know that the site of the Roman wall lies along the west 
side of Lower College Court, across College Green, the nave of 
the cathedral and the south-east corner of the cloister garth, turn 
ing to the east, where the College School now stands. 

There is no doubt the writer of the " Memoriale," in Dugdale^s 
Monasticon, is right when he says that a little tower in the Monk's 
Orchard, close to the Lady Chapel, marks the site of the ancient 
monastery. 

1 Historia Monasterii St. Peter, Gloucestrite, Vol. I. pp. 3-5. 

2 Idem., pp. 3, 7 ; also " Memoriale'' in Dugdale's Monasticon. 
2 Records of Gloucester Cathedral, Vol. I. p. 41. 



The Abrf.y of >^t. Peter. 



161 



I picture to my mind the nave of Osric's cliurch standing on 
the site of the present choir and presbytery, and the conventual 
buildings lying close to it on the north and south. 

In the time of Edward the Confessor the west wall and the 
north-west tower at the angle of the old Roman city would seem 
to have been removed, and the site, as well as some of the 
materials, to have been given to Aired for his new church. You 
will find Roman bricks and Roman masonry in the structure of 
the cathedral. 

Some documents, which are given at length in the cartulary of 
the abbey, tell us that Thomas of Bayon, Archbishop of York, 
1070-1100 gave to S. Peter's the land belonging to S.Oswald, 
lying on the north of S. Peter's Abbey, for the construction of a 
boundary wall, and that in 1218 this land was claimed by the 
priory as being part of their ancient possessions. In 1222 the 
dispute was settled by the monks of S. Peter acknowedging the 
claim of the canons of S. Oswald and giving them in lieu of the 
land, tfcc, an annual value of 20s. 

This fact seems to me to decide the matter. S. Peter's Abbey, 
the old home of the Confessor's time, stood within the walls. Osric 
had built it there for security against the invasions of the fierce 
Welsh. And S. Oswald's, the new home, had been built by the 
Lady of the ^Mercians on land which she bestowed on it lying 
outside the walls and along the banks of the Severn. In her time 
the Danes rather than the Welsh w^ere the dreaded foe. 



Vol. XIII. M. 



162 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



KOTES ON A MONUMENTAL EFEIGY AND A "BRASS" 
IN THE CHURCH OF QUINTON, GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

By sir JOHN MACLEAN, F.S A., &c. 

Vice-President of the Royal Archceological Institute, Hon. Member of the Royal 
Institution of Cornwall, dbc. 

Our fruitless endeavour to throw some light upon the descent of 
the family of Clopton (Cockfield T), of Clopton, near Stratford- 
upon-Avon, referred to in our last vol. (xii., pp. 206-208), natur- 
ally excited in our minds an interest in the name, and researches 
shewed that it was by no means uncommon. There were many 
families so called derived from almost as many counties. We 
found Clopton in Essex, in Suffolk, in Warwickshire, in Worces- 
tershire, and in divers other counties, but the ancient family of 
Clopton, of Clopton-on-the-Hill, in the county of Gloucester, seems 
to have been, to a great extent, overlooked. 

On the occasion of the visit of this Society to the very inter- 
esting Church of Quinton, on the 10th August, 1887, attention 
was naturally attracted to the effigy of a Knight lying on a low 
altar tomb under the arcade of the south aisle. We were told 
that according to tradition it commemorated Sir William Clopton, 
but on a cursory inspection, which time only permitted, there did 
not appear to be any arms by which the tradition could be sup- 
ported, though in the chapel at the east end of the south aisle is a 
fine Brass of Joan, the relict of Sir William Clopton, which Joan 
died December, 1430. 

Our first impression was that if the tradition were well foun- 
ded Sir William Clopton was probably a member of the family 
of Clopton, of Clopton, by Stratford, but this conjecture was 
quickly dispelled, for the arms impaled on the Brass of the lady,i 
are entirely unlike any found in the church of Stratford-upon- 
Avon. 

1 See ante Vol. XII., pp. 217-218. 



Effioy axp a "Brass" in the Church of Quinton. 163 

Who then was this Sir William Clopton ? After some research 
we found that a certain Sir Richard de Clopton, on 8th March, 
1271-2, received from King Hen. III. a grant of Free Warren in all 
his lands in Clopton, co. Glouc, to hold to him and his heir.i for 
ever.i In which the Kincr describes him in the usual style for a 
Knight his "beloved and faithful." He was probably the son of 
Sir Richard de Clopton, who in 1238 sold the meadow of Hamp- 
ton, near Alveston, to the Abbot of Worcester. Not knowing at 
the time that tJie Manor of Clopton-upon-the-Hill and Radbrook 
was at this early date held by a family of the name of Clopton ; 
we thought it possible that the Sir Robert might have been a 
shadowy ancestor of the Cloptons of Stratford, ^ but inasmuch as 
Hampton and Alveston, though within the borders of Warwick- 
shire, were very near to the possessions of the Cloptons of 
Quinton, we think it very much more likely that the grantor of 
the meadow referred to was of the Gloucestershire family, and, 
judging from the dates, was probably the father of the above- 
named Sir Richard. 

Inasmuch as the Clopton estate was held in mesne tenure, and 
not of the King in capite, the inquisitions taken, if any, on the 
deaths of the respective tenants, would not be returnable into 
Chancery, and hence we miss those valuable evidences of the 
devolutions of manors and succession of families. In such cases, 
if the lands were held by military service, the inquisitions would 
be returned to the Chief Lord and deposited with the archives 
of his house. 

Sir William Clopton was the son of John Clopton, by Mary, 
daughter and heir of Sir Robert Charleton, Knt., by Elizabeth 
his wife, daughter and heir of Sir William Besyn, Knt., who was 
living 17th Edw. III. (1342-3), which John succeeded his father 
in lands in Kerswell, co. Worcester, which the said J ohn held of 
the Bishop of Worcester. ^ John was the son of William Clopton, 
by Anne, sister and heir of John de la Morehall. Morehall is in 

1 Rot. Pat., 56th Henry III., m. 4. 
' See Vol. XII., p. 207. 
3 Hist, of Wore, Vol. I., p. 20. 
M 2 



164 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



the county of Warwick, and was anciently called Withlackford. 
In 2nd Richard II., Robert, Parson of Ecclesfield, granted this 
manor to John de Morehall, and Apjnes his wife and the heirs of 
their two bodies, in default remainder to Thomas de Morehall, 
with remainder to John de Clopton and his heirs, in virtue of 
which settlement the Manor of Withlackford, or Wicklackford, 
called also Wicksford, and now Wixford, devolved upon John 
Clopton and his heirs.^ Judging from the dates, William Clopton, 
father of this John, would seem to have been the great-grandson 
of Richard Clopton, the grantee of free warren in all his lands in 
Clopton, and, according to rosbrooke,^ including Radbroke, which 
sometime pertained to it. 

It would appear from the Inquisition taken at Tewkesbury 
on Wednesday next after the feast of St. Gregory the Pope (7th 
March, 1419-20), after the death of Sir William Clopton, that at 
the time of his death he did not hold any lands in his demesne as of 
fee or of service in the County of Gloucester, but the jurors say 
that a certain Thomas Crewe, Esq., Nicholas Spencer, chaplain, 
and John Treysell, chaplain, being seized in their demesne as of 
fee of the Manor of Rodbrook, granted the same to the aforesaid 
William Clopton, Johanna his wife and William Wolashill, and 

1 Dugdale, Hist, of Warwicksh., Vol. II., p. 860. 

2 History of Glouc. 

^ Dugdale states (Hist. Warw. II., p. 860) that a certain Juliana, wife 
of Thomas Crewe " was the mother of Sir William Clopton, and widow (as I 
guess) of John Clopton mentioned in the text." We do not, however, find 
anything to support this conjecture. The Heralds' Visitation of Worcester- 
shire in 1569, in the Harewell pedigrees, shows the alliance in question as 
stated in the text, and, as Dugdale speaks uncertainly and quotes no author- 
ity, we must adhere to the Heralds' record. Nevertheless it is quite possible 
that this Juliana might have been a second wife of John Clopton, and step- 
mother of Sir William, for there would seem to have been some connection 
between Sir William and Thomas Crewe her husband. We see in the 
text that he was a trustee under Sir William's settlement of his estate, 
and Dugdale tells us that he held the Manors of Apsley, Wicksford and 
Morehall for life, under the assignment of Sir William Clopton, possibly in 
right of his (Crewe's) wife's dower. 

Thomas Crewe was a man of some importance in Warwickshire. He 
was Chief Steward of Richard, Earl of Warwick, and of his Council, in 3rd 
Henry V., and had been Knight of the Shire in 6th Henry IV., and Sheriff 
of Warwickshire and Leicestershire, in 1st Henry V., and also was for some 
years in the Commission of the Peace. He made his will on the 5th Sept. 



EFFun* AM> A "Brass" in the Church of Quintox. 



165 



tho heirs of the body of the said William Clopton, by charter 
dated Radbrook, Sunday next before the feast of the Nativity 
of the Blessed Mary, 13th Henry IV., (8th September, U12) 
by the name of the Manor of Rodbrok, with all its appurten- 
ances in Quinton superior and Quinton inferior, which same 
manor, they say, is held of Henry Fitz Huoh as of his Manor 
of Quinton, by what service they are ignorant, and they say that 
the aforesaid Manor in all its issues beyond reprises is worth 
100s per annum ; and they say further that the aforesaid William 
Clopton, died on 7th Sept., 7th Henry V. (1419), and that Thomas 
Clopton, Esq., is son and heir of the said William, and is aged 16 
years and more.^ 

Besides his lands mentioned above Sir William Clopton, in 
right of Johanna his wife, held the Manors of More Fladford and 
Hull, and the sixth part of the Manor of Chaddeswych and Wyllyn- 
wych, and the advowson of the Church of Fleford in the County of 

14-18, wherein he desired to be buried in the Chapel of St. John the Baptist, 
adjoining the Church of Wicksford, which he had built ; and appointed his 
sister, Elizabeth, Prioress of Chester, together with Sir William Clopton and 
Dame Joan, his wife's executors. He died in the same year, and was buried 
as he desired under a fair monument of grey marble, raised about 18 inches 
from the ground, in the midst of the chapel, whereon, Dugdale says, are the 
portraitures in brass of himself and his wife. An engraving has been given 
by Dugdale of this brass, from which it appears that Juliana died on the 
20tli December, 1-411, but the date of the death of her husband has been left 
blank. These Brasses are not mentioned by Haines or Davies. 

One Wm. Wolasliall, whose name will also be found mentioned in the same 
document obtained in 26 Hen. VI. (Rot. Pat. 26 Hen. VI. Part I. m. 2) licence 
to found a chantry in this chapel for one priest to celebrate to the honour of 
Our Lady and St. John Baptist for the good estate of the said King and 
Margaret his Queen, and of the said William during their lives, and for 
their souls after their departure hence, together with the souls of Thomas 
CreM^e, Esq., and Juliana his wife. Sir William Clopton, Knt., and Joane 
his wife, their ])arents and friends, unto whose (the priest's) use he gave in 
pure alms a dwelling house in Wykesford, and a close containing two acres 
of land. This foundation was, however, disallowed by the King's Com- 
missioners in 37th Henry VIII. , but it was re-established afterwards by one 
Richard Mytton at the request of Dame Sybil Mytton his mother, doubtless 
a descendant of Elizabeth, one of the daughters and coheirs of Sir John Burgh 
by her husband Thomas Mytton. 

The terms of this foundation excludes the idea that Juliana Crewe M as 
the mother of Sir William Clopton. 

^ Inq. p.m. 7th Henry V. No. 46. 



( 

166 Transactions foe, the Year 1888-9. 

Worcester. He was also seized of divers other lands and manors 
in the Counties of Worcester, Stafford, Salop, and in the Marches 
of Wales, but these we have not thought it necessary to follow 
up, and we know not what estate in them he had or of whom 
they were held. 

Sir William Clopton married Johanna, seeond daughter and 
coheir of Alexander Besford, alias Pearsford, of Besford, co. 
Worcester, by whom he had a daughter and heir who was called 
Johanna after her mother.^ There cannot, we think, be much 
doubt that the name was originally Pearsford, and that the family 
assumed, or popularly had given to them, the name of Besford 
from residing on a manor so called. This would seem to be shewn 
by the canting arms which they bore : Gules ^ a fess between six 
pears slipped and pendant, or, and emphasised by the use of pears 
as stops between the lines on Lady Clopton's Brass. 

The effigy of Sir William Cloptgn is much mutilated and 
abraded, but a closer examination has brought to light much 
which was before unobserved. It lies on a plain altar tomb. 6 ft. 
in length, and is represented in the armour of the period, but of 
a fashion somewhat earlier than the death of the deceased. The 
head, on which is a bascinct to which a small camail of mail 
is attached, rests on a double cushion, the upper one being placed 
lozengewise. The features of the face are entirely obliterated. 
The body is encased in plate armour, with additional plates to 
protect the shoulders and elbows, genouillieres defend the knees, 
and solerets the feet, on which the spur-leathers appear, but 
the spurs are broken off, as are the toes of the sollereis. The 
feet rest on a dog, of which the head is gone, but the two fore legs 
appear under the feet of the effigy on the left side. Over the cuirass 
is worn a short jiipon, apparently made of leather, escalloped at 
the bottom, on which the Knight's arms are displayed. The sword, 
of which the hilt only remains, was supported by a narrow belt pass- 
ing diagonally across the body from above the right hip, and is kept 

^ Dugdale states that Sir William had another daughter named Agnes, 
the wife of Thomas Herberd, but no such person is named in the records. He 
cites an old exemplification in the library at Hatton, dated 22nd Feb. , 22nd 
Henry VI., of the partition of the estates. 



Effigy and a Brass" in the Church of Quinton. 



167 



steady by t wo otlier small straps underneath. A broad embroidered 
baldrick, decorated with little square ornaments, crosses the body 
horizontally, and is fastened with a buckle in front, to this the 
analace is attached on the right side. The hands are c )vered 
with cuffed gauntlets. Upon the breast appears an annulet, but 
whether it is attached to the wrist or to the jupon we cannot 
at present state with certainty. We should have supposed it to 
hav^e been the cadency mark of a fifth son, except that Sir William 
Clopton appears to have been the eldest, if not the only, son of 
his father (See Plate XL) 

The Brass of Lady Clopton is set on an altar tomb in the 
midst of a small chapel east of the south aisle, and is in excellent 
condition, appearing not to have been tampered with in any way, 
though the altar formerly in the chapel has been removed. The 
brass is mentioned in Haines' Manual^ Part II., p. 70, in which 
the lady is described as a Vowess. It is fully described in Mr. 
C. Davis's Gloucestershire Brasses, in which this descripion of the 
lady as a vowess is continued. We do not quite understand what 
precise idea these writers intend to convey by the term they use. 
Vows are of different kinds. We shall return to the subject 
presently. 

As Mr. Davis's Collection is not yet published, except in the 
columns of the Gloucestershire Journal some years ago, it may be 
well here briefly to state a few of the particulars. The figure lies 
under an oge crocketted canopy, within which is a circular cinque- 
foiled head, the tympanum being filled with tracery of a beautiful 
design. This head is supported by a light crocketted shaft, on 
either side with pinnacles rising to the height of the finial of the 
canopy, between the pinacles and which are two shields of arms : 
on the dexter side those of Clopton, ar. two bars, gu.,/rette or ; 
and on the sinister, those of Pearsford, or Besford, Gu., a /ess 
between six 2^ears slipped pendant or, and under the bases of the 
shafts : on the dexter side the above two coats impaled, and on the 
sinister the former coat, with the addition of a canton ar. The 
lady's head is covered with the vail-head-dress or hood, the vail is 
thrown over the side cauls, which causes the head-dress to assume 
somewhat the shape of the " horned "-head-dress, and it hangs 



168 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



down, covering the shoulders. A gorge or wimple covers her neck ; 
this was drawn up over the chin in plaits, and strained up on each 
side of the face. The kirtle is long and has tight sleeves with 
narrow fur cuffs at the wrists. The mantle is fastened by a 
cord, which passes through two metal loops with studs in front, 
termed fermailes, placed on each side of the mantle, this cord passes 
through a slide made of cord, and terminates below the waist in 
two tassels. Beneath is a tight-fitting gown not girt at the waist. 
On her right hand is a ring with a jewel. The whole design is of 
an elegant character ( ISee Plate XI I. )^ but because, from the 
illustration being on so small a scale, the inscriptions are difficult 
to read, we think it well to print them. 

On a ribbon over the head of the effigy we have a verse of the 
40th Psalm : 

*^ Complaceat XM Bne enptas me 
13 nc aD aUuiuanUtt mt res^ptce/' 

And surrounding the verge is the following inscription : 

Criste nejpog ^wwt Clopton mtsserm JToij e 
^\\t XM gacrata dautntur f)(c ^it^ua 
Pltltte l(efttnctti sponso pto te ifju fmt ista 
5Larga Ittiens misrrm promga ^ ijosptttlitts 
Stc ijnt'atiilttius templtsi m fuJJtt epnts 
&{\XXtxtX MX celts nuas sequeretttt opes 
pro tantis nientts siiii tjones regna iieata 
Nee premat unta rogo s? iieet aula Jet. 

At the end of each of these lines is the figure of a pear as stated 
above, and at each of the four corners of the inscription round 
the verge is a symbol of one of the Evangelists : viz., at the 
upper dexter corner that of St. John, an eagle ; upper sinister, St. 
Matthew : an angel habited in amice and alb ; lower dexter St. 
Mark : a winged lion ; lower sinister, St. Luke : a winged ox. 
Each holding a label, the inscriptions on which we are unable to 
give. 

It is evident from the inscriptions on this brass that after her 

husband's death, and by his desire, the Lady Clopton became a 

Kecluse,^ at Quinton : " Que tibi sacrata clauditur hie vidua 

1 We said ante that Vows, referring to :religious vows, were diiferent in 
egree, a recluse or anchoress was only one variety of an ascetic life, and even 




Brass of Dame Joan Clopton, Quji^ ton^^^^^ 



r 



Effu;y and a "Brass" in the Church of Quinton. 169 



^^ilitr dc/uncto spoiiso pro te ihil fxdt ista." And her husband is 
dosoribod as a most religious, beneficent, and charitable man. 
We do not know if any indication of the lady's cell exists. 

Wi> have seen in the Tnt^uisition taken on the death of Sir 
William Clopton that he left a son and heir named Thomas, over 
IC years of age. What became of him we know not. He must 
have died s.p. under age and unmarried, for his sister Johanna 
became her father's sole heir. She married Sir John de Burgh, of 
CO. Salop, to whom she carried the Clopton estates. It is shewn 
by the Inquisition taken at Gloucester, on the vigil of the feast 
of St. Bartholomew the Apostle (23rd August, 1471), that the said 
John de Burgh, Knt., on the day on which he died, held, for the 
term of his life, by the law of England, after the death of Johanna 
his late wife, of John Newport, son and heir of Elizabeth, one of 
tlie daughters and heirs of the aforesaid Johanna, also of John 
Leghton, son and heir of Ankerett, late wife of John Leghton, at 
this time living, another daughter and heir of the aforesaid 
Johanna ; also of Isabell, wife of John Lingen, Knt., third daur. 

recluses took vows of greater or less severity. All, however, were dead to 
the Avorld, though their cells were more or less comfortable. Generally they 
had a woman servant, who lived in an adjoining room, to attend to their 
necessities. We should gather from the inscription that Dame Joan was one 
of the more severe order. The cell of such was a small room adjoining the 
church. It usually had three windows, one opening into the church, and com- 
manding a view of the High Altar, or perhaps some other altar (probably 
Dame Joan's cell was contiguous to the chapel which most likely her husband 
built) so that the inmate might ha\'e the advantage of hearing mass. There 
was another window through which she might receive her food or converse 
with visitors. This, ordinarily, was closed with a black curtain M'ith a white 
cross upon it, or a shutter, to be used at the pleasure of the inmate. The 
other window was for light. 

No person was allowed to enter this solitary life without the Bishop's 
licence, who required security that the inmate should be suitably accomodated 
and provided with food and all other necessaries, and those preliminaries 
being settled to his satisfaction, he himself enclosed her with a solemn 
service, placing his seal upon the door of the cell (unless it was walled up), 
which could not be removed without his consent, unless extreme sickness or 
death of the inmate rendered it necessary. 

Much may be read concerning the iue of an anchoress from an interest- 
ing volume printed by the Camden Society in 1853, entitled the " Ancren 
Riwle," sfipposed to have been writtea by Simon of Ghent, who was conse- 
crated Bishop of Salisbury 1297. 



170 Transactions for the Year 1888-9, 

and heir of the said Johanna; and also of Elizabeth, wife of 
Thomas Mytton, Esq., four daughters and heirs of the aforesaid 
Johanna, the Manors of Clopton and Radbrook, with appur- 
tenances, and three messuages, three tofts and three carucates of 
lands, with appurtenances, in Over Quinton, also the moiety of 
one messuage, one croft, one curtilage, one columbarium, three 
virgates of land and fourteen acres of pasture, with appurtenances, 
in Mykylton, also the moiety of one messuage, with appurten- 
ances, in Campeden ; and further the jurors say that the said 
Manor of Clopton is held of Jacosa Beauchamp, as of her Manor 
of Ebrington by service at the court of the said Jacosa's manor 
aforesaid, twice a year for all secular services, and the value per 
annum is 66s. 8d., and that the aforesaid Manor of Radbrook, 
with appurtenances, is held of Matilda, late wife of the late Lord 
Willoughby, as of her Manor of Quenton by fealty and service 
and a rent of 6s. per annum, and that the said manor is worth 
46s. per annum ; the said three messuages in Over Quinton are held 
of the said Matilda as of the said Manor of Quinton by fealty 
and service and rent of 20d. for all secular services, and that the 
value beyond reprises is 26s. 8d., and that the said messuage and 
croft in Mickelton are held of the Abbot of Busam (1 Evesham) by 
the service of one red rose at the feast of St. John Baptist for 
all secular services, and the value per annum is 20s ; and that 
the said moiety of one messuage, &c., in Campeden is held of John 
Stanley, Knt., of his Manor of Campeden by the rent of 6d. for 
all secular services, and that the value per annum is 6d. And 
the jurors say that the said John de Burgh died seized of the said 
manors as of fee by the law of England, reversion thereof after 
the deaths of the said John and Johanne his wife to the aforesaid 
John Newport, Thomas Leghton, Isabell Lingen, and Elizabeth 
Mytton, as nearest heirs of the said Johanna, and further the 
jurors say that the said John held no other lands in this county 
on the day on which he died, or in the Marches of Wales ; and 
also they say that the said John died on Saturday in the vigil of 
Pentecost last past (1471) ; and they say further that the said 
John Newport, on the feast of the' Purification of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary, was of the full age of 21 years and more, that 



EmcT ANT* A " Br-kSv- ■' i>- THE CnrECH or Qnyroy. 171 

Thomas Leghton was aired 1 S years at the feast of the Xativitv of 
Our Lord last past, and no more ; that the said Isabella is aged 
30 years and more, and that the said Elizabeth, wife of Thomas 
Mytton, is acred *26 years and more, and that the aforesaid John 
Leghton, father of the said Thomas Leghton, is at this time living.^ 

1 Inq. p.m. 11th Edward IV. No. 61. 



172 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



PEDIGREE OF CLOPTON, OF CLOPTON & RADBROOK, CO. GLOUC. 



Sir Robert cle Clopton.- 
In 1238 he sold the meadow of Hampton, 
near Alveston, co. Warr, — Annales de 
Wigonlay Vol. IV., p. 429. 



Richard de Clopton.= 
Received from King Henry III. a grant 
of Free Warren in all his lands in Clop- 
ton, CO. Glouc. — Rot. Cart., 36 Hen. III. 
m. 4 (1271-2). 



William Clopton,= 
of Clopton & Radbrook, 
CO. Glouc. Arms — Ar. 
two bars gu. fretty or. 



? Juliana, = 

dau. of 

remarr. Thomas Crewe, 
sometime of Morehall, 
by assignment of Sir 
Wm. Clopton. She died 
20th Dec. 1411. He in 
1418. Will dated 5th 
Sept. of that year. Both 
buried in Wicksford 
Chapel. 



Anne, sister of John 
Morehall. 



John Clopton. =f 
Devisee in remain- 
der of the Manor of 
Withlackford, alias 
Wicksford, co. 
Warr. , which he in- 
herited. — Dugdale's 
Warr., Vol. II., p. 
860. 



de John de Morehall, =t= Agnes. 

devisee of the Manor 

of Withlackford, co. 

Warr., 2 Rich. 11. — 

DugdaWfi Warr. Vol. 

II. p. 860. 
-Mary, dau. and heir 
of Sir Roger Charl- 
ton, Knt. Arms of 
Charleton: Or, a 
lion rampant, gu. 
ivithin a hordure 
eng. sa. by Elizabeth his wife, 
da. and heir of Sir John Besyn, 
Knt., 17th Edw. III. Arms of 
Besyn : Quarterly, per fess in- 
dented gu. and or, hi the first 
quarter a lion passant guar. ar. 



Thomas de 
Morehall. 
ob. s.p. 



Sir W^illiam Clopton, Knt., =f= Johanna, dau. and coheir of Alexander 



of Clopton and Radbrook, co. Gloucester, 
Died 7th Sept., 1419. Inq. p.m. 7 Hen. V. 
No. 46> bur. at Quinton, where his effigy 
still remains. 



Besford, alias Pearsford, of Besford, co. 
Wore. She survived her husband, and 
became a Recluse at Quintou, where she 
was bur. c. 1430. Her brass still remains. 



Thomas Clopton, 
son and heir, aged 16 
on his father's death. 
Died s.p. probably un- 
married. 



Sir John de Burgh, = 
of Clopton and Radbrook, died Saturday 
in vigil of Pentecost, 1471. Inq. p.m. 
11 Edward IV. No. 61. Arms; az. on a 
chev. inter 3 fi,eur-de-lis erm. amidlet sa. 



John= 
Newport. 



I 

^Elizabeth, 
da. & coll. 
dead 23rd 
Aug. 1471. 



John= 
Leghton, 
living 23 
August, 
1471. 



^Ankerett, 
d. & coh. 
dead 23rd 
Aug. 1471 



^Johanna, da. 
and heir. 



John Newport, aged 
21 years on the feast 
of the Purification, 
B.V.M. 1471. 



Thomas Leghton, aged 
18 years at Christmas, 
1470. 



Sir John Lingen.=Isabella, daur. 



Died 15th Oct. 
1506 {Dugdale). 



and coh., aged 
30 years and 
more on 23rd 
Angust, 1471. 



Thomas=FEleanor, daur. and 



Mytton. 



coheir, aged 26 yrs. 
and more on 23rd 
August, 1471. 



Cecilia, bun mh May, 1540 {Dugdale), 



The Grey Friars. 



173 



THE GREY FRIARS, GLOUCESTER. 

By the Rev. W. H. SILVESTER DAVIES, M.A. 

Read at Gloucester, July, 18SS. 

Before attempting to sketch the history of the above-mentioned 
house, it may be well to say something about the religious order 
to which its inmates belonged. 

The order was founded early in the 13th century. It was an 
important period in the history of Europe. 

The crusades, which had failed in the primary object — the 
recovery of the Holy Land from the hands of the infidel — had 
nevertheless exercised a vast influence on western Christendom. 
Contact with eastern lands had led to new channels of commerce 
being opened out, and the habits, modes of thought and science 
of the east, and, one must also add, its moral and physical diseases 
were rapidly advancing throughout the west. 

At the same time the political ambition of successive occu- 
pants of the papal see, now at the height of its power, their 
ruthless exactions, their shameless use of spiritual powers for 
purely secular ends, as well as the ignorance and laxity of morals 
of many of the clergy, regular and secular, had brought about a 
revulsion of feeling on the part of the people with regard to the 
church. She was daily losing the position which she once held in 
their reverence and affections. In such a state of things new 
agencies were absolutely needed to cope with the spiritual, moral 
and physical diseases of the age. 

One of the first to recognise this was a ceruain Francis Ber- 
nardone. Born at Assisi in 1184, he had been brought up in the 
business of his father, a well-to-do merchant, and had learned 
among the neglected population of his native town the real wants 



174 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



and miseries of the times. The better to compass his design, he 
composed a rule which he submitted to the pope, Innocent III., 
who, probably perceiving that Francis was one of those exceptional 
men of whom the church of Rome has always been wise enough 
to take advantage, after a period of hesitation, confirmed it. 

Like other monastic rules, it consisted of the three great vows 
of poverty, chastity and obedience, only the poverty ordained by 
Francis was absolute. In other rules, though the individual is 
not allowed to possess anything, the community often has rich 
possessions, but his followers are to live from day to day depen- 
dent on the alms of the charitable. 

Even the name which Francis chose for his followers is full of 
significance ; not Franciscans or Grey Friars, but Fratri Minores 
— Lesser Brethren — a name intended to impress upon them the 
duty of humility. 

Clad in a long grey robe of coarse material, which, when 
necessary, " they may pece and amende with pecis of sak clothe, 
or with other pecis, with the blissyng of God,"^ and without shoes, 
they are to visit the towns, two and two, to beg alms like strangers 
and pilgrims in this world. 

In this rigid poverty not even books were allowed, and so 
strictly was this rule observed that Roger Bacon, in the succeed- 
ing age, told the pope that he could not put the result of his 
researches into writing without a special dispensation from his 
Holiness to allow him ink and parchment. 

" They are to sleep at nights," says Mr. Brewer, in the valuable 
preface to his work entitled " Monumenta Franciscana," to which 
I am chiefly indebted for these particulars, " under arches, or in 
the porches of desolate and deserted churches, among idiots, 
lepers, and outcasts." It is difficult for us to realise the social 
condition of the towns in those days. They were behind the 
country in civilization. Monasteries had provided for the spiritual 
rule and welfare of the rural population, but for the towns there 
was no such provision. 

1 Cott. MS. Faustina, D. IV. 



The Grey Friars. 175 

Least of all did the inhabitants of the low and squalid suburbs, 
herded together close upon the town ditch, know anything of the 
elevating influences or experience any of the Christian charity of 
the times. Here it was that the plague and fever spreaa with 
unexampled rapidity ; here, too, leprosy took up its abode. 

It was to this class of the population that the Franciscans, 
following the injunctions of their founder, first directed their 
attention. Their convents were planted, by choice, in the poorest 
and most neglected quarters. Near the shambles at Newgate, on 
a spot appropriately called Stinking Lane, rose the chief house of 
the order in England. Their early buildings, in accordance with 
their rule of poverty, were mere hovels of wood and mud. At 
Cambridge their chapel was erected by a single carpenter in one 
day. At Southampton some stone cloisters, which had been erected 
by the liberality of the townsmen, were pulled down by order of 
the .provincial minister. The same same thing took place at 
Shrewsbury with regard to the dormitory walls. Nor were orna- 
ments or decorations of any kind allowed. Here at Gloucester a 
friar was deprived of his hood for painting the pulpit, and the 
warden suffered similar punishment for tolerating pictures. 

It is true that many of these restrictions were afterwards 
relaxed, and buildings of a more ornate kind erected, but in one 
respect the rule of S. Francis was obeyed almost to the letter 
during the whole time of the existence of the order in England. 
With very few exceptions the Franciscans could never be called 
land-owners. The site of their friary and garden was usually the 
limit of their possessions. 

Such then was the order to which the following papers refer. 

The Franciscans first came to England in 1224, four years 
before the death of S. Francis, their founder, being the 9th year 
of Henry III. and of pope Honorius 111.^ 

On the 10th of September in that year four clerks and five lay 
brethren of the order landed at Dover, Agnellas of Pisa, whom S. 
Francis had appointed provincial minister in England, being their 

^ Eccleston, De Adventu Minorum, cap. I. 



176 



Transactions for tttk Year 1888-9. 



superior. From Dovor they journeyed to Canterbury, where 
they were hospitably received by the monks at the priory of the 
Holy Trinity. Four of them then proceeded to London, while the 
five others went to the Priests' Hospital, and remained there till 
they had provided a place for themselves. The four who went to 
London, and founded the first settlement in the metropolis, were 
entertained for a fortnight by the already established community 
of Black Friars.^ They then took a house in Cornhill, and made 
cells in it, filling up the interstices with grass. Before many 
weeks were over two of them set out for Oxford, where again the 
Black Friars kindly sheltered them for a week, till they hired a 
dwelling for themselves in S. Ebbe's parish. After the community 
there had received some accessions they sent forth an offshoot to 
Northampton, and in the same way new houses were founded 
at Lincoln, Cambridge and other towns. 

Within thirty-two years of their first arrival in England the 
number of their houses was 49. These were distributed between 
seven custodies or wardenships ; viz., those of London, York, 
Cambridge, Bristol, Oxford, Newcastle and Worcester. The house 
at Gloucester belonged to the wardenship of Bristol, which, besides 
the convent at Bristol itself, contained those at Bridgwater, Here- 
ford, Exeter, Caermarthen, Dorchester, Cardiff" and Bodmin, nine 
in all. 

The exact date of the foundation of the Gloucester house is 
uncertain. Fosbroke, quoting Tanner, says that it was founded 
before 1268, but we may place its foundation at least thirty years 
earlier for the following reason: In 1239 Ralph de Maydestane, 
Bishop of Hereford, resigned his See, and, taking the habit of a 
grey friar, became an inmate of this convent, where he died five 
years later/^ The house, therefore, must have been founded before 
1239, and thus within fifteen years of the introduction of the 
Franciscan order into England, which, as we have seen, was in 
1224. 

Owing to the stringent rules of S. Francis, forbidding the 
possession of parchment and writing materials, the contemporary 
* Eccleston De Adventu Minorum cap. II. 
2 Anth. Parkinson's Collect. Anglo. Minor., Vol. II,, p. 21. 



The Grey Friars. I77 

history of the order, written by the brethren themselves, is ex- 
ceedingly meagre, so that but little is known of the inner life 
of any of their houses, and for the most part one is obliged to look 
to other sources for information respecting them. The hoi se at 
Gloucester is no exception to this rule. No cartulary, no register 
of it has been preserved, so far as we have been able to discover, 
if, indeed, such ever existed. 

It appears, however, from the register of Llanthony priory, 
near Gloucester, that that priory conveyed to Thomas, Lord Ber- 
keley and William de Chiltenham (his steward) in fee all John 
le Boteler's tenements in the South Street, and that was the 
foundation of a house of Friars Minors by the same Lord.^ 

The house was built by Friar William of Abingdon, a preacher 
of great note. When, however, he took to building it is said that 
his sermons lost much of their power, so that one day the king, 
Henry III., remarked to him " Friar William, yoii^used to preach 
so spiritually (tam spiritualiter), but now all you say is, ' Give, 
give, give ! " At another time when he was flattering him, ex- 
pecting something from him, the same prince called him a serpent.^ 
The house was, probably, of humble dimensions, as in the course of 
a very few years it seems to have been necessary to enlarge it. 
As early as 1250 additional land was given to the brethren for 
that purpose by Thomas, Lord Berkeley at the urgent entreaty 
of his wife. Friar Haymo of Faversham, the third provincial 
minister of the order in England, saying on that occasion, that 
he thought it better for the brethren to have more land and 
cultivate it, so as to have food at home, than to beg of others. In 
less than forty years, namely in 1285, the brethren applied for 
permission to acquire a plot of ground near their church, at one 
time possessed by Wentiliana, formerly a nun of Gloucester, 
though it is uncertain whether their application was granted.* 
Again, in 1364-5, Roger Norys of Gloucester gave half-an-acre of 
land to the warden and brethren for the enlargement of thei»* 
house. ^ 

1 Reg. Llanth., f. 5.3, b. 

- Eccleston De Adveiitu Minoriim, cap. IX. 

3 Ibid. 

* Inquis. ad quod damimm, 13 Edw. I. No. 62 
^ Idem., 38 Edw. III., No. 3. 

Vol. xm. ,\ 



178 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

The very rapidity, however, with which the order increased 
throughout the country, and their great popularity, caused them 
to be looked at with dislike and jealousy by the older 
foundations. Thus in Gloucester signs are not wanting to show 
that the relations between the Grey Friars and their powerful 
neighbours, the Benedictine monks of S. Peter's Abbey, now 
Gloucester Cathedral, were, at times, considerably strained, and 
occasionally this ill-feeling is shewn in a very strange manner. 

Archbishop Peckham, himself once a Franciscan, writes from 
Schyreburne (Sherborne) under date 11th June, 1285, to the abbot 
and convent of S. Peter^s, Gloucester, complaining that they had 
forcibly taken the body of a certain citizen who had wished to be 
buried at the Grey Friars, and buried it in their own monastery. ^ 
Again, in the middle of the 14th century a dispute arose between 
the abbot and convent of the Monastery of S. Peter and the 
warden and cotivent of the Friars Minor about their water sup- 
ply ; the latter claiming the right of obtaining all the water from 
a certain spring at Breresclyft, in the field of Mattesdone, which 
formerly belonged to William Geraud, and of bringing the water 
by an underground pipe to their house at Gloucester ; the former 
denying their right. In order to put an end to the dispute the 
Prince of Wales, better known as the Black Prince, visited Glou- 
cester, and after a searching enquiry on the spot, and hearing 
witnesses on both sides, made the following award : viz., that on 
account of the sad straits the friars were in from want of water, 
the abbot and convent of S. Peter should grant to the Friars 
Minor and their successors for ever the right to a third part of 
the water coming from the said spring, which should be brought 
to their convent in a leaden pipe. Accordingly on the 28th Oct. 
1357, an agreement was duly entered into between the two houses, 
which gave the Friars Minor the right to a third part of the 
water; they on their part renouncing whatever title they may 
have had previously, wishing to possess the right by the new grant I 
of the abbot and convent. ^ j 
A ich. Reg. Lambeth, fol. 116b. j 

• Gloucester Municipal Records, No. 956. | 



The Grey Friars. 



179 



From time to time one meets with records of benefactions to 
the Grey Friars, some of them of very trifling amount. About 
the year 1250, Alexander Derk, chaplain of Elmore, for the health 
of his soul, and for the soul of Walter his father and Goldthive his 
mother, left to the wardens of the work of the church of Sho tes- 
over three shillings, on receipt of which they were to pay twelve 
pence to the Friars Minor, and twelve pence to the Friars 
Preachers, without delay. ^ 

Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, gave, about the same time, 
23 shillings to the friars towards the expenses of a chapter of 
their order held at Gloucester. ^ 

By will dated 1268 William de Beauchamp, who died the same 
year, gave a mark each to the Friars Minor and Carmelites of 
Gloucester."^ 

But the family of the Berkeleys, who, as we have seen, were the 
original founders of the house, continued to be its chief supporters. 

ThomaF, Lord Berkeley, who flourished between 1281 and 1321, 
gave yearly during his life to the Friars Minor in Gloucester 
divers quarters of wheat out of his several granaries.^ 

In 1335-6 Thomas, his grandson, when the houses of the 
Carmelites and other orders of friars in Bristol and Gloucester 
were taxed to pay any fifteenth or other duty to the king, sent 
to them (as he did in other years) either all or most part of the 
money in ease thereof.^ 

The next year the friars received a Royal benefaction, for on 
October 5th, 1337, Edward III. gave a groat each to thirty-one 
Dominicans who, with the same number of Carmelites and also 
of Friars Minor, had gone in procession to welcome him on his 
arrival at Gloucester on the 15th of the previous month. *5 

Elizabeth de Burgh, Lady de Clare, by will dated Sept. 25th, 
1355, and proved Dec. 3rd, 1360, bequeathed £8 to the four orders 
of friars at Gloucester." 

1 Gloucester Municipal Records, No. 500. 

2 Monumenta Franciscana, Vol. I., p. 242. 

3 Dugdale's Bar., Vol. I. p. 227. 

4 Smytlie's Lives of the Berkeleys (Maclean's edition), Vol. L, p. 202. 

5 Ibid., Vol. I., p. 334. 

« Comp. Garder Reg. 1M2 Edw. III. 
7 Nichols' Royal Wills, p. 33. 
N 3 



180 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



By his will dated Feb. 5th. 1491, William, Marquis Berkeley- 
directed that a friar should pray at the Grey Friars at Gloucester 
for his soul, and for the souls of his father and mother, and for 
the soul of his son Sir Thomas Berkeley for evermore : towards 
the repair of which Grey Friars he gave £20.^ 

But that which was of the greatest benefit to the Grey 
Friars was the burial there of Isabel, second wife of James, Lord 
Berkeley. This excellent lady, daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 
Duke of Norfolk, and Earl Marshal, in her efibrts to advance her 
husband's cause during his lawsuits with the powerful Earl of 
Shrewsbury, journeyed to London and became greatly reduced in 
circumstances. In a letter to her " Right Worshipfull and 
Reverent Lord and Husband," she says, " for the reverence of 
God send money, pr else I must lay my horse to pledge and come 
home on my feete."^ 

Having fallen into the hands of her enemies, she was im- 
prisoned in Gloucester Castle, and dying, or as some say, being 
murdered, there on the Saturday before Michaelmas Day, 1452, 
was buried in the choir of the Grey Friars church. ^ This inter- 
ment brought much money to the convent some seventy years 
afterwards from one of this lady's grandsons — indeed, we may 
attribute the buildings which are now standing to his liberality. 
This grandson, the 6tli Maurice Lord Berkeley, gave annually for 
some years £6 13s. 4d. towards the repair of the church, and 
by a codicil to his will, 12th year of Henry VIIL gave a great 

portion of money for the re-edifying and building of the 

church and chancell and stalls of the firyars minors in Glouc. 
whereof (saith his will) I am founder, and where dame Isable 
Berkeley my grandame lyeth buryed ; which work (saith the said 
w^ill) I have now began, and in case I dye, then my executors 
substantially to finish the same."* Another of the Lady ^Isabel's 
grandsons was also a benefactor of this house. 

1 Smythe's Lives of the Berkeleys (Maclean's edition), Vol. II. p. 134. 

2 Ibid., Vol. II., p. 62. 

3 Ibid., Vol. IL, p. 81. 

* Ibid., Vol. IL, p. 201. 



The Grey Friars. 181 

" In the ISth of king Henry the 8th the warden of the fryars 
Mynors in Glouc. and his covent, did by their deed covenant 
with the lord Thomas and in their consciences bind themselves 
thenceforth, to say during the life of the said lord, for the suules 
of his father and mother, and for the soule of his brother Maurice 
late lord, and of Katharine late wife of the said brother, and for 
the soules of himself e and of Alienor and Cicely his wives, and for 
all christian soules, these divine services : viz.. Every munday 
placebo and derige with nine lessons. And every teusday one masse 
of requiem, And every thursday placebo and derige with nine 
lessons, and every fry day a masse of the five wounds, with the 
collect deus qui justificas impium ; for which this lord doth 
covenant to pay to them fewer pounds by the yeare. The one halfe 
for the warden, and the other halfe for the pitances of the covent 
to amende their fare."^ 

But notwithstanding these and other benefactions the brethren 
had a hard struggle for existence for many years. The wars of 
the E/Oses, by unsettling and impoverishing the whole country, 
made the position of the mendicant orders well nigh unendurable, 
so that even if Henry VITI. had not suppressed the religious 
houses, it is only too likely that many of the convents of friars 
must have come to an end shortly from sheer starvation. 

When the storm broke which was destined to effect so momen- 
tous a change in the religious life of England, the Eranciscans 
were the first to feel it ; partly, no doubt, because of their violent 
opposition to the divorce of Henry from Catherine of Aragon ; 
and, partly because of their loyal obedience to the pope, which 
made them particularly obnoxious to a prince whose policy it was 
to become independent of Rome. 

The first suppressions of friaries took place in 1534 : it was 
not till four years after that those of Gloucester shared the same 
fate. 

On the 11th of February, 1538, Richard Ingworth, suffragan 
bishop of Dover, received a royal commission to make the visi- 
tation of the mendicant orders of the kingdom, and on the 5th of 

1 Ibid., Vol. II., p. 223. 



182 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



May following, a royal mandate required him to sequestrate the 
seals, goods and ornaments, and to take inventories of them in all 
places visited by him. In a letter to Crumwell, dated the 23rd of 
the same month, after mentioning several places which he had 
visited and what he had done, he says, " As for Gloscetor, wher 
that now I am, I thinke their be ij howseis that will give up their 
howsies, for thei have no living. I schall order them so well as I 
can, and at my next letter I schall certefey your lordeschipe of 
them."i 

At this visit he seems to have contented himself with examin- 
ing into their property and goods, but in July he is again in 
Gloucester, and in the following letter to Crumwell, dated 28th 
of that month, he goes into detail : he says, " before I receyvyd 
yower letter by my servantt I had beyn in Brystowe at the 
Whyte Fryers and also in ij howsys of Glowsetur, and ther for 
the gret clamor that was for dettes ther, I had men assyngneyd 
by the mayeres of bothe towneys to prise suche as was in thoys 
iij howsys, and solde all and payd the dettes, as by my accounttes 
yt shall appere, and the howsys put in saffe custody, tyll the 
Kynges plesur be forther knowyn. The substens in the more 
parte of the howsys ys very small : in dy verse placeys lytyll more 
than the dettes, and the clamor of pore men to whom the moneye 
ys oweynge ys to tedyus. Wherefore thys order I toke tyll 
yower letter cam specyally, where that the dettes were moche. 
But now that I knowe your forther plesur, I shall folowe yower 
commandement so nere as I can, and accordeynge to yt 1 have 
begon with the Grey Fryars of Glowsetur." 

The same letter thus describes the house : — 
" The Grey Fryers ys a goodly howse, moche off yt new byldeyd, 
specyally the chyrche, quere and dorter ; the rest small logeynges ; 
dy verse leseys owt for yeres off logeynges and gardens ; no led 
but a condyte and small gutturs." 

" My singular goode lorde, I mekely beseche yow pardon me of 
my rude and longe wrytynge and yfF yt plese yow to be goode 
lorde to me to send the dyscharge for the fryeres and yower 
1 Cotton MSS. Cleop E. IV., p. 301. 



Thf. Grey Friars. 



183 



forther plesur by thys brynger, he shall sende yt to me to Lud- 
lowe or Harforde thys nexte weke, and I ever yower orator to 
Jhesu, whom I hartely beseche to gyve me that grace to do that 
thynge that shall be to hys hey honor, to the kynges graceys plesur 
and yowers, to the whyche I woll appley myselfe to the utter- 
most of my pore. 

Your servantt and orator 

Richard Dovorens." 
In a postscript he asks for a hundred blank warrants for the 
surrender of friaries, that he may fill them up during his progress, 
and so facilitate the work of spoliation. 

" To my singuler goode lorde 
Crumwell, lorde prevy seale, 
be thys delyveryd 
with honor." ^ 

The following memorandum shows the visitor's manner of pro- 
ceeding : — 

" This xxviij day of Julii, in the xxx yer of ower most dred 
soveren lord kyng Henry the VIII*^^ Rychard byschop of Dowor 
and vesytor under the lord prevy selle for the kynges grace was in 
Glowseter, and ther befor the meyar and aldermen in the howseys 
of freeres ther at ij tymeys in ij days, putt the seyd freeres att 
ther liberteys, whether they wold contynew in ther howseys and 
kepe ther relygyon and injuxcyons accordeyng to the same or 
ellys gyfFe ther howseys into the kynges handdes. The injuxcyons 
he ther declareyd among them, the whyche war thowthe by the 
seyd meyar and alderman to be good and resonabyll ; and also the 
seyd freeres seyd that they war accordeyng to ther rewlys, yet as 
the warlde ys nowe they war not abull to kepe them and leffe in 
ther howseys ; wherefore voluntaryly they gaffe ther howseys into 
the vesytores handes to the kynges use. The vesytor seyd to 
them, * thynke not, nor hereafter reportt nott, that ye be sup- 
presseyd, for I have noo such auctory te to suppresse yow, but only to 
reforme yow, wherefor yf ye woll be reformeyd jccordyng to good 
order, ye may contynew for all me.' They seyd they war nott 
abull to contynew. Wherefor the vesytor toke ther howseys and 
^ Cotton MSS. Cleop. E. IV., p. 302. 



184 



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charytabuUy dely veryd them, and gaff them letteres to vesyte ther 
fryndes, or so to goo to oder howsys ; with the whyche they war 
very well contente, and soo departeyd. Thys whe the seyd meyar 
and aldermen testyfy by ower handes subscrybeyd. 

Maister Wyllyam Hasard, meyr. 
Master Wyllyam Mathew, Aldermon. 
Mr. Thomas Bell, the elder, alderman. 
Thomas Payne, alderman." 

So the friars' poverty was made the engine of their charitable (1) 
suppression. The following inclosure gives the names of those 
who were thus robbed and turned out. 

" To- my synguler goode lorde Crumwell lorde prevy scale. 
I beseche yower lordeschype to have dyscharge for theys fryers to 
change ther apparell." 

Then follow lists of the Black Friars and the White Friars, 
and the memorandum continues : 

" The Grey Fryers ofF Gloseter 
Fryer Wyllyam Lyghtfote 
Fryer Johan Barclaye 
Fryer Henry Jaket 
Fryer George Coper 
Fryer Johan Kebull.''^ 

Of these William Lyghtfote afterwards became vicar gf 
Tetbury, in Gloucestershire, and John Kebull, rector of St. 
Aldate's, Gloucester, in 1547. 

In obedience to the instructions contained in the royal man- 
date the visitor made an inventory of the goods of the house at 
the time of its suppression : the document is headed : 

" The Invetory of the Gray frearys in Glowcetor made by the 
vysytor and mayst thomas payn alderman there, assyngnyd by 
mayster mayre. 

In the qwere. 

In p'mis iij alt'^ clothys for y^ alt^ vay pore one hangyng before 

the alt^ of say. 
Itm y® booke of the quere of lyttyll valewre. 

1 Cotton MSS. Cleop. E. IV. p. 304, 305. 



The GIrey Friars. 



185 



all these 
want albys. 



In the vestrye. 

Itm a fayr cope of whyte damaske w*^ flowre. 

Itm a pore kay cope strypyd. 

Itm a pore cope of grene sylke. 
Itm a nother grene cope. 

A westymet w*> deakyn and subdeakyn of whyte damaske. 
A pore old vestyment of sylke. 
A vestyment of yelow. 
A noy of cheker warke w^' ij tunakyls. 
A noy of black worsted. 
A noy black w* deakyn and subdeacon 
A pore olde chesable aft^" sylke dornyske 
A noy cheasable w*^ deacon and subdeac 
Tappeta(^) blew w^ byrde and lyons 
A noy chessable of the same 
Thre chesables dorneke('^) 
iiij other chesabuls, w* ij other pore 
iij albys and iij amyct€(^) w*owt pelles (^) 
ij black tunakyls w^owt albys. 
A lytyll pyllow nedylworke 
ij old raggyd alter clothys. 

An old cope, and an old surples w*^ a lyttle rochet. 

A noy old cope pore, a pore albe and iij amysseys. 

A dyap clothe olde, iij small hangyngs of say red and yelow. 

iij olde tunakyls, iiij old chesables w*^ dyv'se stolys of no valure. 

The lyhrary. 
In the lybrary be many bookes of no valeure. 

In the hechyn. 

iiij potts, a pan and a cauderon. v pewt^ dysshys. 

A chaffer iij broochys 

ij aundyryns A gredyron 

A fryyng pan A cop in a fornes. 

(^) i.e. " like silk darnex," a coarse sort of. damask made at Tournay. 
i^) "tappeta," probably a mis-writing for " taffeta,' a thin silk, 
(c) << clorneke," same as darnex. 
{^) " amyctes " is the amice. 

(°) " parelles '' or apparels, i.e. the richly. embroidered ornament stitched 
to the collar of the amice. 



186 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



In the huttre. 
iij table clothys and a towell nowght. 

In the chambers. 
ii old fether beddys and ij bolsters. A mattres and a bolster, 
iij old cowlettes. An old carpet. A payr of old blanckettes. 
certain old wodd and bordys wythe beys (^) corne, tasyls, onyons, 
and appollys y*^ cowd not be savyd, sold and payd ^vanttes and 
freerys." 

Below is written, apparently in the hand of the bishop of 
Dover. 

Thys delyfy^ to masf payn by identure, and for plate vij schore 
unc vij unc di™. E/ICArd Doveriens."^ 

The convent seal was probably taken possession of by the 
visitor ; at all events it is not forthcoming. 

Of the buildings only the church remains, and that in a terribly 
mutilated condition. It consists of nave, with north aisle of the 
same size, of late 15th or early 16th century architecture; there 
are indications of a building, most likely a lady chapel, having been 
attached to the east end of the nave. Over the south doorway 
of the nave are two shields. One of them bears the arms of the 
Cliffords of Frampton : Chequy or and az. on a bend gu. three lions 
passant ar., but what connection that family had with the house 
of the Grey Friars it is impossible to say. On the other is a simple 
pile (? Chandos ar. a pile ga.) 

The prior's lodgings and other conventual buildings were south 
of the church ; some small fragments remained, it is stated, as 
late as forty years ago.^ 

Soon after the dissolution the church was turned into dwelling 
houses and a brewery. 

At the time of the siege during the civil war, it was the 
quarters of Sir William Massey, the parliamentarian commander, 
and suffered considerably from the king's artillery. Sir John 
Powell, a native of Gloucester, who was one of the judges at the 
' *' beys," i.e. bees. 

1 Chapter House Books, Pub. Rec. Office, a^tj Inventory of Friaries, &c. 

2 See also plate in Stukeley's Itinera Curiosa. ' The Grey Friars in 1721.' 
By mistake Stukeley puts While for Grey. 



The Grey Friars. 



187 



memorable trial of the seven bishops, is also said to have lived in 
it. Swift describes hira as " an old fellow with gray hairs, who 
was the merriest old gentleman I ever saw, spoke pleasing things, 
and chuckled till he cried again." 

The site was granted, 35th Henry YIII,, to John Jennings. 
From J ennings it passed to Hugh Gethyn, and through a person 
named Fowler to Thomas Payn, one of the aldermen of the city, 
and in all probability the same who assisted the visitor in 
making an inventory of the convent goods. Payne, in 1556, 
for a consideration of £300, demised the premises, the leaden 
water-pipe " from the hill called Matteshill," otherwise Matson 
hill, being specially included, to Thomas Pyrrye, alderman, and 
Johan his wife. Since then the property has been much divided : 
a part of it, known as Friars' Orchard, passed into the possession 
of the corporation of Gloucester, and has lately been sold by them 
to the governors of the Endowed Schools as a site for the Crypt 
School ; the remainder is in the hands of private individuals. 



ISS 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



THE BERKELEYS OF DURSLEY. 

Supplementary to Memoirs on tJiis Family, printed ante Vols. VIII. 

and IX. 

By sir henry BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G. 

A RECENT examination of the Gloucester Corporation Records, 
undertaken on behalf of the Royal Commission on Historical 
Manuscripts, has brought to light a number of Ancient Deeds 
relating to the Hospital of Saint Bartholomew in that city, which 
is still being carried on under the auspices of the Corporation, to 
whom its property was transferred after the dissolution of the Priory 
in the 16th century. 

Among these are four Grants in Lutgareshall,^ a dependency 
of the Manor of Newington Bagpath, long part of the Lordship 

1 Smyth, in his Hundred of Berkeley, page 74, after remarking — " in 
Newton Bagpath is a place obvious in many evidences called Nutgarshell, 
alias Lurgeshall," stops abruptly without completing the paragraph. 

The etymology of the word is unknown, but Mr. Stevenson has pointed 
out that Ludgar was a personal name in Saxon times. It is found in Domes- 
day, under the form of Leuegar, among both past and present holders of 
lands in several counties, though, curiously enough, not in any of the four, 
Gloucestershire, Wilts, Bucks, or Sussex, in which places apparently deriving 
their appellations therefrom, now exist. 

Mr. Stevenson thinks the concluding syllable may come from "healh," 
denoting a field of some kind. Its derivation from " hall " however, seems 
quite as natural, and is supported by a writ of King John's, wherein he 
alludes to Ludgershall Castle, near Marlborough, as *'domus nostra de 
Lutgar." (Rot. Litt. Glaus. 9th a.r.) 

Since the above was in print, my attention has been called to an answer 
to the request which I addressed to the readers of Notes and Queries for 
information on the subject. In it, Sir J. A. Picton, pronounces the word to 
be of purely Saxon derivation,— a?2 — meaning, to incline or slope, — gars, 
grass or pasture, —Lutgarshall, therefore, signifying "the Hall on the 
meadow slope," which he adds, as if within his own knowledge, exactly 
suits the situation of the Wiltshire and Buckinghamshire places of that 
name, the former on the sloping banks of a tributary of the Avon, the latter 



The Berkeleys of Dursley. 



189 



of the Berkeleys of Dursley. Having been favoured by Mr. 
Stevenson, though the kind intervention of Sir John Maclean, 
with transcripts of these documents, I propose making a few 
remarks on their contents by way of supplement to my pievious 
Papers on the history of this family, printed in the Transactions 
of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

The first in order (No. 152) is a Grant from Claricia of Lute- 
gareshale, widow of John Hunedi, of Glouc to the Hospital of St. 
Bartliomew betw^ the bridges of half a virgate of land in Lute- 
garesliale, which she had of the gift of Dom. Bichard of Couei', 
her brother. Witnesses : Dom. Rich, of Couel', Simon of Olepenne, 
Henry his son, James, then parson of Eweleg', Peter of Eweleg' 
Robert of Couel', Walter of Benecumba, Walter Hoich, Will, of 
Sanford. 

The second (No. 153) is a duplicate of preceding grant, with 
slight variations in the wording, with the same witnesses omitting 
Rich, of Couel' 

The third (No. 154) is a Confirmation by Richard of Couel' to 
the Hospital of St. Bartholomew of the gift by his sister Claricia of 
half a virgate of land in Lutegareshal. He gives them an annual 
rent of 12d., which his sister was wont to pay him for the said 
half virgate. Witnesses : Dom : Peter of Eggeword, Sheriff of 
Glouc, Will, of Sanford, Rich, of Hani', chaplain, Walter Hoich, 
Robert of Couel', John of Draicote, Walter of Bennecumba. 

With respect to these charters, I have only to remark that the 
family of Couele, from whom they emanate, derived its surname 
from one of the berewicks of Berkeley-Hernesse, so called in 
Domesday.i 

on that of an affluent of the Thames. It will be interesting to learn how 
the Ludgershall Farm, in Gloucestershire, is situated. 

[We learn from a communication from the Rev. A. K. Cornwall, Vicar 
of Newton Bagpath, that the site of Ludgarshall, now written Lugarshall, 
formerly in his parish, but, under the recent Boundaries' Act, incorporated 
into the Parish of Owlpen, exactly fits the derivation given by Sir J. A. 
Picton. It is, Mr. Cornwall says, " a good farmhouse standing on the slope 
and surrounded by meadows in the rich valley of Uley." — Ed.] 

^ Afterwards known as Coideij, and now Coalcy. 



190 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



They were among the retainers of the earlier Berkeleys, 
Simon de Couele being certified by the third Roger de Berkeley, 
in his Return in the Liber Niger, as holding one virgate of him 
under the old ei'feofment, that is, by grant dating prior to the 
death of Henry I. in 1135. It would seem too that they were 
related to the new Lords of Berkeley, since Smyth states that Sir 
Richard de Coveley, son of Harding ("Dominus Ricardus de 
Cowley, filius Hardingi "), with his son Simon, witnessed a grant 
from Robert fitz Harding to his brother Elias.^ 

It was, no doubt, through this connection that the Cowley s 
attained knightly rank, which was enjoyed by the Richard of 
these charters (presumably Simon's son) as shown by the prefix 
of "Dominus" to his name, as in the case of his grandfather. 
Smyth, who speaks of him merely as " another " Richard de 
Cowley, cites a deed proving that he was living in 3rd Hen. III. 
(1219), about the period at which No. 154 may be supposed to 
have been executed. 

The fact of its being attested by Peter Eggeswode (Edgworth), 
as Sheriff of Gloucestershire furnishes some clue to its date, though 
by no means a precise one. Decius de Eggwood, is entered douhi- 
ingly ^ by the scribe who engrossed the Pipe Roll of 6th Hen. III. 
from the original Exchequer Notes (evidently through a misreading 
of Petrus) as the Deputy of Ralph Musard the Sheriff of that 
year ; and on the Rolls of 14th and 15th of the reign Petrus de 
Eggeswode appears as having acted in the same capacity for 
William de Putot, and again for William Talbot in the 19th, 
although replaced before the end of that year by Thomas de St. 
Martin. 2 This gives a range of no less than 14 years, from 1221 
to 1235, for the possible date of this charter, but there is, as will 
be hereafter shewn, reason to infer that its execution was even 
earlier than the first of these epochs. 

The last deed (No. 155), as the most interesting and important 
of the series, is given here at full length in the original latin text. 

1 Hund. of Berkeley, p. 153. 

2 A prolongation of the ' D ' into * P ' is still visible on the parchment ; 
while c and t are, as usual in ancient manuscripts, scarcely distinguishable. 

2 See Appendix to 31st Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public 
Records for List of Sheriffs from 31st Hen. I. to 4th Edw. III. 



The Berkeleys of Dursley. 



191 



Gloucester Corporation Records, No. 155, circa a d. 1220. 

Sciant praesentes et futuri, quod ego Henricus de Berkel', 
dominus do castro de Dursel', concessi, remissi, et quietum clr.mavi, 
pro anima mea et pro animabus patris et matris meae et onmium 
anteoessoruin meorum et siiccessorum meorum, in puram elemosi- 
nam et perpetuam, Deo et Hospital! Sancti Berthol[omaei] Glouc' 
redditus (sic) unius speruarii, quem consueui percipere de Priore 
et Fratribus dicti Hospitalis singulis annis in festo Sancti Oswaldi 
de tenemento quod dominus Ricardus de Couel' feofauit dictum 
Priorem et Fratres praedictos et Claricia soror dicti Domini 
Ricardi in Lutegareshale ; ita uidelicet quod dicti Prior et Fratres, 
et eorum successores, soluat michi et heredibus meis vel meis 
assignatis, duos solidos esterlingorum in dicto festo Sancti Oswaldi 
singulis annis loco dicti speruarii Pro hac autem concessione, 
remissione, et quieta clamatione receperunt me in confraternitate 
dicti Hospitalis. Et ut haec mea concessio, remissio, et quieta 
clamatio rata et inconcnssa inperpetuum permaneat, praesenti 
scripto sigillum meura apposui. 

His testibus : Willelmo de Egetune, tunc Sen[escallo], Helya 
de Cumbe, Petro de Stintescumbe, Roberto de Couel' Thoma 
Wenr', Nicholao clerico, Willelmo de Bernewode, et aliis. 




The original is engrossed on a small piece of vellum, about 
4 ins. in length by 6 ins. in width, in the handwriting of the early 
part of the 1 3th century, the letters being as clear and legible as 
if written yesterday. The seal of the grantor is still appendant, 
impressed on dark green wax. It is, as will be seen from the 
annexed engraving, rather more than an inch in diameter, having 



192 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



on it the figure of a mounted knight in full armour, brandishing 
his sword, his charger, which is galloping, being comparisoned as if 
for a tournament, its housings embroidered with the armorial 
bearing, two lions passant.^ The legend, in the broad garter 
encircling the design, is somewhat uncouthly cut, and hard to 
decipher, the lettering being interrupted, not only by attempts at 
ornamentation, but by the protrusion across it of both the fore 
and hind hoofs of the horse. It will be found, on close inspection, 
to run, " S(igillum) Henrici de Berkeleye." 

There were during the 13th century two Lords of Duisley 
who bore these names. The first succeeded his father Roger about 
1219, and died in the year 1221 ; the second, his grandson, came 
of age in 1262, and held the Lordship till his death in 1287. That 
it \sas the former who granted Charter No. 155, seems clear from 
the evidence already adduced that Peter de Edg worth, who wit- 
nessed, as Sheriff, No. 154, which is referred to therein, did not 
act in that capacity after 1235. It must be admitted, however, 
that there is some little difficulty in reconciling the date of the 
first Henry de Berkeley's decease, which is proved by the Close 
Roll of 5th Henry III. to have taken place prior to 24th Sept. 
1221,2 with the fact that Peter's earliest recorded recognition at 
the Exchequer, only reckons from the 30th Sept. 1221, the first 
day of the fiscal year of 6th Henry III. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that the Pipe Rolls about 
this period are defective, that for Gloucestershire of the last year 
of John not existing, whilst there are none for any county in the 
first year of his son. It is probable that Ralph Musard was 
Sheriff for Gloucestershire throughout this period, and possible 
that Peter de Edgworth may have been his deputy. Sir Robert 
Atkyns indeed sets the latter down in his list as joint Sheriff in 
1218, and though no authority is cited, and the name of Ralph 
Musard appears alone on the still extant Pipe Roll of that year 

1 There is a suggestion of the same arms on the Knight's surcoat, but 
too indistinct to be relied on. 

2 Rot. Claus. de Anno Domini H. Regis Vo.— Memb. 2— Writ "De 
custodia terre et heredum Henrici de Berkele " — qui de nobis tenuit in 
capite, &c., &c., T.H. tuncapud Turrim— Londinensem xxiij die Septenibris. 



The Berkeleys of Dursley. 



193 



(2nd Henry III.), there is no insuperable difficulty in supposing 
that Peter did occasionally about that period represent the latter 
when absent from the county, without being authorised to render 
account for him at the Exchequer. 

The language used by Henry de Berkeley in his charter might 
be taken to imply that the tenement in Lutgareshall had been 
made over to the Priory by Richard de Cowley and his sister, some 
considerable time before his own concession, but allowance has 
often to be made for the cut and dry phraseology employed in legal 
documents, and on the other hand it is by no means improbable 
that he may have occupied the Manor of Xewington Bagpath 
whilst his father was still alive. ^ 

At all events it seems fair to assume that Henry's grant was 
made in July, 1221, when he was, as we know, in Gloucester 
attending the Assize Court.^ 

It consisted, as will be seen, in a remission to the hospital, in 
consideration of an annual rent of two shillings from the prior and 
brethren, and their engaging to receive him into their confra- 
ternity, of his claim to a sparrow hawk which they had been 
accustomed to deliver to him yearly at the feast of St. Oswald, on 
account of the tenement given them by Richard de Cowley and his 
sister Claricia. Such a concession may appear trifling now-a-days, 
but it amounted in point of fact to an enfranchisement of the 
lands ; the annual presentation of a falcon of this species, the 
French "Espervier," ex-roneously Englished into "Sparrow-hawk," 
being so customary an acknowledgment of feudal service, that it 
was known as " Sparvarius feodalisP ^ 

The actual value of the l)ird must at that time have been con- 
siderable, since the penalty for stealing one ("trained," it is to be 
presumed) was one hundred shillings. 

In conclusion, I would point out that Henry de Berkeley's 
charter supplies evidence regarding two points which rested 

^ He guaranteed payment of his father's debts to the Jews in 2nd 
Henry III. — Piye Roll of that year. 

2 See Gloucester Assize Roll, 5th Hen. III., fol. 1, in dorso. Also Pleas 
of the Crown for the County, by F. W. Maitland, passim. 
2 Du Cange's Glossary. 
V^ol. XIII. 0 



194 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



previously on inference alone. The first is that that there was a 
castle at Dursley at the beginning of the 13th century, of which 
these Berkeleys styled themselves Lords. This fact supports so 
far the view expressed in the address which I had the honour of 
delivering at the Dursley Meeting of the Society in August, 1886, 
to the effect that a castle was certain to have been erected there 
soon after the vill was constituted by King Henry II., the 
" Caput Baronise " of the third Roger de Berkeley ; although the 
earliest allusion to its existence which I had then been able to 
discover, was the word " Castrum " in the margin of the Extent 
of the Manor taken on the death of the second Henry de Berkeley 
in 1287, and preserved in the Public Becord Office.^ 

The second point is, the corroboration afforded by the seal to 
my contention ^ that the Dursley Berkeleys did not, like their 
Cadets of Cobberley, bear for arms the fess and martlets attributed 
to them by Blunt and other modern writers, but 2 lions passant on 
an azure shield, as recorded by Glover, the Elizabethan Herald, 
in his Ordinary.^ When and why they assumed this coat, is open to 
conjecture. The third Roger de Berkeley, as shown by his seal, 
of which several impressions are extant,* bore " a Knight on foot 
fighting with a rampant lion," but this cognizance, allusive, pro- 
bably to some adventure in the East, may after his death (c. 1170) 
have been converted by his descendants into the tioo lions joassant, 
displayed by his great grandson half a century later. ^ 

1 Trans., Vol. XI., p. 223. 

2 Trans., Vol. IX., p. 247. 

^ Edmonson's Heraldry ; see also Papworth's Ordinary of British Ar- 
morials, p. 147. 

^ Representations of similar combats are not uncommon on the seals of 
those who had been to the third Crusade, as in the case of Sayer de Quenci 
and of Hugh Neville the Forester ; but I have met with no other example 
of such early date as that of Roger de Berkeley. There is a fine cast of it, 
taken from a Herefordshire Deed of 1162, in the British Museum Collection 
of Personal Seals. Drawer B^, No. Ill ; and Lysons gives an engraving 
from another in his Gloucestershire Antiquities. 

^ An instance of similar conversion may be traced from two early Rolls 
of Arms printed in Foshrolce's GloucestersJiii^e. In the first, the Arms of Sir 
Gilbert Talbot are given : Goulis un lion rampant or. In the second, a few 
years later : Goulis trois lions passant or., with the addition of a label of tlwee 
points, sable, which, doubtless, denoted that this Gilbert's father was still 
living. 



The Berkelets of Durslet. 



195 



Looking to the fact, however, that the Paganels of Dudley 
bore Or two lions passant azure,^ it seems most likely that the new 
armorial bearings of the Berkeleys were assumed by the fifth and 
last Roger, in conformity with the practice which prevailed before 
the quartering of arms was introduced, in honour of his marriage 
in 1197 with Ha wise, sister and heiress of Gervase Paganell,^ 
the last Baron of that line. The reason of his thus reversing the 
tinctures of their blazon doubtless was, that Ralph de Somery, her 
son by her previous husband, had already exchanged his paternal 
arms for the Paganel coat, on getting sasine of Dudley, so that 
his step-father could only adopt it differenced in this way, which 
was the usual one ^ until the laws of Heraldry came to be 
systematically formulated. 

That Roger's son and heir, Henry de Berkeley, should have 
continued to use the arms thus adopted, would certainly tend to 
prove that he was Hawise Paganel's son, a point hitherto regarded 
by me as doubtful.^ 

1 Gervase Paganell has on his shield, in an engraving of his seal from a 
deed of 1187, given in Dugdale's Monasticon, Vol. YI., p. 1038, tv:o lions 
passant, the forepart of the animals only being visible, while the tinctures 
are not indicated. Pap worth, however, when referring to this engraving, 
blazons them as above, adding several references to later EoUs of Arms to 
show that the De Someris had adopted them on mairying his heiress, as also 
that the Suttons, who succeeded to Dudley in the 14th century, through 
marriage with the eldest coheiress of the Somerys, continued to bear them 
as above blazoned. — Ordinary of British Armorials, p. 148. 

- Dugdale describes her, under Paganel, (Baronage, p. 4.31) as daughter, 
but further on, under Somerie (p. 612), her true relationship, as above, is 
given. In "An Account of the Barons of Dudley," (Vol. IX. William Salt 
Archaeological Society) !Mr. Sydney Grazebrock reviews the question ex- 
haustively, and proves from the Staffordshire Pipe Roll, 10th Rich. I., that 
Hawise's son, Ralph de Somery, fined to have the inheritance of his uncle 
Gervase Paganel. 

2 Besides the Berkeleys, several families, both of Paganels and Somerys, 
bore the reversed tinctures azure two lions passant or, as may be seen 
in Papworth, page 147. Strange to say the name of Percevall de Somery, 
Ralph's younger son is included in the list, while stranger still, the arms 
thus blazoned were found quartered icith those of the Suttons in church 
windows at Dudley, so commonly in Nash's time, that they are the only coat 
given iu his IVoi ce-^tershire for the Somerys of that town It looks as if they 
were so borne by younger brothers, but varied if they afterwards happened 
to succeed to the inheritance. 

Trans., Vol. VIIL, p. 221. 
0 2 



196 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



THE ROMAN VILLA, TOCKINGTON PARK. 

SECOND NOTICE. 

Continued from Vol. XII., p. 169. 

By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., 
Vice-President of the Royal Archosological Institute, Honorary Member of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall, d;c. 

On the 22nd May, 1888, we resumed the excavation of the Roman 
Villa at Tockington Park, and, in the hope of discovering an 
entrance to the building on the south side, of which we considered 
the sculptured stone found in the rick-yard [PI. IX. fig.l, Vol. XI I.) 
might be an indication, we thought it desirable, in the first place, 
to explore that locality. On the following day, about 6 feet from 
the south edge of the pavement of the corridor (Room xxiii), where 
it is crossed by the fence of the rick-yard, a pillar of a hypocaust 
was found. It was about 8ins. square in plan, built of tiles of that 
size and about 2ins. thick, and was 2ft. Gins. high. This was very 
encouraging. Continuing the excavations along the eastern side 
of the fence several other similar pillars were found, not running 
parallel with the fence, but trending slightly towards the south- 
east in the direction of the spot where the stone above alluded to 
was uncovered (Room xxiv). The pillars did not extend further 
eastward, and the other portion of the chamber must have been 
on the western side of the fence, and thus destroyed in making 
the pond, now in the farmyard. The only objects of interest 
found thus far were two pieces of channelled stone, probably 
formed for conducting water. 

Having left two men at work with instructions to open the 
ground eastwards and southwards from the hypocaust we visited 
the villa again on the 1st of June. Our expectation that the 




I 



The Roman Villa. 



197 



hypocaiist chamber might extend further southwards was disap 
pointed. No remains of an external wall appeared on that side. 
Some flag-stone pavement, very rough and uneven, adjoins the 
two rows of pillars, but on the north side the end of the foundation 
of a wall was found adjoining the pavement of the corridor. Upon 
a square piece of masonry was found a stone step, much worn, 
lying transversely. A considerable quantity of loose tesserae, white, 
red, and blue, some shards of black ware of different qualities, all 
rather coarse, and other coarse pottery, and some small bits of 
samian, part of a hone, a good many building tiles, similar to those 
used for the hypocaust pillars, a few pieces of striated flanged 
tiles, and some pieces of charcoal were all that rewarded us so far. 

We again visited the works on the 16th June, and found 
extensive foundations discovered since our last visit, the walls on 
the south side of rooms numbered xxvi and xxvii being from 3 to 
4 feet high, fragments of black pottery, some pieces of painted 
wall plaster (green) and flanged striated tiles had been turned up. 
On our visit on the 23rd June, the foundations had been further 
developed, and what appeared to be the eastern boundary wall 
had been reached. The suite of three rooms on the south side 
XXVI, XXVII and xxviii had been explored, and they measured 
together 78ft. in length. These communicated by openings in the 
walls 5ft. wide, but these openings had been walled up. The vous- 
soirs of the two arches were found. In the excavations of these 
rooms were found large quantities of oyster shells, broken tiles, 
some of them flanged and striated. There was also found a portion 
of a mill-stone, similar to that found in the corridor last year. The 
diameter would be about 2 ft. 6 ins., and, probably, as that of the 
radiated stones in the corridor, before mentioned (Vol. XTI. p. 167) 
were of the same diameter those stones formed the base of the mill. 
Another circular stone was dug up. It is of a convex form, 17ins. 
in diameter, perforated with a round hole in the centre, where it 
is 4 ins. thick, tapering off to the circumference, where it is only 
2 ins. thick. The central hole is larger on one side than on the 
other, and appears to have been partially broken through. Many 
largo iron nails and a quantity of fragments of black pottery of 



198 



TransactiOxNS for the Year 1888-9, 



rather good quality, apparently Upchurch ware [Plate XIV. Jig. 3) 
were picked up. There was also found a boar's tusk, 5| ins. long, 
and fashioned as a needle (See Plate XIV., figs. 5, 6 and 7). The 
partition wall between Rooms xxvii and xxviii on the north of 
the opening has been broken down, as has also been the adjoining 
portions of the north wall of these rooms, and a deep hole dug 
on the site with many large boulder-like stones in it. Here 
were also found a great quantity of tesserse, which, doubtless, 
formed a part of the floor of the western portion of space xxix. 

On visiting the Villa again on the 5th July, we found that 
the men, continuing the excavations from Room xxv. to xxviii., 
had fully opened xxvii. and xxviii. No trace w^as found of 
any walls branching out on the north side of these rooms, and 
this north wall was not bonded into the east wall of Rooms 
xxviii. and xxix. Room xxviii. has a pavement of rough slab 
stones, and, external to the wall on the north, there is a piece of 
similar flooring. In the excavations was found a circular convex 
stone similar to that before described ; though somewhat less, but 
the central hole is not pierced through. A stone weight was also 
found. It is of a quadrangular form, with the edges chamfered 
ofi", and it tapers from the bottom to the top, in which a hole is 
bored to fix a ring or other handle. This hole has been broken 
through and the handle lost. An incision is made in the stone to 
affix a piece of cord or wire for lifting it. In its present state 
it weighs 16f lbs. Probably in its original state its weight was 
181bs., perhaps 20 lbs. A whetstone was also found, as were other 
sharpening stones of diflerent forms. A quantity of broken tiles, 
shards of pottery of various textures and colour. A large quantity 
of blue and white tesserse was also found at the western end of 
the space marked xxix. mixed with the soil, indicating that this 
space had been paved with mosaic work, but no dividing wall 
could be discovered ; bones and oyster shells were numerous. 

Continuing the excavation 20 feet further northwards at the 
eastern end of xxix., the foundation of the eastern wall was again 
met with and traced about 7 ft. and then lost. 



The Roman Villa. 



199 



We now determined to explore the ground north of the corridor 
at the north-west corner of the rick-yard, but nothing was found 
of any importance. The ground was then tested on the north side 
of the great corridor, and allowing 2 ft. for the breadth of the wall 
of the corridor, at 1 foot beyond was found a drain of flav stones 
set on edge, running parallel to the wall, precisely similar to the 
drain found in the principal farm-yard last autumn, running north 
and south. It does not appear to have been covered. This con- 
tinued 1 2 feet by the wall of the corridor. Keturning then to the 
big hole before mentioned, a search was made for the northern 
wall of Room xxix., which was soon found. The first special 
object noticed was a thick flat stone 2 feet square, evidently form- 
ing the foundation of a column, by the side of which was a small 
section of what appeared to be a column or wooden post. It was 
ITins. long, and lOins. in diameter. At one end is a square socket 
as if to fasten it to another similar piece, and at intervals of 7ft. 
three other similar foundations were found. Probably they were 
bases for wooden posts to support a roof. This wall was the 
continuation of the south wall of the corridor, and the parallel 
wall was found at 10 ft. distant. 

During the latter part of these operations, Mr. Smith, in dig- 
ging in his garden, observed some indications of a wall on the 
eastern side of the rooms already opened out there. He accord- 
ingly dug deeper, and about 3 ft. below the surface came upon 
a piece of tesselated pavement, which he was good enough to 
report to us at once On the 14th July we visited the place and 
found that the pavement was constructed of bJue and white tesserse 
set in the fylfot pattern, and, apparently, such a border as we had 
found surrounding other pavements in the villa. Upon an ex- 
amination it was found to be only a fragment a few feet in length 
and about 2 ft. in breadth. We then continued the excavations 
a few feet further southwards and found that there was a hot air 
chamber under this pavement, and that the floor had given way and 
fallen into the chamber. As the ground was cropped we refrained 
from pursuing this discovery until the crops should have been 
removed. Morever, Mr. Smith desired to withdraw the men from 



200 



Transactions for the Ykar 1888-9. 



this work to assist in his hay and harvest operations. The exca- 
vations therefore were suspended for the time. 

The continuance of wet weather prevented work being re- 
sumed until the middle of October. The first step taken was to 
examine the ground in the garden already partially opened, on the 
east side of Room numbered ix. on the ground plan {Plate XIII.) 
We were disappointed to find that the pavement discovered in the 
summer reached very little further than we had previously seen, 
but on extending the excavations southwards and eastwards a 
series of thirteen hypocaust pillars were found in situ, two of 
them being circular and built of stone, and also several flue 
tiles {see Plate XIV., Jiff. 4)- The tesserae of the floor had fallen 
into this chamber. The small piece of pavement and the first 
row of hypocaust pillars, in this Room numbered xxx. on plan, 
which were 8 ins. square in plan, and built of tiles of that size, and 
3 ft. high, were just 10 ft. east of the room above mentioned. 
Continuing the excavations eastwards at a distance of 24 ft. from 
Koom IX., we came upon the foundation of a wall running north 
and south. This wall, however, was not united to the wall on 
the north. There was an opening of 8 ins., and following the 
wall southw^ards at the distance of 2 ft. 6 ins., we found an open- 
ing of 2 ft. from which, as far as we traced it, the wall continued 
solid. On the east side of this wall we found a small room ter- 
minated on the south side in a semicircular apse, 3 ft. in diameter. 
The room itself was 16 ft. Gins, square, including the apse^ with 
32 hypocaust pillars in it, similar to those already described. The 
space through the middle of the room, between the tiles, was wider 
than elsewhere, as if to admit of a passage between the rows (see 
Room XXXI., Plate XIII.) On the east beyond a narrow sort of 
passage (see Plan), we found another small room, 7ft. by 8ft. 9ins. 
(Room xxxii). The bottom was covered with wood-ashes, very 
closely compressed, and 7 or 8 ins. thick, the fibre of the wood 
being very apparent. The room was, probably, nothing more than 
an ash-hole. 

From the central passage before mentioned on the western 
side of this room, extended a row of flat stones, laid in a curved 



Plate XIV. 



Dktaii.s l^oMAN Vii,i,a; Togk tngtoj Park. 
k s- 4 




ELEVATION PLAN 



3i Ttv cbLaJw^- 




H 3 




The Roman Villa. 



201 



form, reaching to the south wall. The purpose for which this 
M^as intended is not very evident, possibly it was the bottom of a 
flue. Proceeding southwards from the western pier in this room, 
(F) is a wall parallel with and extending to the south end (E) of 
the eastern wall of the excavation in the rick-yard (Room xxviii), 
and from the pier on the north side of xxxi is a wall in a straight 
line with that just described, which extends northwards a distance 
of 41ft. to G. No offset has been found on the external side of this 
Avail, except the ash-hole. From the most southern angle in the 
rick-yard to (G) on the north, the distance is 240ft. This, we con- 
ceive, was the outer wall on the eastern side of the villa. The 
south and west sides are defined on the plan with apparent clear- 
ness, and upon further examination we found a wall at a right 
angle with this wall at the north extremity extending to a place 
marked (H) at the western wall of the garden. It probably 
extends further, but the ground beyond the wall has not been 
examined. 

The relics found in the excavations were of trifling interest. 
The most important of them is the small base of a column, the 
mouldings of which are unusual and very good (see PI. XIV. figs. 
1 and 2 elevation and plan). It was found at (F) the entrance 
to the ash-hole, and appeared to be in sitio. Two round stone 
balls roughly made were also found. The largest, 2| ins. in 
diameter, and weighing 12 ozs. avoirdupois, the smaller one 2 ins. 
in diameter, and weighing 6 ozs. Besides these, there were 
fragments of bucks' horns, in abundance, and bones of oxen, 
sheep, &c., &c., fragments of building and other tiles, flue tiles 
{Plate XIV. fig. 4J,^ great quantity of loose tesserae, blue and 
white or buff, some of which adhered to each other by the cement 
in pieces many inches square. 

The public purpose, if any, for which this large building was 
erected is still very obscure. The weather during the summer 
months of 1888 proved very unfavourable for making excavations 
in the stiff clayey soil of Tockington Park, nevertheless a con- 
siderable additional area of the site of the villa was examined. 
The general plan has now been pretty definitely disclosed. It 



202 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



would seem to have been in form an irregular trapeziuni, measuring 
about 240 ft. from north to south and 160 ft. from east to west, 
about one half of which area only has as yet been explored. The 
result of the excavations does not throw much light upon the 
uses to which the building was applied, and conjectures and 
guesses would be worse than useless. The fact that the site of 
the villa was selected, perhaps several centuries ago, as the site 
of the homestead of the farm was, probably, the chief cause of its 
almost entire defacement. With the exception of a few yards of 
Roman masonry on the southern boundary, and a still less quantity 
on the western, scarcely anything except the rubble foundations 
remain, and these, naturally, shew no indication of doors or other 
openings. We do not even know where was the chief entrance 
to the building. All that the excavations have disclosed to us is 
that it, at least the chief part of it, is of a very early period of the 
Roman occupation of Britain, as early, probably, as the first 
century, and that, from the number, elegance, and general charac- 
ter of the mosaic pavements, it was the residence of some Roman 
official of high rank. The hypocaust chambers recently discovered 
(Rooms XXX. and xxxi.) would indicate some extensive heating 
apparatus and bath accommodation suitable to so large an estab- 
lishment. 

We should imagine from the plan and other indications that 
the original building had, perhaps, additions uiade to it, possibly 
more than once, and we are inclined to think that the southern 
portion, situated on the low ground, was appropriated to the 
slaves and labourers who cultivated the farm. 

In conclusion we must repeat our thank^ to Mr. Richard Smith 
and Mr. F. Judge for the continuation of their obliging assistance. 



The Ring of Sexiciakus. 



203 



FURTHER REMARKS OX THE RIXG OF SEXICIAXUS 

In Continuation of Vol. VI., p. 79. 

[C. I. L. VIL, UO, 1305]. 

ByF. haverfield, m.a. 

In 1786 there was found near SiJchester a very interesting gold 
ring, now preserved by Mr. Challoner Chute, at the V}Tie, and 
published by him in his account of the treasures stored up in 
that most interesting country house. ^ It vrill be familiar to 
members of the Bristol it Gloucestershire Arch^ological Society 
from a paper upon it in the 6th volume of the Transactions. By 
the kindness of Mr. Chute, the ring has been submitted to the 
authorities of the British Museum, where I have also had the 
opportunity of examining it. As to the inscription, there can 
be no possible doubt. It is 

SE XI CI A XE TI TA SII XDE 
that is Sejiiciane, vivas [i]n de^o]. The formula vivas in deo is a 
very common Christian one, and strangely enough, it is one in 
which mistakes are often made. In this case the engraver seems 
to have miscalculated his distance, and having the letters sindeo 
to get into the last two partitions of the circumference, he has 
made a vain effort to put six together and has been compelled to 
omit the final o entirely. The explanation Secunde is, so far as I 
can make out, untenable, the abbreviation being unique. The 
inscription round the head is tfxvs, i.e. Vemis, the lower limb of 
the E being lost In* the rubbing of use. The word, no doubt, 
stands for some proper name, such as Venusianus, Venustus or 
Vemistinius. The second of these is a fairly common cognomen, 
the latter occurs on a Xorthumbrian inscription. - 
^ History of the Vync, Winchester, 1888, p. 7. 
C. 1. L. VIL, 8S4. 



204 



Transactions roii the Year 1888-9. 



It lias been maintained, and the opinion has been adopted by 
Hiibner, that the Christian inscription was cut at a considerably 
later period than the name Venus... and the head round which it 
is engraved. The view of Mr. Franks and Mr. A. H. Smith 
is that the whole ring belongs to a late period, probably to the 
fourth century, and that there is little or no difference in date 
between the Christian formula and the name Femw(....?). Dr. 
Hiibner, it should be said, had not himself seen the ring. 

It has been usual to connect this ring with a curious lead plate 
found at Lydney, on which one Silvianus (probably a miswriting 
for Silvanus, not Silvimius^) imprecates the God's wrath on the 
robber who stole the ring, just as the stealer of the mantelium is 
cursed on the lead plate found at Bath. It is, of course, a strange 
coincidence that a ring should have been lost of Senicianus sus- 
pected as thief. But the identity of Mr. Chute's ring and the 
Lydney one must not be hastily assumed. Mr. Chute's ring does 
not bear the name of Silvanus, and the dates of the ring and lead 
plate do not at all agree. The ring is quite late, the lead plate 
early. The lettering shews that, as Hiibner remarks, it may almost 
belong to the first century a.d. Senicianus is not an uncommon 
name, and in three centuries, two persons of that name may easily 
have possessed rings. 

1 The fifth letter is variously given as I and i. In either case it is 
probably an error. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



205 



THE MINT OF GLOUCESTER. 



A SUPPLEMENT. 

By J. DRUMMOND ROBERTSON, M.A. 
(Member of the Numismatic Society of London.) 

In Vol. X., page 17, of the Transactions of the Society I gave an 
account of the Mint of Gloucester, with a catalogue of coins 
struck at the mint, and I offered it as a contribution from a new 
member. Having now severed ray connection with the city and 
county, before taking leave of the Society, I venture to supple- 
ment my original paper by some additions to the list I then 
presented. 

I hoped that the list of coins, struck at Gloucester, which I 
compiled would prove to be fairly exhaustive, but it was in the 
nature of things to expect that some additional information would 
from time to time come to light. I did not claim that the original 
catalogue was a complete one, but the addenda which I now have 
to make are by no means numerous. 

The greater number of them are attributable to a visit which 
I paid on the 1st of October, 1888, to the Koyal Cabinet of Coins, 
preserved in the Prindsens Palais at Copenhagen. The Gloucester 
pennies in that collection number 52 in all As they were not 
arranged with any reference to Dr. Hildebrand's work, it was 
necessary to compare each with his plates, and to transcribe the 
legend of each coin in full. My time was limited, and only enabled 
me to catalogue 30 of the specimens, and T am greatly indebted 
to Mr. P. Hauberg, the courteous assistant Curator of the Coin 
Collection, who very kindly undertook to transcribe the remain- 
ing 20, which he has done with admirable exactitude. 

To avoid unnecessary repetition, I have arranged the pieces 
under the numbers given in my original paper, with references to 
the " types " adopted by Hildebrand. 



206 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



No. 1 

Ilild. type A. 

^DELRED EEX XNG'.' 

LEOFSIHE 0N liLEA Copenhagen. 
^DELRED REX AN : 

SIRED 0N nLEA]7E : do. 



No. 2b 

Hild. type B. 2. 

QJ)v, King's bust to the right, filleted. In front a sceptre 

terminating in three pellets ; all within a circle. 

Bev. — Hand with outstretched fingers proceeding from a bow. 
A hook depends from either side of the bow ; all within 
a circle. 

Mi)ELnMT> REX ANELOi; 

LEOFSICE M'O ELEA Copenhagen. 
This is a fresh sub-variety to No. 2. 



No. 4 

Hild. type D. 

^DELR^D REX 7TL0 

LEOFSIErE M-0 ELEA Copenhagen 



^o. 5 

Hild. type E. 

u^DELR^D REX TTN^Ls^ 

r^ODyiNE 0 I}LE7^ ; Copenhagen. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



207 



(JTuut 

No. 1 

Eild. type E. 

ENYT REX ANELO (a pellet in the field). 

B0LL-(A) (0)N ELE]7 Coi^enlmgen. 

ENVT R-EX .^-NN^L- (3 pellets in the field). 
E0D]7I]^E OX ELEF do. 

EXVT REX ANELO 

SIRED OX ELEPE do, 

EXVT REX AXELOR before face). 

SIRED OX ELEP do. 

EXV.T REX 7TXEL0 : (pellet before face). 
SIRED OX ELEJ7 do. 

EXVT REX ANEE0R (c^ before face); 

SI: RED ©X ELE]7 (cross and pellet in adjoining angles). 

do. 

This is probably the same piece as that last described of this type in my 
original list, taken from Ruding, Plate D, fig. 30, the "habitat" of 
which I was unable to discover. 



lb 

Hild. type E. d. 

ENVT REX 7YXEL0 

EODRIE : OX ELEp- Copeiihagen. 
The head is in a distinct qnartrefoil. 

EXVT REX A XELORV : 

8IRED 0X ELEFFEEE do. 
A fresh moneyer of this type. The legends are of remarkable length. 



208 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



No. 2 

mid, type Gr. 

ENV:T E EX AN- 

BOLL7Y 0N I;LE]7EE-.- Copenhagen. 
Badly struck, and rather illegible, 

ENY.T R EX -mrsL 

EODRIEE : ON HL-EPEES do. 
E-NV.T R E X 7VN 

L'EOFSIEE ON CLE ];- c^o. 

This is a fresh moneyer of this type. 

ENVT REEX;. 

SIRED ON I;L-E]7EE : do. 
ENYT R EEX 7VN 

SERED ON ELEPEEE do. 



No, 3 

Hild. type H. 

ENVT REE-f-.- 

SIRED ON EL-EP'.- Copenhagen. 
ENVT R EE^ TfV 

J7VLN0D ON ELEP : t^o. 



No. 4 

ZTi^t;?. type I. 

ENVT -REE^- 

yvpERD ON ELE]7 : Copenhagen, 
ENVT -REE^-' 

PVLFPGRD ON ELGFG do. 

Jhis is almost identical with the piece already described in my original 
catalogue, and is perhaps from the same dies. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



209 



3§artfjantttt 

No. 2 

Hild. type B. 

HADAENVT RE 

EODRIE ON tLE^EEE : Copenhagen. 
HARDAENVT REX 

LEOFNOD ON nLE]7E-.- c?o. 



No. 1 

^i7c?. type A. 

EDPERD REX 

CODRIEi: ON GLE]7E Copenhagen. 

This is a fresh moneyer of this type. He appears to have been a moneyer at 
Gloucester under Cnut, Harold I., and Harthacnut. The name re- 
appears at Gloucester on the Confessor's "Pax" coinage, Hild. type 
D. a. 



No. 2 

Hild. type B. 

ED]7E : RD REX 

^LRlr: ON ELEPI Copenhagen, 
This is also a fresh moneyer for this type. He too was a moneyer under 
Harold I. and Harthacnut, and, probably, as ^gelric, under Cnut. 
He struck under the Confessor, Hild. types D, E, and F. The regular 
recurrence of these names in this way is strong evidence that the 
sequence of types adopted by Dr. Hildebrand is correct. 



No. 5 

Hild. type E. 

EDFE- RD REX: 

60DRIE ON 6LEPECE : H. Montagu, Esq. 



Vol. XIII. p 



210 



Tkansactions for the Year 1888-9. 



No. 6 



mid. type F. 

ED]7ERD REX 
PVLFET ON ELEPE 



H. Montagu^ Esq. 



No. 7 



iiTi^o?, type H. The " Sovereign " Penny. 

This piece is a remarkable specimen, of very coarse, exaggerated work- 
manship. The ohv. is ' negative ' in every respect, and the lettering 
barbarous and blundered. I give the legend as it would read as a 
positive, showing that it appears to terminate in ANGLO. The rev. 
is * positive ' ; but the martlets face one another in the upper quarters. 
The legend is also blundered, and the whole coins seems to point to 
Danish work. 



E I i:i I i I I I I 610 

PDYM ON 6LE]7EIh 



H. Montagu, Esq. 



No. 9 



Hild. type A.c. 

E/XDPARD REX 
LE0F]7INE ON 6LEp 



H. Montagu, Esq. 



miWimx 




Montagu, Esq. 



The Mint of Gloucester. 



211 



Raivkins, type 6, as figured by me. 
hENRIEYS : 

ThVR , ON: 6L0FEE : H. Montagu, Esq. 

The name of the money er was perhaps Thurstan. 

Hawkins J type 11. 

On examining the two pieces of this type in the British Museum, referred to 
in my note, I find that one of them is almost unquestionably a Glouces- 
ter coin. The flan is small and the legend on the rev. is consequently 
cut away in parts. The first letter of the money er's name might be 
\l, but is more probably B. Of the last two letters only the bottom 
stroke of an E, followed by the base of an I and a full stop are decipher- 
able. There is no indication that the last letter was N, although 
" Badewen " was doubtless intended. My reading of the coin is 

hENRIEVS 
BADEWEI . ON 6L0 



"Long Cross" Coinage, without sceptre. 

hSMiavs Rax- iii' 

LVaAS DN 6L0V J.D.B. 

This coin, obtained from a German dealer, was presented to mc l)y Mr. 
Montagu. Beside the blundered ON on the rev., it has very peculiar 
lettering. There is a piece exactly similar at Copenhagen. 

hGCtRiaVS RGCX- III' 

Ria^iD ON 6L0 Copenhayen. 



P 2 



THOMAS GAMBIER PARRY, Esq., M.A. 

It is our painful duty to recall to the memory of our members the great loss 
they and the country, for his loss was a national one, have sustained in the 
death, on the feast of St. Michael and All Angels last, of the late Mr. 
Thomas Gambler Parry. He had been in a very enfeebled condition for 
some two years previously, causing the utmost anxiety to his family and all 
his friends, but he was ever cheerful and active, and followed his life-loved 
pursuit, Art in all its branches, until, we may say, the hour of his death, 
for the last of the angelic figures, forming a composition which he was 
painting for Gloucester Cathedral was only completed on the day on which 
he was removed from all his labours of love and devotion on this earth. 

We need scarcely say that Mr. Parry was not a native of Gloucester- 
shire, nor born of a Gloucestershire family. He was the only son of Mr. 
Richard Parry, of Barnstead, Surrey, sometime Governor of Benevolen, by 
Mary Gambler, niece of the last Lord Gambler, and was born in 1816, and 
consequently at the time of his death was in the 73rd year of his age. He 
was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, B.A, 1837, M.A. 
1843. He purchased the Highnam estate of the late Sir tfohn Wright Guise, 
of Rendcombe, Bart. , grandfather of the present baronet, and settled there 
in 1838. In the following year he married, as his first wife, Annie Maria 
Isabella, second daughter of the late Mr. Henry Fynes-Clinton, of Welwyn, 
Herts, by whom he had two sons, the only survivor of whom is the talented 
musician. Dr. Charles Hastings Hubert Parry, the well-known composer of 
Judith. Mr. Parry married, secondly, in 1851, Ethelinda, daughter of the 
Very Rev. Francis Lear, Dean of Salisbury, by whom he leaves surviving 
issue two sons and four daughters to mourn his loss. 

Soon after Mr. Parry's arrival in the County he was placed in the Com- 
mission of the Peace, and commenced that career of good- works by which his 
life was distinguished. 

As might be expected a young gentleman of cultured mind and high 
social characteristics was a welcome acquisition to Gloucestershire Society, 
and he soon became prominent in his adopted county. He took his full share 
in the magisterial business, was a regular attendant at the Bench of the 
Local Petty Session, and at the Courts of Assize, and in 1850 he served the 
Office of Sheriff" of the County. All the public duties w^hich he performed 
with assiduity did not, however, divert him from his passionate love_ for 
Art, especially in painting and music. In the first he was a great proficient, 
and his earnest desire was to cultivate the taste for and extend the practice 
of it, believing it to be a great means to mental cultivation. As early as 
1846 he was elected President of the Gloucester Literary and Scientific 
Society. He was also for many years, and up to the day of his death, 
President of the Gloucester Choral Society. 

His greatest work, however, was his foundation of the beautiful church 
which he built on his own estate. It was commenced in 1848 and consecrated 
in 1851, being dedicated to the Holy Innocents in memory of his children 
who died in infancy. This building is truly a gem in architecture, and the 
interior is covered with mural paintings from Mr. Parry's own brush, in his 
own invented process of spirit instead of water-fresco, which is almost 
indestructible. Mr. Parry summed up its advantages as being : "all but 
imperishable, power to resist external damp and changes of temperature, 
luminous eff"ect, a dead surface, and freedom from all chemical action on 
colours." We can only add, though it is scarcely necessary to do so, that 
the drawing is chaste, and in the loftiest character of high art. The entire 



cost of this beautiful structure, together with the parsonage and school, 
with the endowment, was defra3'^ed at his own charge. 

We cannot detail all the excellent local institutions with which Mr. 
Parry was connected and supported by purse and voice. Whenever there 
was a work of christian charity to be carried out he was certain to be in the 
midst with untiring earnestness and zeal. 

Mr. Parry was connected with the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeo- 
logical Society from its formation in 1876, when he was appoint ^d a Vice- 
President for the Gloucester district, and he so continued until iiis death. 
In 1879 he was appointed President of the Society. His Inaugural Address, 
delivered at Cheltenham, was far from being of an ordinary character, and 
was listened to with intense interest by everyone present. It was eloquent 
and philosophical, and was characterised by that poetical feeling and graceful 
taste for which the speaker was so remarkable. He possessed an innate and 
ardent love for nature in all her wild and peaceful aspects. This was shewn 
on that occasion by his beautiful and vivid descriptive picture of the parish 
and church of Buckland. He said: "when I saw it twenty years ago, 
grand old elms swept across the road, and fine timber in the fields made a 
lovely fore-ground to the hills which swept down from the high-up parish 
of Campden. The cottages were all in the old fashioned condition ; the 
moss-grown mill, and quiet old gothic parsonage with grisaille glass still in 
some of its mullioned windows ; the stream left to wander across the road, 
and passed by stepping-stones ; the old manor house of many gables, humbled 
in its age to the condition of a farm ; the unkempt churchyard, of which a 
sacred reverence for its quietude was the best apology for its neglect ; and, 
finally, the old church itself, with walls well worn by age and storms, and 
tinted with the yellow lichen and fresh moss, made a perfect picture of 
lovely and tranquil picturesqueness. But, alas ! the scene is changed. 
Although the church retains it interest, the charm which surrounded it 
is no more. The old mill is modernized, the old timber is cut down, the 
stream wanders about no more,— the village is marred by ruthless incon- 
gruity. The breath of modernism is like the blast of a furnace ; and the 
discomfited antiquary, in the full emotion of affectionate regret, sighs 
out the old words (with an English parenthesis) " Eheu fagaces," — lost to me, 
lost to me — " Labunter anni." Few, perhaps, would view the scene in 
the hallowed light in which it appeared to him. Elsewhere he writes : 
**One of the most precious duties of Fine Art is so to present nature 
to men's eyes as to make them love that nature more." It is a subtle 
influence which few men possess, and no one which we have known in so 
high a degree as the late Mr. Parry. 

In 1885 Mr. Parry accompanied the Society to Kempley Church and 
described the remarkable mural paintings with which the chancel of that 
church is so lavishly adorned. The mystical character of the subject just 
suited Mr. Parry's mental state and his address commanded the most 
reverent attention. Unfortunately it was delivered extempore, and although 
he kindly promised to put the matter in writing his other manifold occu- 
pations on subjects, to him, of higher interest and importance, together with 
the failure of his health prevented it. 

Of Mr. Parry's private life and character it will not become us to 
say much. In his family he was all that could be desired in a husband 
and a father. He was a devoted son of the Church of England, and at all 
times took a paramount interest in her welfare, and his good works will 
follow him. In social life he was the kind, hospitable, genial, courteous and 
polished gentleman beloved by his friends in life and lamented in his too 
early death. 



214 Notices of Recent ARCiiiOsoLoaicAL Publications, 



|Taticc5. of Svcccnt .^rcltitologtcal ant) 3)i0t0rtral Jpiibltcations. 



CALENDAR OF STATE FAFERS—Domestic Series, Charles I., 1644— 
preserved in Her Majesty's Record Office. Edited by William Douglas 
Hamilton, Esq., E.S. A., of H.M. Public Record Office and of the University 
of London. London : Printed by Eyre & Spottiswood for H.M. Stationery 
Office, 1888. 

It was expected that for the period after the war between the King and his 
rebellious subjects had actually broken out a great reduction would be found 
in the number of documents in charge of the Secretaries of State. This 
expectation, however, fortunately, has not been realized. Upon an exam- 
ination of the correspondence of the Committee for both Kingdoms), which 
sat at Derby House, it has been found that the documents contained in these 
entry books are of a general character, and really form an integral part of 
the Domestic series of State Papers of the reign of Charles L , and hence, 
instead of the documents for 1644 being fewer and less interesting, they are 
more numerous and of a very important character, though little known to 
students. Mr. Hamilton writes : " this Derby House correspondence is 
complete in all its branches, so far as this volume is concerned : viz., the 
proceedings of the Committee at its sittings from day to day, the letters 
dispatched by it to the several Officers in command of the Parliament's 
forces, and their communications to it, giving full accounts of their doings, 
and of the battles and skirmishes in which they have been engaged. These 
last are the more interesting and valuable for the historian, and, if read 
seriatim, as they appear chronologically in this calendar, give a very faithful 
and full exposition of the progress of the Civil War." It must, however, 
be borne in mind that, with the exception of some intercepted Royalist 
papers, the documents consist entirely of reports of Parliamentarian officers, 
or friends of that party. 

This volume opens with the important event of the Scottish army 
invading England at the invitation of the Members of Parliament at 
Westminster, the King and Queen being at Oxford. On the 22nd January 
the King summoned the whole Parliament to appear in the same month 
at that ■^.own, and magnanimously offered pardon to all who should attend, 
but his offer was rejected by the members sitting at Westminster. Only 
the Royalist members were present, and they proved almost as untractable 
as the Westminster Parliament. The summoning of the Parliament to 
repair to Oxford, however, if it did not effect all that the King expected 
of it, " was very useful in reconciling the wealthier classes to the pecuniary 
sacrifices required for maintaining the King's cause, and their example 
induced other bodies and individuals to come forward with lavish gener- 
osity, occasioning, in some instances, an artistic loss much to be regretted, 
some of the finest gold and silver plate in the kingdom being melted down 
for the King's service." Without this self-devotion of the nobility and 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



215 



gentry and public bodies it is very evident that the King could not have 
kept the fickl for six months. 

The Queen was now, April, approaching the time of her accouchement, 
and it was natural that she shoukl desire a place of quiet and repose in the 
time of her distress. She accordingly retired to Exeter, the west being then 
the most free from the civil strife, but the peace she sought she fou id not. 
On the 16th June she was delivered of a daughter at Bedford House, who 
was baptized by the name of her mother, Henrietta. As soon as the intelli- 
gence reached the King he wrote to her in cipher on 80th June : "Now I 
must again rejoice with thee for thy happy delivery. As for the christening 
of my younger, and, as they say, prettiest daughter, I heartily thank thee 
that, I being so far off, thou would'st stay for my directions. For the one 
part, which is the chosing of the godfathers, I leave totally to thee ; but for 
the place and form, I desire it should be in the Cathedral [of Exeter], if the 
health of my little baby will permit it, and in the same way of the Church 
of England as all the rest of my children have been, and so I rest eternally 
thine." This letter was intercepted, and never reached the Queen's hands. 
At this time the Westminster Assembly acceded to Essex's desire to make a 
campaign in the west. This coming to the Queen's ears in Exeter caused 
her, in her weak condition, the greatest alarm. Notwithstanding the King's 
assurances of her safety and of his intention of following Essex westward, 
she continued in the greatest state of terror, and was anxious to place the 
channel between the King's enemies and herself. Eventually she escaped 
to France, nothwithstanding "three ships" had been sent to Falmouth to 
intercept her passage, and the Lord Admiral himself was lying in wait for 
her. 

In the meanwhile the battle at Cropredy bridge had been fought (25th 
June) which so weakened Waller by his losses, especially that of the whole 
of his artillery, that the King was able to follow Essex into the west. It is 
not necessary to say that Essex's campaign was most disastrous. He was 
completely defeated in Cornwall with the loss of his whole army, and, 
together with it, Mr. Hamilton says, " of his military reputation." Before 
the King started for the west. Prince Rupert had suffered a severe defeat at 
Marston Moor, for the details of which we must refer the reader to the 
important letters in the Derby House collection. 

The correspondence relating to the war in Gloucestershire will naturally 
be of most interest to our readers. The letters calendared in this volume 
are very fully abstracted, and are sufficient for all historical purposes with- 
out necessarily referring to the originals. Extracts of much interest might 
be made, but our space will not admit of it. Suffice is to say that much 
light is thrown on the inner details and condition of the Parliamentary 
armies. In many cases their necessities were very great in respect to men, 
horses, victuals and money. Quarrels and jealousies existed among the 
commanding officers. Waller and Massie had no good will towards each 
other, and rowdyism existed among others. Col, Massie on the 4th August 
reports to the Committee of both Kingdoms an incident which occurred on 
a march. He writes : " that suddenly a sad mischance befel between 
Major Hammond of my horse and Sergeant-Major Grey of the Earl of 
Stamford's regiment, who falling out about some words passed before at a 
council of war, drew their swords, and Major Grey received his death wound 



216 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 

by a thrust in the neck. This evil," he adds, " had like to have begotten a 
far greater, for our soldiers being upon the march and under arms, under- 
standing this news, turned back in full stream and prepared for a sudden 
revenge of Grey's blood upon the other, so that all the city and garrison 
were not far from an uproar, and this, I conceive, helped by some of the 
officers of that regiment." 

The Royalist forces were in little better condition with respect to pay, 
and many of the officers had expended the whole of their private fortunes, 
thus we find Lord Goring, addressing the King's secretary Nicholas, on the 
21st June, "God bless his Majesty and send sweet England peace, and then 
little shall I trouble myself for my own particular, how ruined soever. I 
had all from his Majesty, and in passim he hath all again. It is here yet 
believed his Majesty is in a very ill posture, and his arms ill guided, but if 
all be true that my intelligence gives me, I cannot be of that mind. I 
beseech you and Lord Digby to compare my letters and then you will know 
even what I think." 

This volume contains only the first nine months of the year 1644, but 
it is overflowing with instruction and cannot but prove of great value to the 
student of this important period of our national history. The next volume 
we hear is in progress, and will give full particulars of the new model army 
under Sir Thomas Fairfax and the campaign of the year 1645, resulting 
in the battle of Naseby, which virtually closes the first civil war, as all that 
took place afterwards was so much blood and treasure thrown away. We 
may assume, therefore, that this coming volume upon which Mr. Hamilton 
is now engaged, will not in his skilful hands be of less interest. 

MODERN SCIENCE IN BIBLE LANDS. By Sir J. W. Dawson, C.M.G., 
LL.D,, F.R.S., F.G.S., &c., author of The Story of the Earth and Man, The 
Origin of the World, dec, with maps and illustrations. London : Hodder 
and Stoughton, 1888. 

The object of the author, an eminent Canadian geologist, in the preparation 
of this erudite and interesting work, is to shew the close harmony which 
exists between the recent discoveries in Science and Holy Scripture ; especi- 
ally in what he calls " Bible Lands." By this term he means the whole region 
reaching from the Euphrates to the Nile, and more particularly to those 
older portions of the Bible which are not specially Palestinian. 

We cannot, of course, in the limited space at our disposal, follow the 
author in his description of the general cosmogany of the earth and its 
preparation for the sustentation of animal life, nor in his description of the 
great changes which have taken place in its crust at various geological epochs. 
These matters have been very fully discussed by scientists and others, especi- 
ally in the 19th Century in 1885 and 1886, in which Mr. Gladstone, Prof. 
Huxley, and Dr. Reville, and others took part. Those gentlemen, according 
to Sir J. W. Dawson, in approaching the subject to be discussed, are not at 
all clear as to the data or unity of authorship of the documents they are about 
to bring under review, "except that several of them are disposed to adopt 
those views of later German criticism which disintegrate the early Bible books 
into fragments, most of them of late date, and very unscientifically placed 



Notices of Recext Arch.eological Publications. 



217 



together in order to be palmed off as early documents," He, however, has 
a great reverence for Holy Scripture, and believes the narrative of the 
creation given in the tirst chapter of Genesis to be substantially accurate 
and agreeable with geological discoveries. This has long been the opinion 
of many. The different classes of living creatures created in th-' several 
creative days, or unknown periods of time, whether of thousands or millions 
of years we know not, for a thousand years in His sight are but as yesterday. 
As the sun was not created until the fourth day it is impossible that the 
three preceding days could be days of twenty-four hours, but the days of 
creation synchronize in sequence with the fossilized remains found under 
the several geological eons. 

Again, our [author adheres, approximately, to the biblical chronology 
as regards the antiquity of man, contending that the extremely early period 
assigned to his appearance upon earth is not borne out by any test which 
has been applied to it. He says the earliest men were those of whom 
remains are found in the river gi-avels, and in the caves with the remains of 
the mammoths, rhinocerus, &c., of the pleistocene period, and that we can 
form some definite ideas as to their possible antiquity. And from various 
data, which he cites, he estimates this as not exceeding SOOO years — allowing 
to the antediluvian period 3000 years, to the post diluvian 3000, and to the 
Christian period 2OO0 years. 

The fact of the Xoachian deluge Sir ^T. J. Dawson considers to be well 
established. The acceptance of the tradition by all branches of the human 
family necessitates the belief that, independently of the biblical history, the 
great event must be received as an historical fact, which was very deeply 
impressed upon the minds of the early nations. "And,"* he asks, "if the 
deluge is to be thus accepted, and if a similar great break interrupts the 
geological history of man, separating extinct races from those which still 
survive, why may we not correlate the two ? If the deluge was misused in 
the early history of geology, by employing it to account for changes, which 
took place long before the advent of man, this should not cause us to neglect 
its legitimate uses, with reference to the early human period. It is evident 
that if this correlation be accepted as probable, it must modify many views 
now held as to the antiquity of man. In that case the modern gravels spread 
over plateaux and in river valleys, far above the reach of present floods, will 
be accounted for, not by the ordinary action of the existing streams, but by 
the abnormal action of currents of water, diluvial in their character. 
Further, since the historical deluge must have been of very limited duration, 
the physical changes separating the deposits containing the remains of 
palaeocosmic men from those of later date, would, in like manner, be accoun 
ted for, not by the slow processes imagined by extreme uniformitarians, but 
by causes of a more abrupt and cataclysmic character." 

He goes on to say that the occurrence of such a catastrophe as the deluge 
of Xoah is in no aspect incomprehensible as a geological phenomenon, and 
one not ditficult to explain from natural causes. The t^rms of the narrative in 
Genesis will accord with a movement of the earth's crust, bringing the waters 
of the ocean over the land, and, at the same time, producing great atmospheric 
disturbance. Such movements seem to have occurred at the close of the 
post glacial or paljeocosmic age, and were probably connected with the 



218 



NoTiOEs OF Recent Arch^olooical Publications. 



extinction of the cave men of Europe and the larger animals their contem- 
poraries, and these movements closed the later continental period of Lyall 
and left the land at a permanent lower level than previously. The narrative 
of Geneses does not appear to imply a very sadden catastrophe. There is 
nothing to prevent us from supposing that the submergence of the land vs^as 
proceeding during the 120 years of Noah's preaching, and the actual time 
during which the deluge affected the district occupied by the narrator was 
more than a year. It should be observed from the particularity of the 
details given that the narrator was an eye-witness of the scenes he described, 
and from this fact the author argues that the narrative raises no question as 
to the absolute universality of the catastrophe, since the whole earth of the 
narrator was simply his visible horizon. 

The author further remarks that this will remove much of the discussion 
concerning the animals received into the ark since these must have been 
limited to the faunte of the immediate district, and even within this, none 
of the larger carnivorous animals are mentioned as included. Thus, he says, 
"there would be nothing to prevent our supposing on the one hand that 
some species of animals became extinct, on the other that the whole faunse 
of vast regions not reached by the deluge remained intact." 

This briefly is the substance of the author's argument upon this vast 
and momentous subject, and it will doubtless receive from the scientific 
world the attention it deserves. It appears to us that one great difficulty in 
accepting the comparatively short period assumed from the deluge to the 
commencement of the Christian era is the question of the re-peopling of the 
earth. Allowing the most favourable circumstances for the most rapid 
increase of the human race, it seems difficult to conceive that the progeny 
of Noah could have so multiplied as to re-people the whole earth at the 
early date at which we know it was densely populated. If Sir J. W. 
Dawson's theory be accepted, that the deluge was so limited as he suggests, 
the population as well as the faunse of vast regions would have been pre- 
served, this difficulty would therefore be overcome, and the different varieties 
of men now found upon the earth would also be accounted for. 

This would seem to be supported by the fact that certain races, the 
Turanians and the negroes have no traditions of the deluge, and it has been 
suggested by Lenormant and others that those ancient and pre-canaanite 
peoples mentioned by Moses as the Anakin, &c,, may have been the rem- 
nants of the antediluvians and not of the progeny of Adam. That they 
may have been isolated hill tribes which escaped the catastrophe of the flood. 
It is remarked, however, as regards the negroes, that their linguistic and 
physical characters so blend with the Nubians and Egyptians that their 
identity of origin would seem to be indisputable. 

Irrespective of these dark and mysterious questions, which we may 
term theological, there are many parts of Sir J. W. Dawson's volume, 
reaching down to historic times, which will be read with great interest. 
Among these we may mention the chapters on Egypt and Israel, the Topo- 
grapy of the Exodus, Palestine, its Structure and History, &c., &c. We 
regard the work as one of great importance, and it is treated in a clear and 
methodical manner, though we have observed ^ several repetitions, but the 
Index is unworthy of the book. 



Notices of Recent Arch.?:ological Publications. 



219 



THE HISTORY AND FATE OF SACRILEGE. By Sir Hexry Spelmax. 
Edited in part from two MSS., revised and corrected, with a continuation, 
lariie additions, and an Intkodt'ctoky Essay by two Priests of the Church 
of England. A New Edition, with Corrections, Additional Notes, and an 
Index. By Samuel Eales, D.C.L. London : John Hodges, Henrietta St., 
1888. 

The spirit of Sacrilege seems at this time to be rife in the air, and Mr. 
Hodges has done good service by the publication of a new edition, long 
much wanted, of Sir Henry Spelman's famous work. Though written in 
1G32, in consequence of the Great Rebellion and other circumstances stated 
by the Editor, it was not printed until 1691. This edition has been long 
out of print, and a new edition was printed in 1846, wdth an able Introduction 
by the Editors under the description of " Two Priests of the Church of 
England," copies of which are now rarely to be had even second hand, and 
then at high prices. It is no secret now that these two priests were the 
late Rev. Dr. J. M. Neale and the Rev. Prebendary B. Webb, Vicar of St. 
Andrew's, Wells Street, both well-known, learned, devout, and greatly- 
respected men. [Since this was written it has been publicly stated that it 
was in the English edition of Durandus that Mr. Webb assisted the late Dr. 
Neale, not in the co-editorship of this work. Dr. Neale had another co-editor 
in the case of Spelman, the late Rev. Joseph Haskall, of East Barkwith, 
assisted by others]. 

The argument of vSir Henry Spelman is based upon this thesis : — " Pro- 
perty, consecrated to God in the service of his Church, has, generally, w4ien 
alienated to secular purposes, brought misfortune on its possessors ; whether 
by strange accidents, hy violent deaths, by loss of wealth, or, and that 
chiefly, hj failure of heirs male ; and such property hardly ever continues 
long in one family." In support of this thesis he brings authorities from 
the earliest historic times ; Jewish, Pagan and Christian, but it will suffice 
here to confine our remarks to our own country and to modern times. 

The most prominent event which he quotes is the suppresion of the 
monasteries by King Henry VIIL These have been divided by the two 
Editors of 18-46 under six heads : 1. The suppression of the lesser monasteries 
in 1536 ; 2. Of the greater 1539 ; that of the Chantries, Free Chapels, and 
Hospitals, together with the confiscation of Church Plate and Ornaments in 
1545-7 ; 4. The dissolution of the religious houses in Ireland ; 5. In Scot- 
land, and 6. The Elizabethan sacrilege of the forced exchanges of Bishops' 
lands, and the appropriation of the revenues of Sees kept vacant for that 
purpose." 

The historic facts which are indisputable, cited by Sir Henry Spelman, 
without any attempt at ornament or rhetoric, under each of these heads is, 
to say the least, most remarkable, and prove the truth of the author's con- 
clusion ; and the Editor's continuation and appendices, giving the result of 
many years study of the subject, supply additional historical details, brought 
down to their own time, afford ample confirmation oi the same. Of tlie 
moral argument, which is chiefly treated of in the two Editors' Introductory 
Essay, we shall not say anything here, but cojumend the work to the careful 
and conscientious perusal of our readers. 



220 Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



Irrespective of the primary object of the work, it contains much infor- 
mation very useful to the topographical and genealogical student. 

THE ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF EXETER CATHEDRAL. By 
Philip Freeman, M.A., Archdeacon and Canon of Exeter. A new edition, 
edited, with additional matter, by Edward Verb Freeman, M.A., Vicar 
of West Anstey. Exeter : Henry S. Eland ; London : George Bell & Sons, 
1888. 

This new edition of the late Archdeacon Freeman's charming monograph on 
Exeter Cathedral will be most welcome, not only to the admirers of this 
most interesting, and, in some respects, unique Cathedral, but to all stu- 
dents of Ecclesiastical Architecture. With filial regard to his eminent 
father's memory, Mr. Freeman has, generally, printed the text with only a 
few trifling corrections ; but that portion of his late father's work which 
relates to the early history of the nave, the recent discoveries of Norman 
work during the process of repair and restoration have rendered considerable 
alteration necessary, and the whole has been recast with the introduction of 
much new matter. 

Mr. Freeman has introduced as a frontispiece, a photographic reduction 
of the original charter of King Edward the Confessor for the appropriation 
of the Church of the Monastery of St. Peter as the Cathedral of the two 
counties of Devon and Cornwall, then united into one diocese, and the 
removal hither of Bishop Leofric, whose seat was at Crediton. This was in 
1050. This valuable charter has recently been found among the records of 
the Dean and Chapter, and that it is the veritable charter laid upon the 
altar of the church on the occasion referred to is undoubted. It commences 
with an exordium that "it is glorious and most laudable to rebuild sacred 
edifices when ruined, wherein to seek the divine aid, also to vest the sacred 
altars with fair coverings (not forgetting to accompany them with the pure 
beauty of a pious heart). 

The architectural history of the existing Cathedral is divided into three 
periods, in each of which is traced the work executed, and the "building 
Bishop," under whose auspices the work was carried out, among whom 
Bishop Bitton, a native of Gloucestershire, is honourably mentioned as 
having taken a prominent part, and as having given Warleigh to the Chap- 
ter and otherwise liberally contributed towards the new work. The Author 
states that "the architectural fame of Bishop Bitton has hitherto been 
infinitely less than it deserves to be. Unfortunately the Fabric Rolls, in 
which Exeter is particularly rich, are wanting for seven years (1292-1299) 
of this prelate's period, but there is enough to show the great works which 
were carried on during those years. These fabric rolls are of great interest 
and value. A very large number of extracts from them is given in a 
series of notes illustrating the work of each Bishop, and shewing the 
character, quantity and cost of the materials, and whence they were pro- 
cured, and also the wages paid to artificers. The narrative is very clear and 
succinct, and is greatly aided by a coloured plan showing the work done in 
pach period and by each Bishop. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 221 



A DICTIOXARY OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. By the Rev. 
Edward L. Crxxs, B.A., Cantab., D.D. of the University of the South, 
U.S.A. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

This is a most useful volume, containing, in a handy form, a vast amount 
of information needed by all ranks of English society. There will not be 
found in the work anything of a polemical character. It simply gives a 
historical account of the various matters and incidents connected with the 
Christian church in Britain from the vague and mythical traditions of the 
Romano-British to actual historic times and onward to the present. There 
is no event of any importance which has occurred in her history that is not 
treated of. Moreover there is scarcely a divine of any eminence of whom a 
short biographical sketch is not given. Not the least interesting portions 
of the work are the histories of the several dioceses and their cathedral 
churches. A curious table is given (pp. 232-233), shewing in the form of a 
Table of Descent the derivation and date of formation of the dioceses in the 
provinces of Canterbury and York. The introduction into this country of the 
various Orders of ]\Ionks and Friars, with a description of their respective 
habits and the rules under which they lived. 

Dr. Cutts treats also of the Councils of the Church, especially of the 
four great General Councils which are accepted by the Church of England as 
standards of doctrine. The sacraments and the several sacramental rites 
and other rites and ceremonies of the Church are as fully stated as in a work 
of this kind is necessary ; and a descriptive account of the various articles of 
church goods, ornaments, and vestments formerly used and now authorised 
for use in Divine Service. Our space is too limited to allow us to proceed 
to greater length, but we must not omit to mention that Dr. Cutts has 
treated at considerable length and with much care of the origin of dissent 
from the Church of England, and of the various dissenting communities. Of 
these he gives a list of no fewer than 229 separatist bodies now existing in 
this country collected from the certificates sent to the Registrar General for 
procuring the registration of buildings for their public assemblies. 

It is not to be expected that all will agree with Dr. Cutts' views or 
those of his assistants. It is impossible that in a work of this description this 
should not be the case, but we doubt not that all will agree that the little 
volume is a most interesting and useful publication. 

RECORDS OF THE ENGLISH CATHOLICS OF 1715. Compiled wholly 
from Original Documents. Edited by John Orlebar Payne, M.A. London : 
Burns & Gates, Lim., 1889. 

This vohmie may be regarded as a supplement to, or continuation of, English 
Catholic Non-Ju7-ors of 1715, of which a "Notice" appeared in a former 
volume of our Transactions (Vol. X., p. 318). The Editor of the present 
volume (who was one of the Editors of the former) remarks in his Preface 
that the title "English Catholic Non-Jurors of 1715 " ^^as not decided upon 
without much deliberation, for the reasons there stated, and this circum- 
stance, we presume, was the reason that a new title was adopted for the 
present volume. 



222 Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 

The former volume contained the record of the estates and their value, 
of Roman Catholics who refused to take the oath of allegiance and abjuration 
prescribed for them by 1st George I., cap. 55, in default of which two-thirds 
of their estates became forfeited, and the object was to ascertain the value 
in order that the two-thirds might be assessed. 

The present volume contains abstracts of the wills of the English 
Roman Catholic Non-Jurors of 1715, amounting to 400 Wills and Letters 
of Administration, collected from the' Prerogative Court of Canterbury and 
the Probate Court at Lincoln. These abstracts have evidently been made 
with great care, and irrespective of the light they throw upon the disabilities 
under which the testators laboured they are of the highest value to the 
genealogist. 

In addition to these wills the volume includes a series of depositions from 
the collections in the Public Record Office, known as the Forfeited Estates 
Papers. These documents are of much historical interest, though of painful 
reading, as shewing the baseness of mankind in the conduct of informers, 
who, from interested motives, betrayed their nearest relations, and the- 
nefarious practices of the Forfeited Estates Commissioners, which almost 
equalled those of the commissioners of Henry VIII. , Edward VI. , and the 
Rebels of the 17th century. 

A HAND-BOOK TO THE LAND CHARTERS, AND OTHER SAXONIC 
DOCUMENTS. By John Earle, M.A., Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the 
University of Oxford, Rector of Swanswiok. Oxford : At the Clarendon 
Press, 1888. 

Professor Earle states that his original intention in commencing the pre- 
paration of this work was just to shew a few specimens of land-charters, so 
grouped as to exhibit, roughly, the contrast of the genuine and spurious, but 
his friend, the Rev. Charles Plummer, of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
having joined him in the labour, imported into the task an element of 
pleasure which had an expansive effect. 

In commencing his Introduction Mr. Earle writes in terms of high 
commendation, as he must needs do, of the late Mr. J. M. Kemble's famous 
work, the Codex Diplomaticus, the first and most important collection of 
Anglo-Saxon Documents which has ever yet, or can be made. This valuable 
work was followed by the late Mr. Benjamin Thorpe's collection, entitled 
Diplomatarium Anglicum, in which he has made some additions to the num- 
ber of documents included in Mr. Kemble's collection, but the special value 
of Mr. Thorpe's work, Prof. Earle considers, consists in the English translation 
given on the side opposite the Saxon text, the great advantage of which 
must be appreciated by all non-Saxon scholars ; but the drawback to the 
usefulness of Mr. Thorpe's work is that he has not indicated the new pieces 
which he has added to Mr. Kemble's collection. The whole number of docu- 
ments in these two collections. Professor Earle states, would fall within 
1400. A new collection is now being published by Mr, de Grey Birch, which, 
it is said, will extend to 2000 or 3000 pieces. This last collection is entitled 
Cartularium Saxonicum, of which the third Yolume is now being printed, 
and a fine book it promises to be. 



Notices of Recent Arcili5ological Tublications. 



223 



With respect to this collection, INIr. Earle remarks : " We must not expect 
to find that the substantial addition to Kemble's material will be in proportion 
to the numerical increase in the documents. Kemble first reaped the field, and 
he left for liis successors little more than gleanings. But there is this great 
advantage in a collection which is throughly exhaustive— that it i nproves 
to the full the chances of illustration by comparison, and such illustration 
may often rise from records of an inferior order, which have been hitherto 
neglected ;" and he further remarks : "The increased bulk of the collection 
is not wholly due to the insertion of deeds that were unknown or disre- 
garded by ]\Ir. Kemble, but further by the incorporation of pieces not of a 
strictly diplomatic character." 

The great value of these important collections to the elucidation of the 
history, manners and customs of our pre-Norman ancestors in all their 
relations of life is most fully acknowledged by all our best historians, and 
moreover for the light they cast on the English language. 

Mr. Earle differs from Mr. Kemble's view of the elementary scheme of 
English life, and is of opinion that the manorial system was part of the first 
plantation of the Saxons in England ; and he considers that the luminous 
effect which new truth generally has in lighting up dark places fully justifies 
the conclusion to which he has arrived. He considers that the Saxon char- 
ters should be studied antecedent to the study of the Domesday Book- 
that the two studies are, in fact, two parts of one wdiole. In this we are 
disposed to agree with him, for in his erudite Introduction he seems to 
throw more light upon the principles of the great Inquest than all the 
abstruse Essays printed in the Domesday Studies. 

In reference to the origin of charters, the Professor remarks that the 
ancestral usage of the Saxons was to convey lands by the symbolical act of 
cutting and delivering a sod to the new owner in the presence of competent 
witnesses, and that when writings were adopted the symbolical sod was not 
discontinued — the real conveyance consisted in the delivery of the sod, the 
writing was simply in testimony that the symbolical act had been performed. 
The double practice has survived almost to our own time, except that livery 
of seizin had followed instead of preceded the execution of the deed upon 
which the fact was endorsed. 

After remarking that we are indebted to the Romans for the introduction 
of written contracts, the Professor states that the early charters are very 
vague, though afterwards they became more explicit, but that there were 
certain specific burdens incident to all lands from the beginning : viz., 
military service, repair of bridges, and the repair of fortresses, these are not 
expressed in the charters. The charters consisted of several parts : viz., 
1st, The Preamble ; 2nd, The Grant ; 3rd, The Sanction ; 4, The Description ; 
5th, The Date ; and 6th, The Signature, upon each of which parts he offers 
Bome remarks which are very instructive ; nevertheless our space will not 
admit of our following him through them. To a few, however, it appears 
desirable briefly to advert in order to call tlie attention of the reader to them. 
He describes the well-known terms of yac and soc, toll and team, iiifangcnethef 
and uffangenethef, which, though pure Saxon words, are not found in any 
genuine grants before the time of Edward the Confessor, and if it be found 



224 Notices of Recent AiiciiiKOLOGicAL Publications. 

ill any charter of an earlier date it is evidence of spuriousness. The bound- 
aries of the property to be conveyed are generally stated in the charter 
very specifically, which is a survival from Roman times. These boundaries 
may still, in many cases, be verified upon a careful perambulation, but great 
care must be taken on account of the uncertainty of names. On the question 
of date Mr. Earle's observations are of great interest, as shcM^ing the system 
of dates which have prevailed from the time of the Olympiads by the Greeks, 
and the building'of Rome by the Romans, down to the Era of the Incarnation, 
or Anno Domini, which was introduced by Venerable Bede, and was first 
adopted in England in the 8th century, whence it spread to other countries, 
and Rome was a tardy follower of the English practice. There is no Papal 
document so dated until the middle of the Uth century. 

On the question of signatures the author remarks that the names ap- 
pended to the Saxon charters are not the manual subscription of the 
signatories, but are prepared by a clerk. The essence of the signature 
consisted in making the cross, so that we cannot form any opinion from the 
absence of a manual signature as to the general progress of the art of writing, 
much less of the inability of individuals to write, nor is the order of the 
names any indication of precedency. 

Mr. Earle has divided the charters he has printed into two parts. Part I. 
Primary Documents. Section 1, contains Genuine Charters dated, and 
Section 2, Genuine Charters undated. 

Part II. Secondary Documents, which are divided into 15 groups, these 
are all more or less doubtful. 

There is also an Appendix containing a charter by which King Eadgar 
in A.D. 972, granted to the monks of Pershore perpetual freedom in the 
choice of their Abbot. To this is appended a terrier of the monastic lands 
and the sanction. After which follows a series of boundaries. There was 
much hesitation whether it should be included in the collection or not. 
Kemble stigrnatised it, but Mr. Bond has passed it without remark ; and 
Mr. Murray, who has examined it, saw nothing suspicious in the hand- 
writing. If authentic, it is of some local interest as relating to two or three 
Gloucestershire manors. 

There is a list of additional notes, a glossarial and general Index. 

In Part II. of the Introduction Prof. Earle enters upon the general question 
of the settlement of the Saxon tribes in England, a question of great interest 
and importance though very obscure. Mr. Kemble's theory that the 
*' mark " formed the unit of our early social state has long been a difficulty 
with students of our early history, and Mr. Earle is of opinion that Kemble 
was misled by the comparative method which he adopted in supposing that 
because the "mark" formed the social unit of the first very early settle- 
ment of the Teutonic races in Germany it must needs be the same in England 
centuries later. Mr. Earle justly remarks that "in order to use his 
(Kemble's) work profitably the student must distinguish between those 
things for which we have domestic evidence in our own documents, and 
that which has been taken from comparative analogies. According to 
Kemble each ' mark" was an agricultural community managing its own 
affairs with republican equality, there being, as yet, no manorial lords. 



Notices of Recent ARcn.^;oLOGiCAL PrBLiCATioNS. 



225 



And although at the tirst moment of full historic light we find manorial 
rights everywhere, yet this he (Kemble) considered as a departure and a 
degeneracy from the local autonomy of the primitive settlement, and he 
traced it to some abuse of power." Mr. Earle shows that from the first 
there was an authority over the " Markmen/' and that the lord of the 
manor was an essential member of the original settlement. He says that the 
Saxons on their arrival advanced inland and occupied the ground in the face 
of the enemy without making any distinction at the moment between a 
military occupation and a colonizing settlement. The banded forces were 
divided by hundreds, and by hundreds they spread over the face of the 
land, and under the exigencies of war with the guidance of their plan of 
campaign they shaped the first draft of their political map, such as, in its 
most elementary ground-work, it continues to this day." The Hundreds now 
represent the first permanent encampments of the invading hosts, and the 
military organization of the country was worked on that first outline for 
many centuries. He says it must be remembered that the military hundred 
contained twelve tens, and accordingly we find in the internal division of 
the hundred there were twelve " Hyndens," or Tithings, and this, he says, 
explains the terms " Twelfhynde " and " Sixhynde " as expressive of 
ranks of men. 

The first internal work to be done by the Hundred would be the allot- 
ment of the land. The land allotted was of two distinct kinds, certain land 
was given absolutely to every head of a family and to every free -man for a 
perpetual inheritance in the family, and subject to no burdens but such as 
were necessary for the general security. Other lands were assigned not to 
individuals but to each township, as a corporate body, every member of the 
township having his share in the enjoyment of it according to traditional 
custom. When all present demands were satisfied there still remained land 
unallotted and this was the property of the nation, this was the Folk Land. 

Professor Earle enters very fully into the land question, shewing what, 
in his opinion, was the origin of the much questioned term Hide, a term of 
the highest antiquity, but entirely insular, it not being found in any cognate 
dialects. He treats of the origin of the manors and their privileges — and 
the origin of their lords, in which he differs entirely from the opinion of Mr. 
Kemble, who considered that, originally, the whole community were of the 
same grade, and that the lords rose to a position above their fellows by 
usurpation of power and authority. He describes the different tenants of a 
manor, free and unfree, their privileges and disabilities, and the services due 
from them respectively, The Gesiih, whose position he regards as being 
equivalent to that of a modern country squire and justice of the peace. 
These subjects and a number of others relating to the rural economy of 
our Saxon forefathers, are discussed with that perspicuity and erudition 
we should expect from the learned Professor of Anglo Saxon. The work 
should be in the hand of every historical student. No one can read it 
without profit. 

THE RINGERS' GUIDE TO THE CHURCH BELLF OF DEVON. By 
Charles Pearson, M. A.., formerly Assistant Mcus/cr of Charterho^ise SchooL 
and since Oovernment Inspector of Education in India, Member of the Guild of 
Devonshire Ringers, London : George Bell & Sons. Exeter : Eland. 
Vol. XIIL Q 



226 



NoTicKs OF Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



All who take an interest in Campanology cannot fail to be pleased with this 
little Hand-book, which, though purporting to have special reference to the 
Church Bells of Devonshire, takes a very wide range, and affords a vast 
amount of information on the subject of Bells and Bell-ringing, The author 
divides his work into two sections : In Part I. is given " A Brief History of 
Bells and Ikll-ringing with special reference to Devonshire," and Part II. 
contains ''A List of the Church Bells of Devon," corrected up to date 
and abridged from the detailed Catalogue of Inscriptions, Diameters, &c. , 
' compiled by the late Rev. H. T. Ellacombe, after personal inspection of 
each tower in 1864 and 1865. 

It is not necessary to add much to this description given by Mr. Pearson 
of the contents of his little volume. Mr. Ellacombe was an ardent student 
of Campanology for, "we believe, nearly half a century, and his works on 
that subject are well known and realize high prices. Mr. Pearson, therefore, 
has rendered a good service by publishing th.is little work, and especially 
valuable is the record of the changes which in this era of change have taken 
place in the Devon rings during the 25 years since Mr. Ellacombe compiled 
his catalogue. 

Mr. Pearson does not, however, limit his studies to the Bells of Devon. 
He begins at the beginning, and, giving the origin of bells at a very early 
period in the east, briefly traces their history and use through the mediaeval 
period in England down to modern times. He calls attention to the character 
of the inscriptions on bells, observing that down to the 15th century the 
legends on them were in Lombardic (Early Norman) capitals. To these, 
early in the 15th century, he says, succeeded the use of Black Letter {or 
Old English text), which being much closer and admitting of contractions, 
alloM^ed the use of longer legends, which was now desired. Early in the 
16th century, he informs us, capital letters again came into use, though of a 
more modern character, but he omits to mention that together with the 
depravation of the character of the letters the matter of the legends, also, 
greatly suffered— as they had lost all artistic taste, so the religious feeling 
which pervaded the legends in the earlier centuries had disappeared. In 
the 17th and 18th centuries they became generally vulgar and often profane. 
At the same time the epigraphs were very carelessly cast. Sometimes they 
are wholly reversed, and often the letters are turned upside down. We can 
only account for this by the founders leaving this branch of the work with- 
out supervision to the workmen employed. 

Mr. Pearson further treats of the general subjects of the baptism and 
naming of the bells ; of the technical terms and methods of ringing ; of bell- 
founders and other subjects of interest. 

It seems to us remarkable that, though a member of the Ringers' Guild, 
Mr. Pearson seems uncertain as to the application of the technical terms of 
o'ing and peal in use with respect to bells and ringing. We have always 
understood that among experts in the art of ringing, a set of bells is known 
as a ring, w^iile the music from them is called a peal, but Mr. Pearson uses 
the terms indifferently, changing them sometimes twice in the same sentence. 
This is confusing. 



Notices ok Rkokxt AKrH.*:oLOGicAL Publications. 



227 



THE DESCENT, NAME AND ARMS OF BORLASE, OF BORLASE, 
IN THE COUNTY OF CORNWALL, with a Chart-Pedigree, and Illus- 
trations. London : George Bell & Co. Exeter : William Pollard & Co., 
Genealogical Printers. 

The volume does not bear the name of the author on the title-page, but the 
authorship is clearlj'^ disclosed in various places in the body of the work, 
especially hy the initials at the foot of the Preface, and the full name on the 
first page, as that of Mr. William Copeland Borlase, late M.P. for Bodmin. 
It has been prepared with much labour and regardless of expense. Irrespec- 
tive of its precise object it is a work of considerable interest as throwing 
much light on the toj)ographical and family history of the county by ab- 
stracts, and in some cases the full text, of records preserved in the Public 
Record Office, which, having been supplied, as we gather from the Preface, 
by Mr. J. H. Greenstreet, are unquestionably accurate. In many respects 
the work is very loosely written, especially for a Cornish-man, e.g. on the 
first page the author states that both " the Fal " and " the Camel " rivers 
have their rise in the marshy swamp called " the Goss-moor" (Tregose Moor). 
Any one at all acquainted with the contour of the county would, upon a 
moment's reflection, see that a stream of water rising in Goss-moor could 
not possiblj'^ cross the hilly ridge, known as the back-bone of Cornwall, to 
reach Padstow, where the Camel empties itself into the sea. The source of 
the river is in Crowdy Marsh, in the Parish of Davidstow, many miles dis- 
tant from the Gosmore. On the third page he tells us that Michael Tregury 
was made Dean of Barnstaple, There never was a Collegiate Church at 
Barnstaple, and if a Dean there he could only have been a Dean Rural, a 
small dignity, always, we believe, held by a beneficed clergyman in the 
Deanery. Afterwards, however, as an Archbishop of Dublin, he held the 
Deanery of St. Michael, of Pencryche (Penkridge, in Herefordshire), which 
was attached to the Archbishoprick. In several places the author calls 
Henry VII. before he ascended the throne, Duke- of Richmond, and Edward 
Courtenay is designated Earl of DevonsAeVe. These are small matters, but 
they are indications of extreme carlessness. 

The family of Borlase claim descent from a family named Taillefer or 
Talfer, of French origin, and it has been, the author says, traditionally 
asserted that a certain person of lhat name received a grant of the estate of 
Borlase from William Rufus ; and to account for the disappearance of this 
important charter it has been supposed that it was, with other papers 
belonging to the family, consumed in the disastrous fire of London. We 
are glad to see, however, that Mr. Borlase disavows this ridiculous figment 
(Pref., p. viii. ), and bases his claim of descent from certain traders of the 
name of Taillefer, who are supposed to ha\ e crossed the channel and settled 
in Cornwall, in the way of their business, as early as the reign of King John. 

This leads the author to give an interesting memoir of Taillefer, Counts 
of Angouleme, of whom we have a pedigree reaching back to the 9th century. 
These Taillifers bore for their arms : Gu. a right hand and arm, the arm 
habited ar. and issuant out of a cloud in dexter chief point, bem/ivise, the hand 
pp. holding a badelaire, much curved, of the .second, garnished or, cuffing 
through an iron barfesawise sa. between Jive stars, of eight points, pierced. They 
should, we think, be blazoned as six stars, one being covered by the cloud. 



'2'28 NoTiCKS OF Recent Arch.*:ological Publications. 

Mr, Borlase claims this coat as the origin of the arms of Borlase, which 

are : erm on a bend sa. two arms clothed ar. issiiant out of clouds vaire rayed 
or, rending a horse shoe bt'oJcen in the middle, of the third. We give the most 
ancient blazon known, temp. Henry VIII. 

"Now," Mr. Borlase says, " it is clear that by simply placing another 
hand and arm holding a badelaire bendvidse on the loM^er quarter of the 
shield we should get the appearance of tAvo hands pulling at a,horse shoe, and 
by making the black bar into the ground-work of a bend and by replacing 
the mullets (stars ?) by ermine we get the arms of Borlase." This is very 
ingenious, but we must confess that it is by no means clear to our limited 
capacity. As the badelaires naturally curve back over the arm it would 
appear to us the effect would be the opposite to that suggested. 

But to pass on to the history of the family. The first person of the 
name cited is a certain William Televar {sic) who excuses himself on account 
of illness from attendance at the assize at Launceston in the 3rd John 
(1201-2), but there is no evidence of his connection. In the record of aid 
granted in 19th Henry III. (1234-5), on the marriage of the King's sister 
Isabella to Frederick the Roman Emperor, among the free-tenants in Corn- 
wall of the Bishop of Exeter is found Richard Taillef who held of the 
Bishop one acre of land for 2s., and one sheep, and ploughed and sowed the 
fourth part of one acre and paid the aid as the other tenants (Testa de Nevill, 
p. 202). It is not stated in which of the Bishop's manors in Cornwall this 
acre of land was situated, and we cannot supply the omission. No particulars 
of the nature of the tenure are given by the author, but the holding 
was evidently by base tenure. 

The name of Taillefer is ound in various parts of England, but we must 
confine our remarks to the Taillefer of Borlas. The author states that in the 
latter part of the 13th century " we arrive at William Frank Taillefer of 
Borlas, with whom the pedigree, which is capable of absolute documentary, 
proof commences." The word ' Frank ' in this compound is read ' french.' 
John, the son of William, being afterwards described as John Frank Taillefer, 
alias Tailfer, alias John Frank {e.i. French John) de Borlas, and in various 
legal documents in the reign of Edward II. he is styled John le Fraunke or 
John Frank. This John Frank Taillefer left two sons, Andrew and Noel. 
Andrew Frank Taillefer inherited Borlas Frank and left an only daughter, 
Alice Frank Taillefer, who died s.p., and Borlas passed to her cousin german, 
Andrew, son of Noel Borlas, or de Borlas, from wliich time the name Taillefer 
ceased to be used. 

From this time the succession prima facie seems to be pretty clear, though 
the book is so confusedly arranged, that it is very difficult to follow it, but 
Mr. Borlase has been so fortunate as to obtain a trial at law which carries 
him over six descents, from the last named Andrew Borlas, who died cir. 
1414, to Humphrey Borlas, who, before the end of the 16th century joined 
with his father in the sale of a considerable portion of the estates, including 
Borlas, which was afterwards called a manor, but that it could not be except 
by repute. The evidences, however, appear to be very insufficient, and we 
much doubt if the pedigree would pass the scrutiny of the examiners of. the 
College of Arms. 



NOTICKS OF RCOENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL PtTBLICATION . 229 



Irrespective, however, of the genealogy of the Borlas family, the work 
is of great interest and value for the general information which it gives — 
especially concerning the insurrections in Cornwall. The first was that 
against Richard III. in 1483, of which little is known ; and the second in 
1497, which, Mr. Borlase tells us, was to depose Henry VII., f)r whom 
the Cornishmen had previouslj^ fought, in favour of the Earl of Suffolk. The 
nobleman here referred to was Edmund de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, who had 
succeeded his father in 1491 in that dignity. The Duke had no more to do 
with this plot than we had. On the contrary he fought in favour of King 
Henry at Blackheath. The insurrection was raised in support of the claims 
of Perkin Warbeck, whom the men of Devon and Cornwall had invited over 
fiom Ireland, and who had landed at Whitsand Bay. 

The Duke of Suffolk, by his father's marriage with Elizabeth, sister of 
King Edward IV. , had the misfortune to be placed too near the throne to 
be palatable to a Tudor, and was, upon some pretext, executed by Henry 
VIII. in 1513. 

Many incidents illustrating the habits and manners of the gentry of the 
county, and correspondence of the last century, closing with a memoir by 
the author of Dr. William Borlase, author of The Antiquities of Cornwall, 
etc., reprinted from the Quarterly Review of 1874, and a large folding 
pedigree of Borlase complete the volume. 

We must not close these remarks without saying that the work is 
admii'ably got up and reflects the highest credit on the printer and publisher. 



BY-W"AYS IN BOOK-LAND.— Short Essays on Literary Subjects. By 
Wm. Davenport Adams, Author of the Dictionary of English Literature, &c. 
London : Elliot Stock, 1888. 

NATURE'S FAIRY-LAND.— Rambles by Woodland, Meadow, Stream 
and Shore. By H. W. S. Worsley-Bexison, F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany, 
Westminster Hospital Medical School. Second edition. London : Elliot 
Stock, 1889. 

SOME ASPECTS OF HUMANITY. By E. Hughes. London : Elliot 
Stock. 

THE CITY OF FAITH ; or Notes and Gleanings in Religious Enquiry. 
By S. B. Blea(j, M.A. London : Elliot Stock, 1888. 

THROUGH THE SHADOWS.— A Test of the Truth. By Erskine Moir. 
London : Elliot Stock, 1888. 

The batch of little books included in the above list was received from Mr. 
Elliot Stock at the same time, and they are all got up with the taste invari- 
ably displayed by that well-known publisher. Some of them do not come 
exactly under the subjects to which our Notices are usually limited, but the 
books are all written with so much chasteness and ability that we feel im- 
pelled to outstep our boundary line to bring them to the knowledge of our 
readers. 

By-ways in Booh- Lands. — The author of this little brochure is not a book- 
worm, as might be supposed, for he prefers a new book to an old one, and 



230 



Notices of Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



writes with delight of the pleasures of cutting the virgin-leaves fresh from 
the press. Nevertheless he has evidently made good use of his books both 
old and new. The little work contains upwards cf a score of clever and 
scholarly short essays, sparkling with wit and humour, and studded with 
poetic gems admirably selected. It is a work to put in one's pocket and 
trifle over on a hot summer's day, whilst lazily lounging under a shady 
tree. 

Nature's Fairy-land is of an entirely different characture from that above 
noticed, but of no less ability and interest. It gives us glimpses of nature 
in all her moods — in all her beauty and variety of form, in mountain, meadow, 
river and shore, and conveys to the mind a vast amount of information in 
the most simple and pleasing language, whether for adults or juveniles. It 
is, however, not only a charming description of scenery, heightened by 
beautifully executed little vignettes, that the author affords us. His accounts 
of the habits of the several classes of nest-building fishes, and of those of the 
various classes of spiders are of surprising interest, the result of very close 
observation of an accomplished naturalist. Many of these things we all see in 
our rambles but pass them by without observation. We see the various forms 
of spiders' webs, but we trouble not ourselves to think in what manner the 
little creature makes her elegant home, or dream that the gossamer threads 
of which it is composed consist of a 1000 woven strands, and the marvellous 
structure of most skilful engineering, if no interruption -occurs, is made 
complete in 45 minutes. It is an admirable gift- book for an intelligent 
child. 

Some Aspects of Humanity. — This is also is a little volume of Essays, 
but it differs materially from those we have noticed above. It is thoughtful 
and philosophical, and many of the thoughts possess great strength, beauty 
and feeling, but in some instances they are far-fetched and mystical. This is 
especially observable in the essay on " Children & Flowers," but in this, as in 
other cases, we are unable to follow readily the views of the author. The fault 
may be, probably is, our own, arising, possibly, from lack of full sympathy. 
The best I think is that on " Present-Day Novels, American v. English." 
In this the writer contrasts the novels of the two countries. He says the 
novels of the American order appeal to the sympathies rather through the 
intellect than through the emotions. The novelist's attention is directed to 
little things, "small events, the every-day feelings of life. He utterly 
discards heroics ; he often discards even anything like a plot, or such an 
elaboration of one as could alone sustain the dignity of heroics." The 
motif is : "given certain actions, circumstances, conditions as they occur in 
ordinary life to discover thence the ground for these — why the actions occur, 
how they occur, how the circumstances and conditions are brought about. 
The motif of the English novel, on the contrary, is rather after this kind : 
given certain grounds in a character — the possession that is, of certain 
principles, powers, notions — to develope these through the aid of circum- 
stances fitted to call them into action, to display them favourably, to evidence 
them to the reader. The American thus works from without invs^ards : the 
English novelist from within outwards. The latter is the more artistic 
method, the former the more scientific. The former also is, apparently, the 
more according to nature ; for lives, as a rule, do not make their circum- 
stances, but find them ready made— not always conveniently — to hand." 



Notices of Rkcknt Akch^ological Publications. 



231 



These principles are elaborately worked out in detail. The criticisms 
of English novels are, we think^ well-founded, and after a careful and 
judicial examination, the result, we think justly, is unfavourable to the 
English school. The essay is interesting, and will well repay a careful 
reading. 

The City of Faith. — This little volume is of a more religious type than 
those we have above y\oticed, which places it beyond the range of our 
criticism. The author in his Preface writes: " These Notes and Gleanings 
present a course of thought which has helped the writer to find what he 
humbly considers to be a firm basis for belief." The subject consists of the 
following sections :— 

Philosophic Postulates. Illustration and Application. 

Spiritual Phenomenology. Intellectual, Moral, and Practical. 

Miracle and Re \ elation. Mystical and Eschatological. 

The subjects are not fugitive pieces. There is a continuity throughout 
from one to the other. All are dictated by an earnest philosophical and 
thoughtful spirit. They are non-polemical, and we can heartily commend 
the M'ork to all our religious-minded readers. 

Through the Shadows. — The intention of this book is very similar to the 
last noticed, except that in the former the object was to remove religious 
doubt, in this it is to recover a young man from a state of absolute pessimistic 
despair. The manner of treatment is, however, totally different. In the former 
the doubter himself, by prayerful thoughtful study, "found a firm basis for 
belief." In the latter this end is eventually attained by a series of colloquies 
in the form of a tale. In consequence of circumstances which are related, a 
young man, Avho is called Lindsay, had fallen into such a condition of hope- 
less misery that life had become so unbearable that he determined upon 
committing suicide. An elderly gentleman, of religious and philanthrophic 
feelings, called Stafford, who had himself suffered much trouble and sorrow, 
and had been closely observing Lindsay's behaviour at an hotel, suspected 
his design, watched his movements, and rescued him from death at the last 
moment. The determination of Lindsay to take his own life, however, still 
rested upon him, but after a while Stafford prevailed upon him to give a 
pledge to defer his wilful purpose for one year from that day, and in the 
meanwhile to become his guest. This arrangement afforded an opportunity 
for much intercourse between the two friends. No direct persuasions of a 
religious character were used, but the healthy tone of a religious household, 
aided by the presence of an enthusiastic, religious, high-minded young lady, 
greatly influenced him. He went to work in the slums at the East end of 
London, where the death-bed scene of one of his fellow-workers which he 
witnessed, and a subsequent vigil for a night alone in the church, produced 
an entire change in his heart and mind, and in a few weeks he returned to 
his friends in the country a happy and cheerful man. In the sequel he was 
drowned in the lake on the very day on which a year before he had deter- 
mined to take his life, and the end of his trial, in an attempt to rescue 
another from death. 

This is a mere outline of the story very imperfectly narrated. It is 
admirably wjitten, though we think all the characters are somewhat ex- 
aggerated, nevertheless it cannot be read without pleasure and profit. 



232 



Notices of Recent ARCnyKOLOGiCAL Publications. 



KING EDWARD THE SIXTH, SUPREME HEAD; An Historical 
Sketch, with an Introduction and Notes. By Frederick George Lee, D.D. 
Sccov.d Ed'd'to)). London : Burns & Gates, Limited, 1889. 

We are glad to see that Dr. Lee's Book has attained to a Second Edition, 
because it is an evidence that greater interest is beginning to be taken in the 
important subject of which he treats. It is well that the true facts of what 
is called the " Reformation," should be known, and also the means used to 
force it upon the people. At the same time, we feel constrained to repeat 
the regret we expressed in our notice of the First Edition, {ante Vol. XI. p. 
177) that Dr. Lee had not entered upon the subject in a more calm and judi- 
cial spirit. With him, we hope, his work has proved useful to many, but feel 
it would have been greatly more useful if he had expressed his feelings, 
not in less strong but in less railing language. 

THE PARISH REGISTERS OF BROSELEY, SHROPSHIRE, 1570-1700. 
Edited by Alfred F. C. C. Langley. London : Mitchell and Hughes. 
Parish Registers though too long neglected, are now beginning to be 
valued, and it is gratifying to see the number issued from the press, year by 
year. We have not seen any volume more carefully edited, or better printed 
and turned out than that now before us, and there is a good Index. Mr. 
Langley, we understand, proposes, if sufficiently supported, to continue the 
publication of these registers down to the year 1754. Why he should fix 
that date we do not understand, and we hope he will, at least, carry it on to 
1812, when the system of entries was changed. We cannot doubt that when 
his subscribers see the handsome volume now issued they will gladJy con- 
tinue their subscriptions for another volume, and that others will readily 
join them. Mr. Langley fully deserves their support. 

SOMERSET INCUMBENTS. From the Hugo MSS. 30,279, 80, in the 
British Museum. Edited by the Frederic Wm. Weaver, M.A., formerly 
Demi of Aiagdalen College, Oxford. Bristol : Privately printed for the 
Author by C. T. Jeflferies Sons, 1889. 

This valuable volume contains Lists of the Institutions of Clerks to Benefices 
in the County of Somerset, including Chantries, from the beginning of the 
14th century down to the year 1739. It is printed from a MS. compiled, 
it is supposed, about 1730 by Dr. Edmund Archer, an industrious antiquary. 
Archdeacon of Taunton 1721, and of Wells 1726, died in Oct. 1739. It is now 
in the British Museum, having been purchased by the late Rev, Thomas 
Hugo, M.A., a native, we believe, of Somersetshire, and a man of consider- 
able literary ability, who wrote many monographs, chiefly on the Religious 
Houses in that county. On his death in 1877 he bequeathed the MS. here 
referred to, with, we believe, many others, to the British Museum, which 
are now known there as the Hugo Manuscripts. This consists of two volumes 
catalogued as Additional MSS. 30,279 and 30,280. 

Though supposed to have been compiled by Dr. Archer about 1730, 
there is internal evidence to shew that the learned Doctor continued his 
labours down close to the time of his death, for there are many entries 
regularly made, in every year, from 1730 to 1739, 



NoTif?ES OF Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



233 



The original manuscript was written in a narrative form, with the words 
much contracted, but the Editor has, we think judiciously, adopted a tabular 
arrangement. The work is divided into three sections under the heads of 
the three Archdeaconries : — Wells, Bath, and Taunton, under which heads, 
respectively, the benefices are alphabetically arranged. The tables give the 
Dates of Institution, The Names of the Incumbents, The Causes of Vacancy, 
The Names of the Patrons, and References to the Bishops's Registers. This 
arrangement is clear and convenient, nnd there is an excellent Index. The 
manuscript appears to be in several respects defective, and would seem to 
be unfinished, but Mr. Weaver has evidently edited it with great care. It 
might be wished that he had collated it with the original Register, and ex- 
tended it to the present date, but that labour could scarcely be expected from 
a busy beneficed clergyman. The inhabitants and others connected with 
Somerset, and with the adjoining counties, have great reason to thank Mr. 
Weaver for the valuable work he has done, which must have cost him much 
time and labour. 



A PERSONAL NARRATIVE OF THE EUPHRATES EXPEDITION. 
By Wm. Francis Ainsworth, Surgeon and Geologist to the Expedition, 
Ph. Dr., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &c., &c. In two volumes. London: Kegan 
Paul, Trench & Co., 1, paternoster Square, 1888. 

The Expedition referred to is that conducted by Colonel, afterwards General, 
Chesney, under the authority of the King and Government in 1834, and we 
think it is to be regretted that Mr. Ainsworth has so long delayed to give 
publicity to his valuable aud very interesting Journal, which would seem to 
form a supplement to Colonel Chesney's Official Report of the Expedition 
published in 1850. 

The object of the Expedition was to ascertain the practicability of steam 
transit from the Mediterranean to India by way of the River P]uphrates. 
To meet the charges the sum of £20,000 was granted by the House of Com- 
mons in 1834, and, we believe, that further sums were obtained from the 
India Board and from other sources. William IV., then King, ardently 
entered into the project. Two steam vessels were built by Messrs. Laird 
and Co., Liverpool, which, when finished, were the 6th and 7th of the kind 
then constructed, and the first of the flat- bottomed armed steamers. They 
were taken out to the Euphrates in pieces, and the Expedition, consisting 
altogether of 65 officers and men, quitted England 3rd February, 1835. 
Colonel Chesney was instructed that the character of the Expedition was 
one of peace, for the promotion of commerce and general interest of the 
country. The commander was to maintain the most perfect discipline, and 
both he and every other individual was to conciliate to the utmost of his 
power the friendship and good-will, not only of the authorities of the Grand 
Seignior but of the different communities and tribes with whom he might 
have intercourse ; to abstain from acts calculated to rouse the prejudices of 
the inhabitants, and to take no part in local quarrels. 

On 3rd April the Expedition reached the magnificent bay of Antioch, 
and the very next day — " there was no time lost with Colonel Chesney," 
Mr. Ainsworth observes — "not a minute if it could be gained," preparations 
were made for landing the heavy stores, and before this could be completed, 



234 



Notices of Recent ARCHiKOLOGicAL Publications. 



a party of ofiioers was soiit to ascertain if the heavy weights could be trans- 
ported up tlie river Orontes to Antioch, but this was not found to be feasible. 
While these operations were being carried out, Mr. Ainsworth, with some of 
the naval officers, made a survey of this interesting and picturesque district, 
and, among other places, visited the battlefield of Muna, " where Robert 
Curthose smote a Saracen through the skull, teeth, and neck down to the 
shoulders, in which feat he was only outdone by Duke Godefrey, who clave 
one of the enemy down so that one half fell off on one side and the other half 
on the other side the saddle. "The country was full of interest. They 
observed a large number of mounds of debrU, such as those since explored 
by Layard and others. They are called by the Arabs tells, by the Turks 
teppehs, and by the Turcomans u'yuhs.'" Mr. Ainsworth remarks, " how 
much, notwithstanding the rapid advance which is being made in our 
acquaintance with the comparative geography of the East, is wanting to give 
accuracy and correctness to the details of the progress of the crusades and 
the Latin possessions in Syria and Palestine. As they at present exist these 
histories (of the Crusades) are little better than romance." 

The excursions made by Mr. Ainsworth are full of incident and of 
interest. His descriptions of the country are most lucid, as are also those 
of the remains of Early Christianity on the plains of Chalcidene, near 
Aleppo. On his return to Antioch he found that very severe sickness 
prevailed among the party, of whom several had died. On the 14th October 
the transit of the stores having been accomplished the Expedition removed 
to Gul Bashi. The camp wab placed in an unhealthy situation, and after 
sunset the tents wei e crovi^ded with all kinds of running, creeping, crawling 
and jumping creatures, which, however unpleasant, gave the author a 
favourable opportunity of studying reptile and insect life ! 

The winter now approached, and as the steamers were not finished, the 
author arranged a series of winter excursions. Among the places visited 
was Tarsus, the birth-place of St. Paul, of which place a description is given. 
These were exciting journeys, abounding with dangers and mishaps, but, 
fortunately, not much damage occurred. Returning to Fort William, and the 
preparations not yet being completed. Colonel Chesney gave the author, 
always zealous in the pursuit of his own special duties and studies as a 
naturalist to the Expedition, permission to make another expedition into the 
principality of Edessa, Abraham's father-land, Haran— the home of his father 
Terah. Ur and Zarug— so named : Ur after that primeval city, Ur of the 
Chaldees. Zarug after Terah's grandfather, and Haran after Terah's son. 

At length, early in February, Mr. Ainsworth arrived at Bir, on the 
Euphrates, where the " Euphrates " steamer had taken up a position op- 
posite the castle, he found that a small reinforcement had arrived to supply 
the casualties which had arisen, and that Colonel Chesney had offered a 
passage to a Dr. Heifer, a distinguished naturalist, and his wife. 

The appearance of the vessels caused the greatest excitement. Mussul- 
man and Christian inhabitants alike turned out to see iron swim, and 
especially against the stream, and the event was probably of still more 
exciting interest to the Mussulman population from an ancient tradition 
that when iron should swim on the waters qf the Frat (the Euphrates so 
called) the fall of Moslemism would commence. 



Notices of Recent Akch.eological Pl'blicatioxs. 



235 



An interesting and picturesque account is given of the famous castle, and 
the following da}", with heartfelt glee and high spirits, the day, to which all 
for eight months had anxiously looked forward, arrived. The "Euphrates" 
steamer started to descend the ancient and renowned river. The voyage thus 
so happily commenced is vividly described throughout, as are all Mr. 
Ainsworth's journeyings, and every historic object is fully illu.^trated by 
biblical or classical reminiscences, shewing much reading and erudition. 

The next noted place visited was Nesjm Kalah, or " Castle of the 
Stars," so called from its having been erected by the Kalif E. Mamum, the 
famous astronomer, who made it his residence and set up an observatory, 
hence its name — " the place from whence the stars were watched." It was 
a relic of the brightest days of the Klialifat, when the arts and sciences 
flourished on the banks of the Euphrates even in greater perfection than 
they had then attained in Europe. In the time of the Crusades it became 
one of the strongholds of Salu-u-din (Saladin). 

From Nasjm Kalah an excursion was made to Magogor Carchemish and 
Hierapolis. Of Carchemish, we read in Holy Scripture. It M'as the capital 
of the northern Hittites, a people of whom we have heard much recently. 
An interesting description is given of those places. 

The vessels on the 1st Apiil approached the Iron Gates of the Euphrates, 
a dangerous narrow pass in the river, between basaltic cliffs, of which an 
interesting description in his happy manner, together with an account of 
the flora and fauna by which it was adorned, and some historical episodes 
connected with the site, is given by the author. This pass was unknown to 
European geographers until after its exploitation by this Expedition, though 
well known to the ancients. In this pass the " Tigris" joined her consort. 
Passing through the rock-enclosed passage and the black ruins by which the 
ciifts were surmounted the steamers entered what is called a Paradise of 
the Persians, extensive, rich, grassy plains, bounded onlj^ by the horizon. 
Here was found an encampment of the Beni Fakhal tribe of Arabs, 
on the Mesopotamian side, which extended for miles along the plain. 
Men, women, and children were seen to stretch in lines, or groups, along 
the whole length of the encampment, and the warriors hastening to tlieir 
horses, others to the tent of the sheikh, so great was the excitement pro- 
duced by the appearance of the steamers. Passing by this exciting scene and 
the beautiful scenery surrounding it, with its ancient historical associations, 
the Expedition arrived at Thapsacus — described by the author as the Fatal 
Pass, which Mr. Ainsworth shews it well deserved from a series of ill-fated 
accidents which occurred here from the ver}" dawn of history. 

The next place visited was the Palace of Harun El Rashid, which, 
although very ruinous, is described as a beautiful remnant of a polygonal 
Saracenic building, of much architectural taste and richly decorated. It is 
called Rakka— the white or illustrious — Rakka was in the time of Haruu 
El Rashid and El Mamum, with Kalah El Nesjm, above referred to, the 
centre of Arabian astronomical observations. By the Arabian astronomers 
it was placed exactly in 36° of latitude. Ptolemy placed it in latitude 35" 20' 
and longitude 75° 5'. Lieut. Murphy, the astronomer of the Expedition, 
placed this station, so important in an astronomical point of view, in north 
latitude 35*^ 55' 35"; and east longitude (GreeiiAvich) 39° 3' 35, being only 5' 
25" south of the position given to it by the Arabian astronomers. 



'236 NOTICKS OF Rk(?ENT ARCIIifJOLOOIOAL PCBLTCATIONS. 

Passing on through the Forest of Amran, the Expedition reached the 
beautiful suniuier retreat of the renowned Zenobia Qneen of Palmyra, as 
described by Mr. Ainsworth, " equally distinguished for intellect and beauty 
as for strength of character. An Asiatic princess possessed at once of Grecian 
refinement and Roman hardihood. The summer retreat of this famous 
Queen is not mentioned by the older geographers, and it is so but once 
only by Procopius. For a description of this elegant summer palace and 
memoi?' on the Queen's romantic life we must refer to Mr. Ains worth's 
pages. 

We must pass over much interesting matter relating to the Arab 
conquest of Mesopotamia, Rohoboth on the River and Saladin Castle to a 
place called Ezra, supposed to be one of the places to which the Israelites 
were led at the time of the captivity. Here an awful catastrophe occurred 
in the total wreck of the " Tigris," in a sudden simoon, with the loss of 20 
lives. The particulars of this distressing event are related with much 
feeling. 

An account is given of the Principality of the Captive Jews and Pome- 
beditha, or Jubba, which Mr. Ainsworth considers a vulgarization of the 
name. This was the seat of the Prince of the Captivity, who is said to 
have lived in greater state than any neighbouring Prince or Patriarch. 

The Expedition now entered into the lands of Babylonia and Khaldea. 
The first city visited by Mr. Ainsworth was Sur, or Suru, Chebar of the old 
Testament, one of the homes and seats of the learning of the Captive Jews. 
It was upon the banks of a canal here that King Nebuchadnezzar planted a 
colony of them, among whom was the prophet Ezekiel. Mr. Ainsworth next 
made an excursion to the plains of Babylonia, and visited the mounds of 
Babylon, which he explored, and ascertained that the great mound on the 
north, with a superficies of 49,000 feet, was known to the natives as the 
mound of Babel, which tradition was accepted by Loftus in 1849, and by 
Layard in the following year. Mr, Ainsworth would appear to have been 
very careful in his explorations of these extensive plains, their numerous 
rivers and canals, the sites of their towns and cities, and eventually comes to 
the conclusion that their history could only be read from the buried inscrip- 
tions on their sites, from the decipherment of which more has been learned in 
the last 50 years, since his visit, than could possibly be ascertained by a 
mere traveller's inspections. 

Mr. Ainsworth justly criticises the errors of early writers from Strabo 
downwards in describing the famous river Euphrates. They have stated that 
500 miles above Babylon it is four stadia (800 yds. ) wide, and that like most 
rivers it expands in width as it flows onwards ; and he points out that such 
is not the case, for on entering the plains of Babylon a large portion of the 
waters are withdrawn to supply two large canals and other smaller ones, so 
that before it reaches Babylon it is not more than 200 yds. wide, and passing 
that ancient city it became very tortuous, and in some places its width is not 
more than 200 feet, and, occasionally, is almost covered with vegetation. 
The marshes through which the river in different channels threads its way 
are of great extent, so that the pilots had much difficulty in finding their 



Notices of Recext Archaeological Publications. 



237 



Avay through their intricacies. The inhabitants of the reed-biiilt town of 
Lemluni, which is situated on a narrow tongue of land advancing at a point 
where the river is divided into two branches, feed buffaloes and cultivate 
rice in this marshy ground, and are described as the most cunning and 
untrustworthy of all the so called Arabs met with on the river. The author 
remarks that " Darwin had not at that time published his Theory of Evo- 
lution, but we were all struck with the unusual sinewy length and thinness 
of their limbs, a peculiarity of development which is seen on a smaller scale is 
the shrimp girls of Boulogne, which we could but attribute to their living 
in a marsh. Their limbs, indeed, were often the subjects of amusement, as 
approximating to those of storks or herons, or other wading birds." Has not 
something of the same kind been observed in the inhabitants of the fens in 
our own country ? The first act of malicious treachery committed by these 
amphibious people was to indicate the wrong branch of the river as the 
navigable one, so that the steamer, after overcoming many difficulties, 
got stuck in the mud, where the party was left to spend the night enveloped 
in a cloud of mosquitoes, from which they suffered greatly. The insects 
*' were so numerous and so fierce in their attacks," Mr. Ainsworth writes, 
" that they penetrated everywhere and through everything." But this was 
nothing to the impudent daring of this remarkable people, for afterwards 
they attempted to carry off Mrs. Heifer, the wife of Dr. Heifer, who, with 
her husband, as we have seen, was being taken as passengers down the river. 
Mr. Ainsworth gives a very vivid description of the daring attempt, which 
all but succeeded, and of the remarkable character of the scenery of the 
marshes, which, with all its drawbacks, he could not but admire. 

Having got free of the Babylonian marshes and entering Khaldea proper, 
the banks of the river were higher and the soil dry and level, when a tract 
of wooded-land appeared. Some men were sent to cut wood for fuel, un- 
aware that this was a sacred grove of the Arabs. This act naturally led to 
a serious conflict, which is graphically told by Mr. Ainsworth. The actual 
result was the loss of three men of the tribe. Soon after this the Expedition 
entered the territories of the Montifik Arabs, and visited an imposing ruin 
known by the name of Mu-Kayir, or "the place of bitumen. ' Mr. Taylor 
has since carried on important excavations here, and Sir Henry Rawlinson 
has determined from the incriptions its previously conjectured identity with 
Ur of the Khaldees, and the birth-place of Abraham. Many of the relics 
here found were of an Egyptian type. But we must pass on. 

An account is given of a most interesting excursion made by Mr. 
Ainsworth to Persepolis, and the very remarkable cave of Shapur, and other 
places of great interest in Persia. 

The return voyage up the Euphrates now commenced, and, as might be 
expected, not without difficulties and dangers, not, however, unaccompanied 
by much gratification. At Arghana the Pasha endeavoured to prevail upon 
our author to remain with him to take charge of the great copper-mines of 
Arghana Maden, but Mr. Ainsworth explained to him that he was in the 
employment of his own government, and therefore couM not accede to his re- 
quest, which otherwise would have been very advantageous to him. "I 
was, however," he says, "labouring under a very great mistake, for on 
my return to England I found that Government did not recognise my 



•23.^ Notices of Rkcent Akch.eologioaI; Phhucations. 

existence or my labours in any form whatsoever." What was the cause of 
this we know not, and can only suppose that he was appointed to the 
Expedition by the Colonel Chesney without the previous sanction of the 
government, and he does not appear to have received any pay for his arduous 
and valuable services. 

GILUS : Their Origin, Constitution, Objects and Later History. By 
the late Cornelius Walford, F.S.A., F.S.S., F.R.H.S., Barrister-at-Law. 
New and enlarged edition. London : George Redway, Covent Garden, 1888. 

The value and importance of Gilds in Early and Mediaeval times can 
scarcely now be appreciated. Few people know anything about them, 
though it is not too much to say that in the periods referred to they formed 
the life of the country, permeating all institutions, and forming the basis of 
our freedom and civilization. We hail, therefore, with much satisfaction 
the posthumus work of the late Mr. Cornelius Walford, which his relict, 
with the assistance of Miss Toulmin Smith, who is well-known in connection 
with the History of Gilds, has recently edited. 

We shall not enter upon the question of the derivation of the term Gild 
V. Guild. It is a matter upon which Doctors of Philology differ, as other 
Doctors not unfrequently do. The origin of these fraternities is buried in 
the obscurity of antiquity, and so is the name by which they were called, 
and we are content to accept the title used on the book before us, which, 
personally, we believe to be most likely accurate. 

The members of our Society have had the advantage of obtaining some 
knowledge of the principles upon which the ancient Gilds were founded 
from a Pa.per by Mr. Alderman Fox on the History of the Guilds of Bristol, in 
Vol, III. of our Transactions, and from his more extended work, the History 
of the Guild of Merchant Tailors, privately printed in 1880, and further in his 
History of the Gilds of Sodbury and Dyrham, in the present volume ; and 
more fully in a Paper read by the Rev. W. Bazeley On the Guilds of Glouces- 
ter, at the Popular Meeting held by the Society there on 19th July, 1888, 
which will also be printed in this volume In these circumstances it will 
not be necessary for us to say much of the principles of Gilds. W^e shall 
only add that beside the fraternal duties, charity and benevolence, Early- 
English Gilds, before the existence of Poor Laws, practically filled the place 
of modern Benefit Societies and other modern Institutions, but with a more 
religious motive. They united all classes together in compassionate care for 
the sick and needy, together with the common v/elfare of the whole com- 
munity and the observance of justice and morality. 

It has been stated that the ancient Craft Gilds were the precursors of 
the modern Trades Unions. There was not, however, any analogy between 
them. There was in the Gilds no antagonism between capital and labour. All 
the members, masters and men, united in one common object, the welfare of 
the Craft. The old Gilds were characterised by two very striking features, the 
second universally expressed in the bye-laws of all the Gilds. The first is : 
respect for the law and its established forms ; the second : a constant sense 
of moral worth and the endeavour to attain it. A pure life and a sputless 
reputation was a condition of Gild freedom. Another chief object of Craft 
Gilds was to secure the good quality of the 'work done by the craft. We 



Notices of Recent AROHyEOLOGicAL Publications. 



239 



have not heard that the rules of any Trades Union aimed at these high 
standards. If so we fear we may say the object has not yet been realised. 

Mr. ^Yalford gives a full description of Gilds, their character, classifi- 
cation, objects, and uses, to which, after what we have written, it will be 
unnecessary further to advert. We must refer those who desire more full in- 
information to Mr. Walford's pages. He points out that, with the exct ption of 
the Gild of Kalendars, Avhich consisted almost wholly of Priests. Laymen, 
in special circumstances, were occasionally admitted, though they had no 
vote or I'ight of speech, and were altogether in a subordinate position. Other 
Gilds were essentiallj^ lay bodies and governed by laymen for lay purposes. 
The clergy were not eligible as members, but they were engaged to perform 
the religious Offices which the rules prescribed. Gilds were very numerous, 
and some of them consisted of a very large number of members. Mr. Walford 
mentions that the Gild of Corpus Christi, at York, had the names of 14,850 
members on its rolls. This was, we imagine, an exceptional case, never- 
theless it is very remarkable. Gilds were very abundant everywhere. The 
little town of Bodmin, in the remote county of Cornwall, in 1469 1471, when 
the fine old parish church there was rebuilt, and when the population could 
not have exceeded 2000, had as many as 40 named Gilds, which were greatly 
instrumental in raising the necessary funds. This is also a very remarkable 
fact. 

Mr. \Yalford, after describing the Gilds, gives a chronological review of 
their development and decadence, which is followed by a Geographical 
Survey, arranged alphabetically under counties, and gives much information 
concerning these institutions. In the county of Gloucester he mentions the 
Gilds of Sodbury and Dyrham, and some few in the city of Gloucester, but 
the account is very meagre. Bristol is misplaced under Somersetshire. Of 
this city the account is more full. He concludes Math an account of the 
Literature and Revival of Gilds. Under the last head an interesting account 
is given of the Railway Gild of Holy Cross, founded in 1877. It consists 
entirely of Railway Servants who are members of the Church of England, 
and "who desire by mutual conference and council to help themselves 
and others to lead a christian life." The Gild of St. Alban the Martyr, 
the first founded of the modern Gilds, is not mentioned, nor is the great 
Army Gild of the Holy Standard and many other prominent modern Gilds. 

The work does not appear to have been completed by Mr. Walford, so 
that it had not the advantage of his revising hand, nevertheless we can 
recommend it to our readers who take an interest in the subject to which it 
relates, for it abounds with information. 

THE BRASENOSE CALENDAR. A List of Members of the King's Hall 
and College of Brasenose, in Oxford, 1509-1888. Compiled by the Rev. 
William Edw. Buckley, M.A., Rector of Middleton-Cheney, and Falconer 
Madan, formerly Fellows of Brasenose. Oxford : University Press, 1888. 

This is a very interesting and useful little volume. It is based on a com- 
pilation of the names of members of the College made from the College 
and University Registers more than a century ago by the Rev. John 
Holmes, D.D, a Fellow of the College, from the foundation down to his own 
time ; and from a continuation by the late John Watson, Fellow, to the year 



240 Notices ok Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



1812. This has now been continued by Mr. Madan down to 1888. It is said 
that this is the first attempt to give a complete list of any College in either 
University, and the compilers deserve great credit for what they have done. 

A list is given of all the Principals of the College from 1510 to the 
present time, and the names of the members from 1509, arranged alpha- 
betically under years, followed by a general alphabetical Index referring to 
the year in which each person became a member. 

We are glad to hear that the Oxford Historical Society, which has been 
doing good work, has undertaken to print the University Matriculation and 
Degrees Registers. 

THE ANTIQUARY. A Magazine devoted to the study of the past. 
Vol. XVIII. July-December. London : Elliot Stock, 1888. 

The 18th volume of this excellent and interesting Antiquarian periodical 
has been issued since our last volume was delivered to the members of the 
Society. It is needless to say that it maintains the high character of its 
predecessors. Some very good Papers, commenced in previous volumes, 
have been continued and completed in this. Among them we may mention 
an interesting article on " The Parish Registers in the Uxbridge Deanery ;" 
"Additions to, and Corrections of, Haines's Manual of Monumental Brasses ;" 
and a Paper on " Chronograms." There are also many new contributions of 
much interest and value. We may specify a notice of " Some Early Church 
and Chantry Dedications in Kent ;" Midland Folk-Rhymes and Phrases ;" 
Byzantine Frescoes and Rock-hewn Churches in the Terra d' Otranto " and 
last but not least a notice of " the Excavations at Cranborne Chase," by 
General Pitt-Rivers, where that distinguished antiquarj'- has excavated a 
Romano-British burial ground very rich in relics, affording a vast amount of 
information concerning the condition and physical pecularities of the Roman- 
ized Britons, an account of which he has published in a magnificent volume. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE 
IN 1888-9, 

I^^:E^1' II. 

SCRIVEN'S CONDUIT. 

By henry MEDLAND. 

Bead at Gloucester, July, 1888. 

This Conduit stood in the middle of Southgate Street in the City 
of Gloucester, nearly opposite Bell Lane, and at the south end of 
the Wheat Market. 

It was erected in 1636 by John Scriven, an ironmonger, who 
carried on business on the west side of Southgate Street and near 
the Cross. Scriven was a " citizen of credit and renown ; " he 
was Sheriff in 1622 ; an Alderman of the City and Mayor in 
1612. According to Fosbrooke ^ he lies on the north side of the 
chancel of St. Mary de Crypt Church. The inscription on the 
gravestone runs thus : " John Scriven once Mayor and Alderman 
of this City and Jane his wife. He died 23rd June, 1645, she 
10th Sept. 1615. Also Margaret the daughter of John Scriven the 
younger who died Feb. the 2nd 1630."- 

The Conduit was supplied with water from Mattes-Knoll (now 
Kobin Wood's Hill) by a leaden pipe. The following extracts 
from a deed in the possession of the Corporation, dated 1438, will 
j;ive a good idea of the water supply of Gloucester at that period, 
and probably for three succeeding centuries : — 

" A deed of gift from John Godwyn the Warden of the Friars 
Minors and the convent thereof with the consent of Father 

1 Hist, of Gloucester, p. 166. 

2 The grave stone is not now to be seen, being covered by modern 
wood flooring. 

Vol. XIII. R 



242 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

Richard Leek thcdr chief minister to John Streynesham and 
Richard Dalby Baililfs of Gloucester and the Commonalty thereof 
and their successors of three parts of the water divided into four 
equal shares running in a Leaden pipe under ground from Mattes- 
knoll to the Friary garden within the walls of Gloucester, 
they to receive the said three parts from a certain place in 
the garden and to convey the water thereto in a leaden pipe 
under ground to be made at the cost of the Bailiffs and Common- 
alty to the High Cross and what other jAaces they shall think 
froper. The Friars to repair the pipe and all things belonging to 
the water course from Matson to their garden as soon as con- 
veniently may be after notice of such want of repair given them, 
^novided that Plumers and other necessary workmen can be got 
in Gloucester or the Bailiffs can provide them. The Bailiffs and 
Commonalty to pay three parts of the charges thereof and the 
Friars the fourth. The Bailiffs and Commonalty to pay the 
whole charges of the repair of the pipe from the Friary garden to 
the High Cross or what other places they shall think fit to convey 
thewatei. Neither parties to do anything detrimental to the 
other herein. Both parties oblige themselves and their successors 
under the penalty of Forty pounds to stand to the covenants. 
Date U38."i 

The fact of this Conduit having stood in a line almost between 
the Grey Friars and the High Cross makes it extremely probable 
that it was supplied by the pipe just mentioned. 

An Act of Parliament for removing obstructions was passed 
in 1749. The " obstructions " were not all removed immediately, 
for this Conduit was not removed till 1784 or 5. Possibly it sur- 
vived during these 36 years in consequence of its comparatively 
small size and its great utility. It was removed to a garden, 
approached from Dog Lane, which belonged to a Mr. Griffiths, and 
stood there till the formation of Clarence Street about 1830, when 
it was removed to Edgeworth Manor near Cirencester, which then 
belonged to Mr. E. Hopkinson. The removal was superintended 
by Mr. G. Armstrong Howitt who is still living, and who has 
a lively recollection of circumstances' which took place at the 
1 See Ante, p. 178 \ see also p. 187 with reference to the leaden pipe. - Ed. 



Plate XV 



ScRivENs' Conduit 

FORIVIERLY IN 

GL OUCESTE R. 

77//^ \'(ss(J frorriy wJu.cJv' 

tJie Puinach's are nx?t 




lEntranxe/ E leu atloTV. 






n. 






Gro urvcL 









6 S 4 3 2 10 



SCALE OF FEET 



SCRIVEX's CoxDriT. 



243 



time. Tlie exact spot where it stood is now occupied by the 
residence of Mr. Phint, No. 24, Clarence Street. 

The structure which is elegant in form and of good proportions 
(see Plate XV.) may be architecturally defined as of mstard 
gothic Avith a dash of classic architecture, which was being intro- 
duced into this country at the period when the Conduit was 
erected. 

The general idea may have been taken from some building of 
an earlier period, and the mouldings, &c., copied, without know- 
ledge or feeling, from various sources. There can be no reason to 
suppose that any portion is anterior to the time of Alderman 
Scriven. As proof of this assertion I may point out : — 
1st. The impure caps and bases of the pseudo — 13th century 
clustered angle shafts. The caps are almost wanting in 
abacus, having merely one small fillet and incongruous leaves 
introduced below the conventional foliage. The base mould- 
ings are altogether out of character with the style adopted 
for the shafts, 

2nd. The mouldings and cusps to the arches have no counterpart 
in pure Gothic architecture. 

3rd. The mouldings to the ogee ribs, of 15th century type, are al- 
together wanting in the character of that period, whilst the 
crockets worked on them are pimping, ineffective and want- 
ing in style. 

As evidence of the classic feeling before referred to, I may 
point out the pseudo — entablature consisting of architrave, frieze 
and cornice. This entablature is, architectually, very crude. The 
mixture of impure Gothic mouldings with classic medallions (bear- 
ing delicately carved subjects), and the contrast between these 
medallions and the comparatively coarsely-carved lions' head is 
very odd. 

The building is octagonal in plan externally, of an extreme 
diameter of 10 feet, with clustered shafts at the angles, and pan- 
nelled sides. It stands on a substantial plain octagonal base, and 
measures 8 ft. 9 ins. from the base to the underside of the entabla- 
ture. The entablature, which is 2 ft. 3 ins. deep, is surmounted 

R 2 



244 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



by a battlemented coping, with large stone at each angle, from 
which rise the moulded and crocketted ribs of an ogee-shaped 
open canopy. The canopy is terminated by a large carved finial, 
2 ft. 8 ins. across, on which rests a group of figures allegorical of 
the river Severn, The group consists of two nude female figures 
in recumbent attitude lying back to back, and bearing scrolls. 
The word SABRINA is distinctly legible on the scroll borne by 
the larger figure. If any inscription ever existed on the other 
scroll it is now entirely obliterated. The upper arm of each female 
figure encircles a crescent moon. On the twin crescent stands a 
nude male figure, with long hair, which, originally, bore a large 
jar or vase of the shape of an amphora. The two crescents unite 
above the feet of the recumbent figures, which is significant. It 
is conjectured that the two recumbent female figures represent the 
Severn and her tributary the Avon, and that the male figure 
represents Jupiter Pluvius, who. in conjunction with the Moon, 
supplies and regulates their waters. 

The total height of the structure from the floor to the top of 
allegorical group is 25 ft. 3 ins. 

At the springing of each rib of the canopy there is evidence 
of the previous existence of a pinnacle or some such ornament, 
which, no doubt, gave piquancy and finish to the building. 

The eight circular panels in the entablature were carved in 
low relief with subjects representing, probably, the Resources or 
Industries of the Vale of the Severn. Of these, five retain suf- 
ficient evidence to enable them to be described. They stand in 
the following order, commencing with that over the door and 
continuing round to the left hand : — 

1. Obliterated. 

2. Amongst other small objects (nearly obliterated) is a clock with 

pendulum and weights. Had Alderman Scriven any interest 
in the manufacture of clocks, or was it a special industry in 
Gloucester 1 

3. A well -carved seated figure of Ceres, crowned with wheat ears, 

with a sickle in the right hand and a wheat sheaf under the 
left arm, slightly clothed with graceful drapery flying in the 



Scriven's Conduit. 



245 



wind. Effectively grouped wheat sheaves and standing corn 
complete the subject. 

4. A marine subject — probably the Bristol channel or mouth of 

the Severn — represented by rippling water, on which are two 
ships and two large fish. 

5. A wine manufacturer or merchant represented by a sparely- 

clad man, his dress consisting of loose corded trunks, a light 
scarf over the shoulders, and loose top boots. He is seated 
on a wine barrel, and pours wine from a large jug into a flat- 
shaped cup. Wine barrels, a branch of vine with grapes 
thereon, and a basket of fruit, fill up the medallion. 

6. Obliterated. 

7. A very spiritedly-carved landscape, probably representing a 

view of Gloucester from the S.W., with the road leading to 
the city, on which are a horseman and either a pedestrian 
or a gate-keeper, both full of life and activity. On each 
side of the road, and filling up the medallion, are hills, 
towers, trees, cattle and sheep. I think the subject repre- 
sents the south gate of Gloucester with St. Mary de Crypt 
Church inside, St. Owen outside, the Castle, Mattes Knoll 
or Robin Wood's Hill with beacon on the top, and Chosen 
Hill with church on the top. The horseman may represent 
Alderman Scriven returning from a country ride and being- 
welcomed by the gate-keeper. 

8. Obliterated. 

On either side of each circular medallion there are, or were, 
double concave panels to fit the spaces between the circular panels, 
and lions' heads, with two scallop shells reversed, carved on each. 

The interior is circular on plan, 6 ft. 6 ins. in diameter — 
masonry very rough. It was originally covered by a lead flat, 
supported on corbels at the level of the entablature, and the rain- 
water was conveyed therefrom through the lions' heads which 
served as gurgoyles. 

There are no evidences of any groining below the lead flat. 

The ogee ribs are chased and plugged with lead in places, 
shewing that it was covered at one time ; this may have been at 



•240 TkansactiOxNs for the Year 1888-9. 

the time it stood in GrifHths' garden in Dog lane, but this was 
certainly not the original treatment. 

The original sink-stone is still in situ, and is formed of Pains- 
wick stone, dished and perforated with five holes. 

A hole, about 1^- ins. in diameter, is drilled through the second 
pier to the right from the doorway. Whether this may have had 
any connection with the water supply appliances or not is a 
matter of uncertainty. It was evidently drilled there for some 
useful purpose. 

The whole of the Conduit is constructed of Painswick stone 
of various qualities, much of which has perished, and it sadly 
needs partial renovation and repair. 

I cannot conclude without an expression of deep regret that 
the High Cross, Scriven's Conduit and the King's Board were 
removed from Gloucester. 



TocKiNGTON Free Chapel. 



247 



INSTITUTIONS TO TOCKINGTON FREE CHAPEL. 



Continued from Vol. XII., p. lJf.Jf. 



By SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., &c. 

In the account of Tockington Chapel, printed in Vol. XIL, as cited 
above, we were unable to give an entire list of the Institutions of 
the Chaplains. To this, now, through the continued kindness of the 
Rev. T. P. Wadley, Hon. Member of the Society, we can make 
considerable additions, and to lay before our readers a revised list 
which we believe to be very nearly complete. 

It will appear from these further notes from the Worcester 
Episcopal Registers, that in 1283 a claim was made by the Rector 
of Olveston to the patronage of the chapel. The grounds of this 
claim are not stated, but Walter de Stanford, or Manford, who, 
in January of the above year, had been instituted to the chapel 
upon the presentation of " Sir Hugh, called Pointz," would appear 
to have been removed, and on the 21st March following, Laurence 
de Vieii was admitted upon the presentation of the Rector of 
Olveston on the nomination of S'r Hugh Pointz. This was evi- 
dently a compromise, and afterwards the Lords of Tockington and 
the Rectors of Olveston appear to have presented alternately until 
the alienation of the Manor of Tockington and advowson of the 
chapel by Sir Nicholas Poyntz to Thomas Lord Berkeley, the third 
of that name, in 1355, and the advoAvson appears from that date 
to have been indisputably vested in the Berkeley s of Beverston, 
with one exception, mentioned ante Vol. XIL, p. 142, until seized 
by the King in 1536. 

Early in the Richard ^ was Rector of the Chapel of Tokynton. 
reign of Ric. L 
cir. 1194. 

» See ante Vol. XIL, p. 14L 



24S 



Transactions fok the Year 1888-9. 



1283. ITKal. Walter de Stanford was admitted to the Rectory 
January of the Chapel of Tokynton upon the presentation 

of " Sir Hugh, called Poyntz," but the right of 
presentation was claimed by the Rector of Olves- 
ton. 

1283. 12KaI. Laurence de Vien ^ was admitted to the Chapel of 
March Tokynton, upon the presentation of the Rector of 

Olveston on the nomination of Sir Hugh Pointz, 

Knt. 

1335. Nov. 22 Robert Poynz^ was admitted to the Chapel of 
Tokynton, upon the presentation of Wm. Guldene, 
Rector of Olveston. 
Symon de Hylegh. 

1360. Oct. 6. William Sampson* was admitted to the Rectory 

of Tokynton by exchange with Simon de Hylegh, 
Rector thereof, with the consent of Sir Nicholas 
Poyns, Knt., Lord of Tokynton, patron. 

1361. Dec. 28 Thomas Andrew,^ was admitted to the Chapel of 

Tokynton, upon the presentation of Nicholas 

Isord, Rector of Olveston. 
1361 Feb. 6. Thomas Proud, ^ was admitted to the Church of 

Tokynton, upon the presentation of Thomas and 

J ohan [query John or Joan) Toky, of Kyngton. 
1366. 13 Kal. John Aleyn,'^ was admitted to the Chapel of 
March Tokynton, upon the presentation of Nicholas de 

Issord, Rector of Olveston. 
1375 Jan. 30. John le Fyssher,^ was admitted to the Chapel of 

Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of John Aleyn, 

upon the presentation of the Lady Katherine 

Berkeley. 

1391 July 28. John Pygot,^ the younger, incumbent of Whine- 
bergh, Dioc. of Norwich, was admitted to the 
Chapel of Tockynton upon exchange with John 
Fyssher. 

1 Bishop Giffard's Reg., fol. 195. ^ gg^jg vacante, fol. 112. 

2 Idem., 201. 6 Idem., 113. 

3 Bp. Montacute's Reg., fol. 20. ^ Bp. Wittlesey's Reg., fo. 15; 
^ Bp. Bryan's Reg. Vol. I. fol. 112. s ^p. Waketield's Reg., fol. 3. 

9 Idem., fol. 80. 



TocKiNGTON Free Chapel 



249 



1406 Oct. 22. John Berkeley^ was admitted to the Rectory or 
wardenship of the free chapel of Tokyton, vacant 
by death of John Pygot, the younger, upon the 
presentation of Sir John de Berkeley, Knt 

1414 June 13. John Walton ^ was admitted to the Chapel of 

Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of John 
Berkeley upon the presentation of Sir J ohn Ber- 
keley, Knt. 

1415 Nov. 30. Thomas Pyry^ wsiS admitted to the Chapel of 

Tokynton, vacant by the death of John Walton, 
upon the presentation of Sir J ohn Berkeley, Knt. 

1427 Feb. 14. John Threpeland ^was admitted to the Chapel of 
Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of Thomas 
Pyry, upon the presentation of Sir J ohn Berkeley, 
Knt. 

1432 July 22. William Fallan ^ was admitted to the Chapel of 
Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of John 
Threpeland, upon the presentation of Sir Maurice 
Berkeley, Knt. 

1457 Mar. 13. William Gyan^ was admitted to the Chapel of 
Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of William 
Pallan, upon the presentation of Sir Maurice 
Berkeley, Knt. 

1485. Richard Beele ^ was admitted to the chantry or free 
chapel of Tockynton, vacant by the resignation of 
William Cyan upon the presentation of William 
Herbert, Esq.^ 

1 Clifford's Reg., fol. 94. 5 Hem., fol. 133. 

2 Bp. Peverell's Reg., fol. 65. ^ Bp. Carpenter's Reg. , fol. 145. 

3 Idem., fol. 74. ^ Bp. Alcock's Reg., fol. 150. 

4 Bp. Pulton's Reg. , fol. 36. 

^ Sir William Berkeley, of Beverston, upon the plea that he had taken 
part in the plot of the Duke of Buckingham, was attainted and his lands 
forfeited. Tokynton, with the advowson of the chapel, was granted to 
William Herbert by King Rich. III., but upon the accession of Hen. VII., 
it was restored under the Act of Resumption. The vacancy in the incum- 
bency of the chapel having occurred during this short interval a commission 
was issued to enquire into the claim of William Herbert to present with 
the result that his presentee was admitted. 



•250 



Transactions for the Yeati 1888-0. 



1185 Doc. 19. Jolm Barton ^ was admitted to the free chapel of 
the B.V.M. and St. Nicholas of Tockington, vacant 
by the death of Richard Bele, upon the presentation 
of the King. 2 

1492 Jan. 24. John Packer, ^ Bachelor in Laws, was admitted to 
the Chapel of Tockyntmi, vacant by the resig- 
nation of John Berton, upon the presentation of 
Sir Edward Berkeley, Knt. 

1499 April 8. John Baker was instituted to the free chapel of 
Tokynton, vacant by the resignation of John 
Packer, upon the presentation of Sir Edward 
Berkeley, Knt. 

Unknown. Pichard Berrie was incumbent of the chapel in 
1547-8, as shewn by the certificate of the Com- 
missioners of Chantries, &c., dated 14 Feb, in that 
year. He was then aged 58 years. It is probable 
that there was one institution, if not more, be- 
tween 1499 and this date, but no entry of such 
institution can be found in the Episcopal Registers. 
The endowmentof the chapel, as before stated (ante 
Vol. XIL, p. 173), amounted to only £3 13s. 4d. 
per annum, but he held also with it the Service 
of Our Lady at Dursley, so that together they made 
a good benefice. 
1 Bp. Alcock's Reg., fol. 152. 

- On the death of Sir William Berkeley in this year, s.p., his lands 
would necessarily be taken into the King's hands, and a vacancy occurring 
the King would present. 

3 Morton's Reg., fol. 47. 



ToCKINGTOX FrEK ChAPEL. 



251 



PEDIGREE OF THE FAMILY OF BERKELEY OF BEVERSTON, 

Sfietving the devolution of the Manor and Advoivson of the Chapel of Toy Jcington 
through that family. 



Thomas (iii) Lord Berkeley,- 
ob. 13GL 



^Katherine, daur. of Sir John Clyve- 
don, Knt. , relict of Sir Peter le 
Yele, ob. L395. Presented to the 
Chapel of TocUngton, 1375. 



Sir John Berkeley, Knt., ob.= 
6th Henry YL (1427-S.) 
Presented to TocUngton, 
1406, 1414, 1415 and U'H. 



Elizabeth, daur. and heir of Sir 
John Betteshorne, Knt. 



Sir Maurice Berkeley, Knt. ,=pLora, daur. of Henry Lord Fitz 



ob. 38th Henry YL (1459- 
60). presented to Tocking- 
ton, 1432. 



Hugh. 



Sir Maurice Berkeley, 
Knt., ob. 14th Ed w 
lY. (1473-4). 



Ann, daur. of 
Reginald West 
Lord de la Warr. 



Sir Edw 

Knt., ob. 21st 
Hen.YIL (1505-6) 
Pres. to TocUng- 
ton, 1492 & 1499. 



Sir William Berkeley, Knt., 
ob. 1st Henry YII. s.p.m. 
(1485-6). 



-Katherine, da. of 
3rd Lord Stourton. 



Berkeley,=pAlice,2nd wife, 
d.of John Cock 
of Bristol, or 
John Cox, of 
Skinfrith, co, 
Mon., and 
relict of Sir 
John Poyntz, 
of Iron Acton, 
Knt., d. 1507. 



Thomas=j=Elizabeth,da. 



Berkeley, 
ob. 15th 
Henry YII. 
(1499-1500) 



of George 
Nevill Lord 
Abergavenny. 



Maurice, 
ob. before 
his nephew 
John. 



Sir William= 
Berkeley, Knt. , 
ob. 5 Edw. YL 
(1550-1). 



John Berkeley, 
ob. v.p. the King's 
ward, s.p.m. 



P-p-p-, 

4 daughters. 



^Margaret, da. of 
William Paulet, 
Marquis of Win- 
chester. 



Sir John Berkele}^, Knt. 
ob. 24th Elizabeth (1581-2) 
sold the manor and advow- 
son of Tockington to his 
brother-in-laAV, Sir 
Nicholas Poyntz, I^Jit. , 
before 1582, as Sir Nicholas 
died seized of it in that 
year. 



^Frances, dau. of Sir Nich. 
Poyntz, of Iron Acton, 
Knt., by Joan, dau. of 
Thomas (v) Ld. Berkeley, 
ob. 1576, buried at Bever- 
ston. 



John Berkeley. 



252 



Transactions fok the Year 1888-9. 



GLOUCESTER : 

THE CATHEDRAL MONUMENTS. 

By the late MATTHEW HOLBECHE BLOXAM, F.S.A. 

Read at Gloucester, 19th July, 1888. By Mrs. Bagnall-Oakley 

Amongst the monumental remains in Gloucester Cathedral, prior 
to the 18th century, we have but one episcopal effigy, and not a 
single effigy of a dean or of one of canonical rank. Of the sepul- 
chral monuments of the cathedral, when simply a conventual 
church, we have the effigies and monuments of dates long pos- 
terior to the times in which those thus represented passed away. 
The monuments in this Cathedral, though not numerous, are not 
wanting in interest, one, indeed — if we except the tomb and its 
accessories in Westminster Abbey of Henry YII. — may fairly be 
considered as the most chaste and beautiful of its class in the 
kingdom. The earliest specimen of a wooden sepulchral effigy 
existing, is that now placed in the apsidal chapel, north-easfc of the 
choir, commemorative of Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, 
eldest son of the Conqueror, through his own indiscretion disin- 
herited of his claim of succession to the crown of England, and who 
died in incarceration in Cardiff Castle, a.d. 1134, aged 80 years. 

The effigy does not represent him in the armour of the period 
in which he lived, but rather that of the reign of Henry III., to 
which era the execution of this effigy, one of the most singular of 
its kind, may be referred. The high tomb, however, on which it 
is placed, though also of wood, is of a still later period, and may 
be referred to the fifteenth century. Leland, writing of this 
monument, saith : " Robtus Curthoise sonne to K. William the 
Conquerour, lyeth in the middle of the Presbitery. There is on 
his Tombe an Image of wood paynted, made long since his death." 
This image, carved in oak, represents him in the camisia ferrea or 



Thf Cathedral MoNr.MFXTs, 



253 



hooded hawberk of mail, over which is worn the long sleeveless 
surcoat of linen, open in front from the loins downwards ; chausses 
or stockings of mail cover the feet and legs, and tight-fitting 
breeches, apparently of cloth, the knees and thighs ; the sword- 
belt crosses the body diagonally from the hip to the left thigh, 
and to this the sheath of the sword is affixed. The guige for 
supporting the shield crosses over the right shoulder and under 
the left arm, but there are no indications apparent of any shield 
having been affixed, an omission most unusual at the period when 
this effigy was carved. The Duke is represented, not in repose 
but in action, either drawing or sheathing the sword which, 
with its long cross bar, is partly out of the scabbard, the latter 
being held by the left hand. The right thigh and leg are crossed 
over the left, but raised in a singular manner so as to shew a space 
between. On the heels are spurs fastened by a single leather each, 
but the rowels now affixed are insertions of the seventeenth 
century. The coif de mailles, or hood of the hawberk, is fastened 
by a strap across the forehead and open on one side of the face. 
On the head a low coronet is worn. The tomb on which this 
effigy is placed is one of the few wooden tombs we have ; another, 
on which reposes the wooden effigy of "William de Yalence, Earl 
of Pembroke, who died a.d. 1296, is in St. Edmund's Chapel, 
Westminster Abbey, The surcoat, or linen frock, worn over the 
hawberk, or iron shirt, does not appear on sepulchral effigies earlier 
than the thirteenth century, and the effigy of William Earl of 
Flanders, son of this Robert Duke of ISormandy, who died a.d. 
1128, six years before the death of his father, represents him in 
ferrea amisia and chausses of mail, without any surcoat over, but 
with a long kite-shaped shield. He was buried at St. Omer, and 
a representation of his sepulchral effigy, sculptured in grey marble, 
is given in Sandford's Genealogical History. 

On the south side of the choir is a recumbent effigy of the 
thirteenth century, placed on an ornamental bracket or high tomb 
of later date, apparently of the fifteenth century. This effigy 
represents an ecclesiastic of rank vested with the amice, alb and 
chesible, holding in the right hand a building. On the left side 
of the body appears the pastoral stafi', the head is tonsured, and 



254 



Transactions for the Ykar 1888-9. 



the short crisp beard covers the chin. Over the head of the effigy- 
is a horizontally-placed canopy, shaped pedimentally. The effigy 
and canopy are of grey marble. This effigy has been ascribed to 
Aldred, Archbishop of York in the latter part of the eleventh 
century, and to Serlo, Abbot here from a.d. 1072 to a.d. 1104. 
" Serlo, abbot of Gloucester," saith Leland, " lyeth under a fayer 
marble Tombe, on the south syde of the Presbitery." I am, how- 
ever, inclined to consider this effigy as that of Henry Foliet, abbot 
of the Monastery of Gloucester from a.d. 1228 to a.d. 1243. Con- 
siderable reparations were executed in his time and the church 
was re-dedicated. This effigy is undoubtedly of his period. 

The effigy of King Edward 11. , who was murdered at Berkeley 
Castle, A.D. 1327, and whose body was removed to, and interred 
in, the Abbey Church of Glou:cester, is the third, in point of date, 
of the sepulchral effigies of our English monarchs existing in this 
country. It is simply but gracefully treated. The King is repre- 
sented in his regal attire, a long tunic with pocket-holes at the 
sides, over which is worn the pall or mantle. On his head is 
placed the royal crown ; his neck is bare. He holds in his right 
hand a sceptre, and in his left a mundus, or globe. The high 
tomb on which this recumbent effigy reposes is of most beautiful 
workmanship ; a series of ogee-headed arched recesses, cinque- 
foiled with the heads, and richly crocketted above, formerly con- 
taining statuettes. Above this tomb the canopy is formed of two 
stages of open ogee-headed arches, richly foliated and crocketted 
and surmounted with finials, with buttresses between, terminating 
with rich finials. A projecting bracket in the middle compart- 
ment of the tomb on the north side appears to be an adjunct of 
the fifteenth century. Altogether, this monument may be con- 
sidered to be, if not the most costly, the most graceful and 
beautiful in the kingdom. The effigy appears to be of alabaster, 
an early instance in which that material was used. 

The effigy of Thomas Seabroke, abbot of the monastery of 
Gloucester from a.d. 1450 to a.d. 1457, has evidently been re- 
moved from its original position, as it is now (a.d. 1866) placed 
north and south, on a high tomb, faced with what appears to be 



The Cathedral Monuments. 



255 



a portion of stone screen work. This monument is placed in a 
small sepulchral chapel at the south-west corner of the choir. The 
effigy is of alabaster, somewhat mutilated, but well executed. It 
represents the abbot vested in the amice, alb, stole, tunic, dal- 
matic and chesible. On the head is worn the mitre, mitra pretiosa, 
granted to this abbey by Pope Urban the 6th, in the early part of 
the fifteenth century. The abbatial bordon, or pastoral staff, 
covered with the veil, the extremities of which are so designed as 
to fiow gracefully over the staff, is placed on the right side of the 
body, herein differing from episcopal effigies, where the pastoral 
staff, with rare exceptions — as that on Bishop Yeasey's tomb. 
Coldfield Church, Warwickshire — is placed on the left side of the 
effigy, and is generally held in the left hand. 

The commemorative effigy of Osric, King of Northumbria, one 
of the reputed founders of this monastery, who died a.d. 729, is 
somewhat coarsely executed in stone, and shews a change in the 
regal habiliments from those of King Edward, in accordance with 
the period in which it was sculptured, apparently during the 
abbacy of Abbot Parker in the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. It is placed on a high tomb at the north-east of the choir 
under an obtuse arched canopy of good but late design, the hori- 
zontal cornice of which is finished with the Tudor flower. The 
effigy represents this monarch clad in the tunic and mantle, the 
laces connecting the latter hang down in front over the tunic. 
Over the shoulders and in front of the breast is worn the hood, 
resembling the aumasse, or furred tippet, of a canon. I do not 
find the hood on the effigies of our English monarchs earlier than 
the reign of Rich. II. It does not appear in the effigy of Edw, III., 
but it does on those of Rich, II. and Hen. IV. Amongst the 
articles ordained by King Henry VII. for the regulation of his 
household, is the following relating to his regal apparel : — " Item, 
the day when the Kinge is crowned he ought to go to the mattens 
the which arraye iangeth his kirtle surcote and tabard with his 
furred houd slwen over his head and rolled about his necke, and 
on his head his cappe of estate and his sword before him. Item, 
at evensonge hee must goe in his kirtle and sircote and his hndd 
laid about his shoidders, and claspe the hudd and tippet together 



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before his breast with a great awche and a rich, and his hatt of 
estate upon his head. Alsoe as for the twelfth day, the king 
ought to go crowned and in his robes royall, kirtle, sircote, his 
furred Imdd about his necke, and his mantle with a long train, 

and his lace before him Hee must have his sceptor in his 

right hand, the ball with the cross in his lefte hand, and the 
crowne on his head." The feet of this effigy are represented in the 
broad-toed shoes or boots of the fashion of King Henry VTII.'s 
time, and on the head is w^orn the high-bowed crown which does 
not appear till the latter part of the fifteenth century. 

On the incised brass in Wimborne Minster, representing the 
demi-effigy of a King and commemorative of one of the Anglo- 
Saxon Kings, the regal attire plainly bespeaks the century in 
which this brass was executed, the shoulders and breast being 
covered by the furred hood. 

Within a small sepulchral chapel of open screen and panel 
work on the north side of the choir is the monument of Abbot 
Parker,"^ elected a.d. 1514, the last abbot of this monastery who 
died soon after the suppression, and is said not to have been buried 
here, this costly monument having been erected by him during 
his lifetime. The high tomb on which his effigy lies recumbent is 
decorated on each side with three pannelled recesses, cinquefoiled 
within the heads. At the back of each recess is an escutcheon, 
one is charged with the five wounds, another with the instruments 
of the passion, ladder, pillar, reed and hyssop and cross. The 
effigy, which is well, carefully and elaborately executed, is of 
alabaster, and represented the abbot in his full vestments — amice, 
alb, tunic, dalmatic, and chesible, with the maniple over the left 
arm, on the head is worn the mitre, mitra pretiosa. The abbatial 
bordon, or staff, partly enveloped with the veil, appears on the 
right side of the body. On the feet the broad-toed shoes of the 
period are worn. The extremities of the stole are not apparent. 
The practice of erecting a monument with a sculptured effigy in 
the lifetime of the person commemorated was a very frequent one. 

In the south side of the nave, near the east end, on a high 
tomb, are two recumbent effigies,"^ representing a warrior and his 



The Cathedral Moxumexts. 



257 



lady, probabl}^ persons of distinction, but the names of whom are 
unknown. The effigy of the male represents him armed in a 
breast-plate and skirt of taces, with a horizontal bawdrick, or belt, 
encircling it ; on the head is a basinet surrounded by a torse, 
or wreath, and the neck, shoulders and breast are protected 
by a camail, or tippet of mail ; the arms are encased in rere and 
vambracs, with coutes, or elbow plates, and the thighs, knees, legs, 
and feet in cuisses, genouilleres, jambs, and sollerets, all of plate, 
excepting the portions covering the insteps, which are of mail. 
The lady is habited in a close-bodied robe or gown with full skirts, 
over which is worn a mantle attached in front by a cordon. The 
head dress is rich. Round the neck of each of these effigies is the 
collar of SS. This monument, which cannot be anterior to the 
reign of Henry IV., is, apparently, of the early part of the fifteenth 
century. 

We now come to the period when this fine monastic church was 
converted into a cathedral. But it contains only one recumbent 
effigy of a bishop of the Reformed Church. This is that of Godfrey 
Goldsborough,"^ bishop of this see from a.d. 1598 to a.d. 1604, who 
was buried in a little chapel on the north side of the Lady Chapel, 
His monument consists of a high tomb, with three divisions on 
each side, the middlemost of which contains an escutcheon sur- 
rounded with scroll-work. On this tomb the effigy represents the 
bishop attired in the episcopal vestments used in the Church of 
England at this period, viz., the rochet over which is worn the 
black chimere with fall-lawn sleeves ; on the head is the coif, or 
scull cap, and round the neck is the short ruff, whilst the tippet — 
that bone of contention in the vestiarium controversy in the 
reign of Elizabeth — which was also called the scarf, by which 
name it is better known at the present day, worn over the shoul- 
ders and hangs down in front on each side. 

In the Lady Chapel, on the north side, is the monument and 
effiofy of Elizabeth Williams,* wife of John Williams, Esquire ; she 
died A,D. 1622. The base of this monument is plain, relieved by 
shallow sunk panels, without any kind of ornamentation. On 
this, beneath a semi-circular covered canopy, surmounted by a 
horizontal cornice, supported at each end by a Corinthian column, 
Vol. XIII. s 



'J.kS 'rKANSA(!TIONS FOR THK YkAK 1888-9. 

lies the etligy of the lady reposing on her right side, her head 
supported by her right hand and arm. She appears clad in a 
bodiced gown or robe, with a falling ruff worn round the neck, a 
mantle at the back of the body covers also the head. Beneath 
her is the representation of an infant child in swathing clothes. 

In the south transept, against the south wall, is the well-known 
monument of Alderman Blackleach, who died a.d. 1639, with the 
effigies recumbent thereon of marble, of himself and his wife. 
This has been executed by one of those sculptors of the seventeenth 
century of more than ordinary meiit, whose works we occasionally 
meet with, but whose name as yet remains unknown. The effigy of 
the alderman represents him bareheaded, with a peaked beard and 
moustache, habited in a doublet, with slashed sleeves, breeches, 
boots, and a falling vandyke collar ; across the body is worn a 
scarf, and to the left side is attached a basket-hilted sword. His 
wife appears in a bodiced gown with full sleeves and mantle over. 
These effigies are evidently portraits ; and sculptured monumental 
effigies in stone, apparently by the same hand, are to be found in 
the Church of St. Nicholas, Gloucester. Not equal, I think, in 
execution to the works of our celebrated English sculptor of the 
seventeenth century, Nicholas Stone, they yet partake of that 
better school of art in which he excelled. By Dallaway, this 
monument has been conjectured to be the work of Le Sueur or 
Fanelli. 

The effigy on the north side of the Lady Chapel, of Sir John 
Powell,^* Knight, one of Judges of the Court of King's Bench, 
who died a.d. 1713, represents him in a standing attitude — a 
custom which gradually crept in in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century, but became more frequent in the eighteenth 
century. He appears attired in his judicial robes, the gown, 
casting hood, and mantle faced with fur or miniver ; on his head 
is worn the coif, and under his chin are the plain falling bands, 
which, subsequent to the Restoration, succeeded the ruff. The 
cuffs of the sleeves of the gown are furred, and in the right hand 
is held a scroll. In 1635 certain rules were made with respect to 
the robss of the Judges^ in accordance with which this effigy is 



The Cathedral Monuments. 



259 



represented. It is placed on a circular pedestal within or beneath 
a semi-circular escalloped cove, surmounted by a segmental-shaped 
pediment, supported on each side by a Corinthian pilaster, with 
architrave, frieze and cornice. 

There are other monuments in this Cathedral of later date and 
of interest, but which I do not purpose to describe. A monumental 
painting of many figures in the north transept ^ may fitly be com- 
pared with the curious monumental painting of the Baron of 
Burford, in Burford Church, Salop, and with the series of portraits 
on panel at Stanford Court, Worcestershire, and would almost 
seem to indicate that so soon as the early half of the seventeenth 
century limners of the school of portraiture, then prevalent, as 
well as sculpture, traversed the country, ready to execute any 
commissions which might fall into their hands. 

1 This monument which is to the memory of Richard Pates and his 
family, is now almost illegible, and must soon become entirely obliterated, 
unless steps are speedily taken to prevent it. 

The monuments marked with * are beautifully engraved in Fosbrooke's 
History of the City of Gloucester. —Ed. 



260 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



THE GUILDS OF GLOUCESTER. 

By the Rev. WILLIAM BAZELEY, M.A 

Read at the Popular Evening Meeting, Gloucester, 19th July, 1888. 

At a time like the present, when there are societies of all kinds 
in every town and neighbourhood, it may be interesting to you 
to hear something about the Guilds or Fraternities which were 
formed by your forefathers — for the protection of the innocent 
and the punishment of the guilty ; for the maintenance of religion ; 
the acquisition of commercial and civil privileges ; for the regu- 
lation and defence of handicrafts ; and for the relief of the poor 
and distressed. I have no doubt that Gloucester, being a town 
of great importance from its position on the borders of what was 
anciently Wales, from its command of the Severn — the second 
largest water-waj in England, and from its nearness to the oak 
forests and iron mines of Dean, was among the earliest of the 
English boroughs to form Guilds. It is a matter, therefore, of 
the deepest regret that our local historians, whilst they have filled 
their pages with details of civil wars and the transfer of land 
from one holder to another, have almost ignored the struggles of 
your forefathers to preserve their ancient freedom and procure 
just and equal rights as English citizens. 

Some writers believe the word " Guild to be derived from 
the Saxon word " Geldan " or " Gildan," to pay, because the 
members of such societies were called upon to make regular pay- 
ments for the support of the brethren. Others derive Guild " 
from a Welsh word "Gwyl," a feast or holiday, because special 
feasts were a universal feature of such fraternities. However 
this may be, it is certain that Guilds were in existence in Egypt 
thousands of years ago, and in Rome and Greece certainly 700 
years before the Christian era. 



The Guilds of Gloucester. 



261 



Lugo Brentano, a distinguished German writer, says, that in 
no country has the Guild, as an institution for the promotion of 
the welfare of its members socially, religiously and commercially, 
been brought to such a state of perfection as in England.^ 

I. The earliest known order of English guild is the Frith" 
or Peace Guild. This guild was, no doubt, in the first place, only 
an extention of the mutual ties of love and interest which in all 
ages and nations have bound together the members of a family. 

In the Frith Guild the oath of mutual fidelity was substituted 
for the tie of blood, and the guild-feast, at certain seasons of the 
year, replaced the gathering of kinsfolk round the family hearth. 

" Let us all share the same lot," ran the law of an ancient 
Frith Guild — " if any misdo, let us all bear it." 

If a member injured anyone by mishap he looked to his fellow- 
guildsmen for protection against the avenger, or for aid to pay 
the fine enforced by law. If he were falsely accused his brethren 
stood by him in court and defended him. If he were taken cap- 
tive and sold into slavery they redeemed him ; if he were im- 
prisoned they visited and fed him ; if he fell into poverty they 
supported him ; when he died they met together to bury him, 
and paid the clergy to say prayers for the peace of his soul. 

It was the first principle of every Guild to help a brother if he 
had justice on his side ; but if he were a law-breaker they expelled 
him, as worthless, from their fraternity. ^ 

II. The next in order was the Religious Guild, w^hich was 
formed for the mutual help and encouragement of its members in 
religious exercises. The fraternity was dedicated to God's service, 
and placed under the patronage of some saint. 

The brethren and sisters assembled together on the feast day 
of their patron, and at other times, to pray for one another and 
for those who had been called away by death. One or more 

1 The statutes of the Theyn Guild which existed at Cambridge early in 
the eleventh century shew that it was a Frith Guild. — Kemble's Saxo7is in 
England, Vol. I., p. 513. 

There was a Frith Guild in London in the days of King Athelstan.— 
Stubbs' ConsCitutioual Hktory of Ewjlaitd, Vol. I., pp. 511, 512. 



262 



Transactions for the Year 1888-0. 



priests wore paid by the Guild to celebrate day by day, or at 
other stated intervals, Holy Communion, which was then called 
the " Mass," for the welfare of the living members and for the 
repose of the souls of the departed. 

It was said often in the statutes of such fraternities tliat not 
eating or drinking but mutual assistance and prayer were the 
objects of their foundation ; nevertheless, conviviality was an 
important element in their social meetings.^ 

There were many religious guilds in Gloucester connected 
with the parish churches. 

A fraternity of brethren and sisters dedicated to St. John the 
Baptist met in the old hall, part of which still exists in Castle 
entry, between Eastgate Street and Mitre Lane, and a priest said 
prayers for them in their parish Church of St. Michael and dis- 
tributed alms amongst the poor. 

Another fraternity, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, gave fifty- 
one shillings and ninepence a year to a priest to pray for their 
souls and all Christian souls for ever in the ancient Church of 
S. Mary Bradgate, better known as S. Mary-de-Lode. 

IV. The third order of Guilds was the Merchant Guild or 
Hanse. These Guilds were founded principally for furthering the 
interests of commerce ; but this object was onl} gained by the 
purchase of civil privileges and preservation of peace. The free- 
dom and rights which you now possess as citizens were won step 
by step and by slow and difficult advances. 

At the time of the Norman Conquest, Gloucester was a royal 
borough, and the King's sheriff exacted the dues which custom 
had assigned to the King. 

The first step in the direction of freedom on the part of the 
guildsmen was to obtain the right of taxing themselves and pay- 
ing the dues directly to the King. 

1 Such guilds existed at Abbotsbury and Exeter before the Norman 
Conquest. — Kenible's Saxons in England, Vol. I., pp. 511, 512. 

See also a paper On the Guilds of Sodbury and Dyrham, read by F. F. 
Fox, Esq., at Chipping Sodbury. — Trans, oj B. and G. Arch. Socitty, Vol. 
XIII., p. 6. 



The Guilds of Gloucester. 



263 



Henry II. for a consideration, granted to the Burgesses of 
Gloucester the like tolls as were paid by the City of London. 

Richard I. granted them liberty of passing free on the river 
Severn with all kinds of merchandise. 

John granted " to the burgesses of the Guild Merchant " 
freedom from all tolls in every part of his kingdom. Edward III. 
authorised the sheriff of the town if any dared to exact toll from 
the burgesses of the Guild Merchant to seize upon it and restore 
it. He granted them a fair from the 23rd to the 28th June. 

So reign by reign the merchant guildsmen were enabled to 
purchase civil privileges whenever the King wanted money for a 
foreign w^ar, a dowry for a daughter, or replenished coffers for 
the indulgence of his appetites.^ 

In the reign of Richard III., who, as you know, was Duke 
of this city, Gloucester, obtained the most important of all its 
charters, and was governed henceforth by a mayor and two sheriffs 
and a common council elected by the burgesses. The mayor and 
corporation represent the Gloucester Guild Merchant of early 
times. 

IV. The next in order is the Guild of Craftsmen or the Trade 
Guild. In the 12th century the members of the Merchant Guilds, 
as their riches and power increased, began to look down upon and 
oppress the craftsmen whom they had hitherto treated as brother 
guildsmen. 2 

The result of this was that the craftsmen formed themselves 
into distinct fraternities, which soon rose into dangerous rivalry 
with the merchant guilds. It was a struggle of the lesser folk 
against the greater folk. 

On the continent this struggle led to a century of fierce con- 
flicts, often ending in bloodshed. In England, where the laws 

1 There was a Merchant Guild at Lincoln in the time of King Edward, 
the Confessor. — Stubbs' Constitutional History of England, Vol. I., p. 473. 

- **The right of the merchant-guild to exclude from the privileges of 
trading all who were not members of its own body seems to imply necessarily 
either that these craft-guilds originally stood in a filial relation to it, or that 
the membership of the narrower involved also the mcmljcrship of the wider 
society." — Stubbs' Constitutional J/i-^torijy Vol. I., p. 474. Oxford^ S^, 1S60. 



204 



Transactions for the Year 1888 9. 



were more just, and more honestly administered, the lesser folk 
were enabled to win their liberty, and protect their crafts. 

In all the large towns every craft had its Guild, and as time went 
on and the merchant guilds were absorbed into the municipal 
corporations, the trade guilds, in the persons of their masters, 
obtained a voice in the government of the borough. 

Sir Robert Atkyns, the County Historian, who wrote at the 
beginning of the last century, says : " There are (in Gloucester) 
twelve companies associated for the better regulation of trade, the 
masters of which attend the mayor upon public occasions in 
their gowns, with streamers, and add a reputation to the city. 
1, The Mercers, under whom are included the Apothecaries, 
Grocers and Chandlers ; 2, Weavers ; 3, Tanners ; 4, Butchers ; 
5, Bakers ; 6, Smiths and Hammer-men, in which are Gold- 
smiths and Ironmongers ; 7, Coopers and Joiners ; 8, Shoemakers, 
9, Metalmen; 10, Tailors; 11, Barbers; and 12, Glovers. There 
was another company of Brewers which is now ceased, there being 
none of that trade." Fosbrooke in 1819, says : " There are o?^ were 
twelve companies," and he proceeds to give a similar list, except 
that he places the Goldsmiths with the Metalmen, and adds to 
that company, Braziers, Pewterers and Pinmakers, and he adds 
Cutlers, Saddlers and Glaziers to the Smiths. 

He also says that there were formerly Cappers and Furriers, 
Shearmen and Dyers, united in the 21st year of Queen Elizabeth, 
quite decayed in 1634; Cooks and Innholders, united 24th Eliza- 
beth. 

A few years later than Fosbrooke's time only one guild or 
Company waited on the Mayor at his choosing, the Butchers' 
Guild, and that guild has long ago disappeared. 

I will proceed to give some extracts from the Rules and Bye- 
law^s of the Gloucester Guild of Tanners, drawn up at two eventful 
periods of English History — the Rules just before the Reforma- 
tion, and the Bye-laws eighty years later, just before the Great 
Civil War. They will show you better than anything else the 
constitution of such societies, their work and position in the 
city, and the character of their meetings and festivals. 



The Guilds of Gloucester. 



265 



The Guildsmen were to be summoned every year by the old 
Master and Wardens, to assemble in their Common Hall on the 
23rd of November — the Festival of St. Clement, their patron 
saint, and choose new officers. 

The new Master was to swear that he would observe the rules 
of the Guild and administer equal justice to rich and poor. 

The Wardens were to swear that they would obey the Master, 
and give him every assistance in their power. This oath they 
were to make before the Mayor and Sheriffs of the city at their 
hundred court, within 15 days of their election. 

The Beadle was to swear that he would obey the Master, 
summon the brethren and sisters when ordered to do so, and 
colJect all fines and other payments due to the funds of the 
Guild. If he performed his office satisfactorily he was to have Id. 
from each of the brethren and be excused his quarterly payments 
for that year. 

Any one refusing to take office was fined, as a Master, 6s. 8d.j 
as a Warden, 5s.; as a Beadle, 3s. 4d. 

No brother or sister was to be admitted to the Guild for love 
or money, but only such as had a good name. 

Every new member was to swear obedience to the Master, 
and to the rules of the Guild. 

No member of the Craft was to keep a journeyman in his employ 
for 14 days without undertaking to pay 2d. for the entry of his 
name, and Id. every quarter so long as he worked for him, on pain 
of paying a fine of 3s, 4d. No craftsmen was to entice the servant 
of another member to leave his employ, on pain of a fine of 5s. 
In case of any dispute between any two members, they were to 
refer the matter to the Master for his decision, but he was not to 
prevent them from taking the matter before a court of law if they 
wished it Every brother or sister falling into poverty was to 
receive 4d. per week, paid quarterly. Every decayed or poverty- 
stricken Past Master was to receive 7d. a week. When any 
brother or sister died the Town Crier or Bellman was to go 
through the town and ask for the prayers of the brethren for the 
soul of the deceased. On the day of the funeral the brethren 



200 



Transactions for the Yp:ar 1888-9. 



wore to gathor togotlior and bring the corpse to the church, and 
anyone absenting himself was to joay two pounds of wax for the 
light on the Altar in the Chapel of St. Clement's, in the Church 
of St. John the Baptist. No one was to practice the craft of 
Tanner unless he was a freeman of the city and a member of the 
fraternity, under pain of forfeiting 13s. 4d. a month and being 
punished by the Mayor and Sheriffs. No brother or sister was to 
take an apprentice for less than seven years, under penalty of 40s. 

The members were to come to the Hall when summoned by 
the Beadle, or pay 3d. for the first offence, 8d. for the second 
offence, and be expelled for the third offence. Any member who 
was deprived of his franchise by the Mayor and Sheriffs for bad 
conduct was to be expelled from the craft until such times as he 
was admitted to his former liberties. Every brother was to be 
in readiness at the Hall with the Master and Wardens on St. John 
the Baptist's Eve, June 23rd, and on St. Peter's Eve, June 28th 
(that is, on the first and last days of the Great Fair}, in their best 
apparel, w4th bends and badges on their shoulders, touching their 
faculty, to wait on the Mayor and Sheriffs on both nights in the 
King's Watch, within the town of Gloucester, and not to depart 
from the said watch till they had brought the Master and Wardens 
back to the Common Hall, on pain of 3s, 4:d. On each of these 
nights the Master and Wardens were to make an honest drinking 
for the brethren at the Hall. 

If any of the foregoing rules proved to be opposed to the 
King's Law or the commonwealth of the town, the Justices of 
Assize were to alter them. 

Such were the laws in 1543. 

In calculating the amount of the fines imposed, and the allow- 
ance to decayed members, we must remember that money was 
worth very much more in the reign of Henry VIII. than it is now. 
An ox was valued in =£1, a cow or a cart horse in 10s. The fee for 
apprenticeship was 2s. 6d., and a skilled artisan's wages were 
about <£8 a year, or 5^d. a day, with board and lodging. 

On S. Clement's Day, Nov. 23rd, 1628, the following bye-laws 
were agreed upon by the Tanners' Guild : — - 



The Guilds of Gloucester. 



267 



No Master of the Guild was " to keepe a shopp and a standing 
bothe in the markett in Gloucester to sell clowte leather " on 
payne of forfeiting 6s. 8d. No hide was to be sold or bought in 
any place in the market except between Mr. Bubb's door and 
Mr. Russell's door. (The old Beast Market was held in Pitt 
Street, and the Tanners' Hall was in Hare Lane.) No hide w^as 
to be sold before 7 o'clock in the morning, and no leather until 
1 1 o'clock. No member was to buy clowte leather with a view of 
selling it again in any fair or market under penalty of 5s. for 
the first offence, 10s. for the second, and 20s. for the third. If 
the servant of any one member of the Guild behaved badly in 
the market and did not go away on being ordered to do so, or if 
he bought or sold any hide or skin his master was to forfeit 10s. 
The Master was to have the handling of the first hide in the market. 

The Master was to make a dinner on St. Clement's Day for 
every brother and sister under penalty of £5. No brother was to 
be Warden till he had served as Beadle, or to be Master till he had 
served as Warden, under penalty of 10s. No journeyman working 
under one of the members of the Guild was to leave his service 
and work with any other member without his master's good-will; 
or the member receiving him was to pay a fine of 10s. Every 
Master was to provide himself on election with a scarlet gown, 
and to wear it as Master and Past-Master at all assemblies and 
meetings for the appointment of officers, or pay a fine of £5. No 
brother or sister was to disclose anything that had been done or 
said at the meetings of the Guild under penalty of 3s. 4d. Every 
new member was to make a sufficient dinner for the whole company 
on his election, or pay 40s. fine. Every apprentice was to be 
entered in the books of the Guild, within a month of his being 
bound, or the member binding him was to pay 6s. 8d. 

I see that in 1632 it was agreed that every Master should be 
allowed 40s. towards his Feast, and half that amount was allowed 
to a new member when he made his dinner. 

The latest accounts of the Tanners' Guild that I have seen 
are for the year 1724, when the receipts were £3, and the expen- 
diture £2 9s. 7d. 



Tramsactions for the Year 188S-9. 



The minutes of the Annual Meetings are carried down to the 
5th November, 1846, when Mr. George Bullock, jun., was chosen 
Master, and Mr. George Bullock and Mr. Edward Bower made 
Wardens. It seems to have been the custom of the Guild for the 
last 200 years to nominate the officers on the 5th of November, 
and to swear them in on the 23rd (S. Clement s Day). 

I have not yet been able to learn much of the other Gloucester 
Craft Guilds. The Butchers had their slaughter-houses and stand- 
ings in the middle of Westgate Street, near the Cross, and their 
Hall was the house now occupied by Mr. Nest, the Confectioner. 
The Grocers had their Guild Hall in the fine old house occupied 
by Mr. Beal on the opposite side of Westgate Street. The Weavers^ 
who claimed S. Anne as their patron Saint, maintained a service 
in her honour in the Church of S. Michael. 

The Weavers and Clothiers are said to have had their Hall in 
Watery Lane, near S. Catherine's Church. 

A Fraternity dedicated to S. Thomas, perhaps the Coopers 
and Joiners, maintained a chantry in S. Mary de Crypt Church. 

The Smiths and Hammer7nen perhaps had their Hall in Long 
Smith Street. 

A portion of the old Chapel of Kyneburg's Hospital, or Kim- 
brose, was given to the fraternity of Cordwainers in 1671 as a 
Common Hall. Upper College Court was called Crafts' Lane, 
and also Ironmongers^ and Farriers' Lane, probably because the 
halls of these two guilds were there. 

The decay of the Craft Guilds arose from three or more causes. 

I. At the Reformation they were cruelly plundered by Henry 
YIII. and Edward YL, under the flimsy est pretence of zeal for 
religion ; and Elizabeth, James I. and Charles I. extorted large 
sums from the Craftsmen by forcing upon them Patents of 
Monopoly. 

II. The selfishness of the Craft Masters led them to make 
restrictions on trade which were hateful to the people. Certain 
families monoplized the trades, and looked with suspicion and 
dislike on any new comer. In the list of Masters of the Tanners' 



The GriLDs of Gloucester. 



269 



Guild, I find such names as Smyth, Payne, Pryce, Jeynes, and 
especially Lugg, occurring over and over again in the 17th century. 

III. Improvements in manufacture, and the introduction of 
machinery, threw trade more and more into the hands of capita- 
lists ; and the Guilds only made themselves hated and despised 
in tlieir endeavours to arrest the natural course of events. The 
obstructions which the Guilds, through their Charters and their 
influence with Municipal Corporations, were able to place in the 
way of great factories drove away the trade from ancient towns 
like Gloucester to places like Birmingham and Manchester, which 
were free from corporate control. 

Thus it was that the Guilds, which in earlier times raised 
Gloucester to a high state of commercial prosperity, in later times 
impoverished and well nigh ruined her. 

I have said enough to show you that Trade Unions, Friendly 
Societies, Church Guilds, and the other forms of social union for 
mutual help and advantage are not peculiar to our times. History 
is always repeating itself. There is nothing new under the sun. 

In the 17th century the journeymen were content with their 
position ; their wages were low, but they were regularly paid, 
and work was certain. In the 18th century, under the Factory 
System, the workmen were completely in the power of their em- 
ployers, they had no rights and no customs. During the latter 
part of the 18th century the grievances of workmen led to riot 
and bloodshed, and Acts of Parliament were passed to improve 
their condition. Between 1790 and 1800 the the first Trade 
Unions were formed to protect the employed against their em- 
ployers. At first there were no regular payments ; all contributed 
voluntarily to a common fund. From this fund such members as 
were out of work or sick were assisted. 

This was the beginning of a movement which has had mighty 
results. Artisans in the 19th century have fought the same kind 
of battle as the merchants fought in the 11th and 12th centuries, 
and the Craft Masters a century later. Step by step the English 
workman has won for himself a power and an influence which is 
now felt and acknowledged by every class and party in the land. 



270 



TUANSACTIONS VOK THE YkAK 1888-9. 



The Guildsmeii of the 19th and 20th centuries (call them- 
selves what they will) will do well to imitate the virtues of their 
fore-runners in the middle ages, and avoid their selfishness. His- 
tory is written, not for our amusement, but for our warning and 
encouragement. May the English Craftsman, proud of the race 
from which he springs, and grateful for the freedom which he 
inherits from his fathers, be in the future, as in the past, a 
bright example to his brethren on the Continent, and his kinsmen 
across the seas ! 



Church of St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. 



271 



NOTES ON THE CHURCH OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW, 
CHURCHDOWN. 

By FREDERICK SMITHE, M.A., LL.D. 

liead before the Society in the Church of St. Bartholomew, 19th July, 1888. 

The upland position of this interesting Parish Church has led to 
much speculation. There exists a legend to the effect that it was 
originally intended to build a church at the bottom of the hill 
instead of on the top, but that the design was frustrated by a demon, 
who every night conveyed to the summit of the hill the stones 
which in the day-time had been deposited at the foot. A similar 
legend prevails all^ over Europe as to churches built on lofty sites. 

This remarkable myth sets forth the history of the struggle 
of Paganism with Christendom. ^ Churchdown Church, or Chosen 
Church, by the latter name it is better known to the villagers, is 
dedicated to St. Bartholomew, and in former days was the parish 
church for two communities : one village, that of Chosen, is 
situated on the slopes and vale northward from the church, whilst the 
other, named Hucclecote, was a hamlet on the south side of Chosen 
hill. Thus the parishioners from both places met together to wor- 
ship in the same church on the summit of the hill, and the aisle in 
the parish church was formerly known by the name of the " Huc- 
clecote side." Seeing that the name of the place is derived from the 
position of the church is a voucher for the existence of a church 
in such an elevated situation from the earliest time. Churchdown ^ 
means the church on the hill, as Churcham means the church on 
1 See Valleys of the Tirol, by R. H. Busk, 1874. 
" The older spelling of the word Churchdown, apart from the derivation, 
may be given thus : In Domesday Booh (1086), Circesdune. In Pipe Roll, 
1st Richard I. (1157), Kyrchdon. In the Taxatio Ecclesiastica (1288), and 
Inquis'dlones Nonarum, 14th Edward III. (1430) Chiiresdon. In the Parish 
Register (1563), it is written Chursdoivn. In Speke's map (KMC)) it is 
CJmrsdoH, and 1888, and long before, Chosen, 



272 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



the ham. In this connection a note may be transcribed, written 
by the late Canon S. Lysons in 1865, and kindly sent by him to 
the author — " A singular corruption of this name Churchdown, to 
suit the views of more modern times, has occurred in the change 
of Thorsdown into Churchdown. I have ancient documents now 
in my possession which mentions this place as Thorsdown, alias 
Churchdown, — and no doubt the building of a Christian church 
upon the spot where Thor was previously worshipped — as Gregory 
the Great counselled Christians to do, that they might attract, 
rather than shock, the prejudices of the heathen — led to a tran- 
sition also in the pronunciation of a name, which, when spoken 
rapidly, would sound very like that which preceded it, and though 
at first sight there is no radical connection between the names, 
Thorsdown became Churchdown. There is, however, a mytho- 
logical connection between the two words, for Church derives from 
KTPI'OC, the Greek word for Lord, the same name having been 
applied by the sun-worshippers to their lord. So that Kurios, Baal, 
and Thor, are all synonymes for the sun; and' so the wary and 
politic head of the E-oman Church may have had good reasons for 
the advice given to his Apostles in Britain, in calling off the 
attention of the heathen from their " dumb idols to serve the 
living God." 

Chosen Hill is 580ft. high, and is really part of the Cotteswold 
range. The spectator viewing the hill from a certain position, 
say from Battledown, the upper part of the town of Cheltenham, 
must at once be impressed with its affinity, as being a peninsula 
of the Cotteswolds ; and this, without calling in the aid of the 
geologist, who, from evidence peculiar to his science, affirms 
Chosen to be merely an outlier of the Cotteswold Hills. 

The prospect of the surrounding country, seen from the sum- 
mit, is peculiar ; for from the highest eminence, the eye can 
sweep the horizon at its blending with the skyline. Looking to 
the south, the river Severn is seen gleaming aside Robin Wood's 
Hill, and even the arches which span the Severn Bridge can be 
discerned. The city of Gloucester and the town Cheltenham, both 
lying in the plain, and only a few miles distant, Cheltenham 



Church of St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. 273 

seeming to lie in a cove of the Cotteswolds with those hills for a 
back-ground, and Gloucester Cathedral conspicuous in the opposite 
direction, whilst the Abberley Hills, 12 miles beyond Worcester, 
and Worcester Cathedral, for it is 40 miles away, require a clear sky. 
Coming nearer to Churchdown are the Malvern range of hills, some 
20 miles away, leading southward and westward to the blue hills of 
Radnorshire. Whilst a striking object comparatively near, but yet 
9 miles off, is the charming Abbey of Tewkesbury. In the still- 
ness of the evening the distant smoke of the furnaces in the Forest 
of Dene is noticeable curling upwards from the environment 
of forest. But turning from this view, one which never seems to 
tire, and walking to the churchyard gate, on looking across the 
down, it requires little acuteness to observe, stretching from the 
churchyard wall, the line of an ancient entrenched camp, indi- 
cations of rampart and ditch. The mounds of earthworks include 
both the church and churchyard, so that the Church of St. 
Bartholomew has a rare site, being on the hill and within the 
camp. This entrenched camp is of Roman character, accord- 
ing to Messrs Buckman and Newmarch ; of British, according to 
Rev. Canon Lysons. It may have successively been occupied by 
both. 

Notices of the earlier history of Churchdown, as given in the 
county histories, are scanty. Atkyns (1768) and Rudder (1779) 
refer to the manor and other estates. In Domesday Book this 
manor stands under the heading : " Terra Thome Archiep'i," the 
estate of Archbishop Thomas, and it is thus recorded : [Stigand, 
the Archbishop of Canterbury] held Circesdune in the reign of 
Edward the Confessor. It was taxed 15 hides and a half; there 
were 32 plow tillages ; whereof two were in demesne ; there was 
a wood half a mile long and 3 furlongs broad. It paid a yearly 
rent of 13^. in King Edward's reign; it paid 12L yearly in King 
William's reign. There were 5 manors or reputed manors in 
Churchdown, particulars of these, more or less accurate, are re- 
counted by county historians, but need not be transcribed in the 
present account. The estates were owned by the canons of St. 
Oswald and were at the Dissolution and Spoliation of the religious 
houses, assigned (Hen. VIIL, 34) to the new see of Bristol. The 
Vol. XIII. T 



274 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



revenues from the property thus diverted may be estimated at 
the present time by the amount of the Tithe Commutation, which 
was fixed at £1214 a year. The Dean and Chapter of Bristol 
present to the living as patrons. They are the Rectors appro- 
priators of the benefice of Churchdown, and the incumbents of the 
benefice are their perpetual curates. 

The Church of St. Bartholomew, as it now stands, consists of a 
tower, a nave, a south aisle, and a porch facing the north ; also a 
chancel (See plan, Plate XVII.) What it was in Saxon times is a 
matter of conjecture. The only tangible proof of the existence of 
a pre-Norman church presents itself in the chancel in certain 
remains built into the masonry of one wall, that on the north side. 

The pre-Norman or Saxon church led to changes — alterations 
and additions of Norman character, instance the Norman doorway 
of a florid period, which had on each side two piers, and their 
simple capitals of Norman age, and supported the terminations of 
a semi-circular arch [Plate XVI., fig. 2). The remains of these 
four piers still exist, and, together with the portion of an arch re- 
maining, will be examined later on. We clearly see the presence 
of a Norman edifice. 

In course of time, the Norman church required enlarging, by 
the addition of an aisle, and the new part was of necessity on the 
south side of the church, as on the north, or opposite, side the 
pitch of the ground forms a steep declivity. Churches are generally 
enlarged by aisles built on the north side. Not so here. For the 
old wall was under-pinned, strutted, and removed from its position, 
built again as a wall of the new aisle, and its former place occu- 
pied by an arcade, of Transition age, of arches, carried by three 
piers and semi-piers at the wall ends. The east end of this aisle 
was converted into a chapel, with an altar dedicated to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary. 

Probably, about the same period, the removal of the Norman 
north doorway, and the erection of a storied porch was proceeded 
with. The latter may have taken the place of a much shallower 
porch, still that point is immaterial, and there is not evidence to 
guide us to a decision The completion of the large porch, with its 



Plate xvi. 



! ; 





Church of St. Bartholomew, CnrRCHDOwx. 275 

three stories, and winding staircase up to the priest's chamber, 
and the embellishing of the south door, by clumsily fitting part 
of the removed arch and fixing it over the pointed doorway, 
completed an epoch in the history of this church. Thert must 
have been afterwards a long pause, only broken at times by the 
removal of narrow Avindows of earlier date, and insertions, from one 
time to another, of more spacious windows of Decorated, or, later 
on, of Perpendicular work, with their mullions and their tracery. 
When, at last, after decay and the corroding tooth of time had 
wrought its work, and the weather in a situation so exposed to the 
frost, had shaken the stone in the old tower to pieces, it became a 
mere ruin. In 1601 a new tower was built, and the remains of 
the old tower were used up, and so incorporated in every part 
of the present building are the fragments that they can be easily 
traced, and afibrd material help and a trustworthy clue toward a 
clear understanding of the past history of the church. 

The preceding brief statement of the history of the building is 
no mere speculation. It is a bare recital of facts carefully inter- 
preted and marshalled in order of time, and should be well borne 
in mind whilst reading the following more detailed and fuller 
particulars of the sub-divisions of the sacred edifice : — 

I. The Chancel. — This portion of the church has been most 
altered, it has undergone a "radical restoration." The dimen- 
sions of the chancel are small in proportion to the rest of the 
building. This may be accounted for by the exigency of the site. 
The church is on an acclivity, with a steep drop of the ground 
all round it, except toward the graveyard, where the slope is 
easier. This is evidence in support of the great antiquity of the 
building made up of the remains of the past, and, doubtless, a 
rude cell at first, so that when the site was chosen, it may 
have been selected, because the most suitable spot for signalling 
a beacon fire to other points. At all events, no thought was taken 
by the first builders for any enlargement, which accounts for 
the smallness of the chancel. The reparation of the chancel and 
choir of the church was undertaken in 1880 by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, as they hold the estates of the Bristol chapter, 
T 2 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



and are legally bound to repair the chancel. The work was 
carried out under the direction of the architect of the com- 
missioners, Mr. Ewan Christian. What was then done was 
as follows : The floor of the chancel was raised, for it had 
through burials and other causes been lowered until it was 
flush from one end to the opposite extremity of the build- 
ing. Besides this reason, about the year 1616, when Puritan- 
ism was rampant, there was much destructive change, and the 
chancel, specially, was the object of protestant fanaticism — the 
people had been taught by their preachers that the " high 
places " and " the strongholds," mentioned in the bible, meant 
the floors of the chancel, &c., and that they must be thrown 
down and levelled. The pavement of the chancel was broken up 
and thrown into a hole in the churchyard, and the floor being 
levelled down, the little chancel was then swept of every object 
that gave ofience to these Philistines. Of course, they did not 
spare the Lady chapel, it was treated after the same fashion. 
Mr. Ewan Christian had the floor of the church chancel raised 
to its original height, and made three steps to the eastward, — 
viz., one step at the chancel arch, one at the sanctuary rails, 
and the last at the foot-pace before the altar,, and a suitable 
pavement in addition. The stone-work of the east window and 
of the smaller window in the south wall was repaired and made 
good wherever it had become decayed. The old roof was 
removed and replaced by a new oak roof, of waggon form, 
and solidly constructed. The old roof was a sorry affair, low 
down, with a white-washed ceiling, diversified by two rusty 
iron cross girders, which seemed to keep the walls together. 
The Holy table, the legs of which had been painted red, was 
set against the east wall but alongside the north and south 
sides were deal pews, with their respective partitions of 
books, desks, seats, and at the ends westward were two low 
doors to admit the communicants. In front of the table, at a 
distance of a few feet, was a tall oak balustrade, surmounted 
by a hand-rail, and with slender-turned balusters, or supports, 
set close. The pavement was only of common red brick. 
Such an arrangement was not uncommon as late as 30 years 
ago in many country churches, though now things of the past. 



Church of St. Bartholomew-, Churohdown. 277 

The present east window of St. Bartholomew's is of Perpen- 
dicular style — early 15th century — is wide in proportion to 
the height, and so rather deficient in graceful proportion, but in 
form and tracery is quaint and pleasing. The smaller window 
on the south side is square-headed, w^ith semi-circular headed 
couplets, and in three particulars or more point to an ancient 
use. These are the wooden beam over the window, the 
narrow aperture, the deep flat sill, and, next, the special 
position facing the churchyard and situated in a re-entering 
angle of the chancel and nave, force the conclusion that here 
we have a window of debased style one too (1616 date) that 
replaced an ancient opening of the nature of a Lazar Avindow. 
The old house in the churchyard, and the adjoining cottage, 
were formerly used for lodging paupers and poor imbeciles of 
the parish long before the days of Unions and Boards of 
Guardians. On the same side as this smaller window is a 
mural monument of white marble, erected in memory of Sir 
Robert Austen, Bart., of Dartford, in Kent, who died in 1743, 
surmounted by a shield charged with the following arms : — 
Or, a chevron gules betiveen three lions' paivs, erect and erased^ 
sa, impaling Arg. on a fess, double-cotised, gules, three griffins^ 
heads erased, per /ess, erm. and of the second ; for his wife 
Rachel, dau. of Sir Francis Dashwood, of High Wycombe, 
CO. Bucks, Bart. Crest of Austen : Out of a mural coronet a 
white stag's head, pp^ collared or. 

Near is the piscina, of Decorated style, {Plate XVI., fg. 7) 
which formed an adjunct of the Lady chapel altar, in 1880 
and came to light accidentally. It was found just behind the 
wainscotting of a tall pew, its right side being cracked 
and well nigh demolished, and walled in. After careful 
deliberation with archaeologists and other authorities, it was 
decided that as an appurtenance of the church, it should be 
carefully restored by cementing the pieces together, and fixing 
it in the chancel, and also that a note of its historical position 
should be entered in the church books, with the dates. This 
piscina contains the basin and flat-stone shelf for holding the 



278 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



cruets used in the Divine office, and is a fine example and care- 
fully finished. The poppy heads and panelling in the choir are 
of oak, reproduced from remnants of the ancient work, — one 
stall and one panel only ; the specimen of the former was found 
worked up in the framing of a pew ; the finished work is quite 
satisfactory and sharply carved. On the north side, built into 
the wall, occur the most interesting remains of ancient work. 
(Plate XVI. Jig. 1). These consist of the bowl of an ancient 
font, together with three pieces of worked freestone with 
mouldings, some most likely were imposts. The bowl is 
shewn in section, and under and near is one of the worked 
stones with mouldings. These remains have been examined 
by several experts, such as Prof. Middleton and other archi- 
tects, and considered to be of Saxon or pre Norman date. 
The mouldings of the worked pieces are flat, with little relief, 
of simple contour, and unlike any figured in Paley^s Gothic 
Mouldings. 

Dimensions of Chancel, are — 21 ft. 9ins. by 16 ft. 4 ins. For 
lesser dimensions consult Plate XVII., which contains a plan 
of the church drawn to scale. 

II. The Nave. — The body of the church is divided from the S. aisle 
by an arcade of semi-Norman or Transition style, consisting of 
four pointed arches resting on cylindrical piers, three of them 
disengaged and with semi-piers or pilasters against the walls at 
each end. The mouldings of the capitals have some of their mem- 
bers undercut, but are quite plain and characteristic. And the 
pier at the east end of the arcade contains a deep groove, and 
other marks where fittings, such as canopies and brackets for 
lights, existed the groove must have once carried a screen or 
lattice to divide the Lady chapel, as it was called, from the 
body of the church. The pillars bear traces of colour, chiefly red 
and green, and the flat member of the chamfered and recessed 
section of the pointed arches had depicted on it a simple 
pattern in marone red, that must have been neat and efiective, 
such as the design figured {Plat^ XVI., fig. S)', it seemed to 
have been stencilled, and deserves to be reproduced. No sign 



Church of St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. 



279 



of an altar was found in the chapel. Though on the spot 
where the altar stood there is now a flat grave-stone with the 
inscription : — 

"here RESTETH the body of JOHN DANVERS, THE tON OF 
RICHARD DANVERS, ESQ., AND BROTHER TO SIR WM. DANVERS,^ 
WHO DEC^ THE 16*^ DAY OF JANUARY, 1616." 

The Piscina of the chapel of the B.V. Mary has been already 
mentioned. Two tiles, remarkable for their small size, were 
dug up in the church-yard by the grave-diggers, together with 
several fragments of encaustic tiles, of good colour and design, 
all of them in the possession of the writer. Of the two small 
tiles just named — one has a Lombardic capital letter M upon 
it ; the other has a marigold flower. They are presumed 
to have come from the Lady chapel. In the parish register 
book the chapel of the Blessed Virgin is written in two 
entries, as the " ladye chauncell," The first entry dated 
1572 ; the second in 1586 : 



That y® seate under the wyndowe in the ladye chauncell was 
bulded by John Harmar 0. hee payd for y® place vj^ viij**. 
The next entry runs thus : 



That the two uppermost seates in y® ladye chauncell was 
allotted to Richard Harmar by y^ parishe and hee payde for 
y^ place ij^ & vj^ for workman & bord. 

The Font stands in the correct place in the church between 
the north and south entrance doors, teaching the faithful that 
the entrance into Christ's church is through the sacrament of 
Holy Baptism. It is octagonal, and of stately form, of early 
Perpendicular style. The stone base, on which it is erected, is 
of old re-worked stone, and betrays its origin, viz., the remains 
of the ancient Norman tower, that was removed about 1600. 

1 Sir William Danvers was of co. Wilts, and was knighted at Hampton 
Court, 17th Nov. 1607 —Ed. 



Anno Elizabethse 
Reginse: 14 



Anno Dom 1572 




Anno Domi. 1586. 



280 



TkAiNsaction.s for the Year 1888-9. 



The font is in good order, leaded, and has a drain for running 
off the contents, and an oak cover with twisted iron ring and 
floriated ornamentation. Looking from this point across the 
aisle the eye is attracted by the S. doorway directly opposite 
the porch entrance ; because, inside, and built in immediately 
over this lancet or pointed doorway, are remains, being part 
of the semi-circle of a Norman arch, which in its sweep ill 
accords with the pointed doorway. The sculpture has been 
well executed, but the fitting of the work, the replacing the 
voussoirs, or segments, in their new position, is clumsily done 
and gives it a cramped appearance. The decoration of this 
archway consists of late Norman, namely, of lozenges bordered 
with beads or studs, as is usually found at that time. The 
rows of studs are bordered with mouldings ; a part is shown in 
Plate XVI., fig. 2. The pattern of the lozenges consists of 
alternate conventional acanthus leaves, and human heads thus 
disposed : first, a leaf, plain, but of elegant pattern, filling up 
the diamond of the lozenge, and, instead of the leading stem, 
a row of beads takes its place. The next compartment con- 
tains a man's face, as though looking out of a window, the 
features grotesque and the hands on each side of the face as 
though grasping the bar of the window. This disposition is 
repeated with slight variations. One leaf conveys the notion 
rather of a fruit, like a corn cob. The point of interest to be 
solved is historical. From what part of the ancient church was 
this Norman archway removed 1 And next, about what time 1 
There are but two places feasible from which it could be 
brought — always rejecting the highly improbable notion of 
its being brought from any other church. There is only a 
choice of two places in the present building from which the 
arch was removed : — it may have been either a chancel arch, or 
that of a Norman doorway. We must declare for the latter. The 
place it was brought from was the first place it occupied, and 
that was over the N. door in existence before the three-storied 
porch was erected. All the missing segments or voussoirs of 
the arch have been sought and found, four of them built into 
the masonry courses of the exterior ; one excepted, which is 



CnrRCH OF St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. 



281 



within, and embedded in the east wall of the porch. Now one of 
these pieces has the perforation which carried the curtain rod ; 
that is what one might expect to find attached to an outer door 
open to the north wind. The four missing pieces, since found 
added to those in position over the south doorway, make up the 
complete semi-circle of the Norman arch.^ And the original 
position of that arch was north of the church, forming the 
northern entrance, and to complete the picture of that door- 
way, in accordance with the Norman style, the arch must have 
had at least four circular piers, two on each side. Well, these 
four piers have been found but in an inverted position, one 
in each corner of the porch, their Norman capitals turned into 
bases for the piers on which rest the ribs, &c., of the Early- 
English groining. This is an interesting study for the lover of 
our early church architecture. It will be further treated in the 
next heading, namely, the Porch. Like most of our ancient 
churches, the walls of S.Bartholomew's were adorned with paint- 
ings. There were some grotesque and interesting designs on the 
north wall of the nave, which are even now dimly to be seen, 
when the white-wash, with which they are covered up, is wet. 
One curious subject is said to be a demon, or Satan under the 
guise of a dragon of reptilian character, whispering into the 
ear of a person, kneeling at a fald-stool, insinuating evil, or sug- 
gesting some worldly or sinful thoughts, drawing his mind off 
his devotions. Lately a church warden has had a stove-pipe 
carried through the middle of the design. Irretrievable damage 
has been thus done from time to time. One corner of the nave, 
also as late as 1854, had been desecrated by conversion into a 
charnel house for the remains of poor departed humanity. 
These bones were then carefully collected and interred in the 
grave-yard, under the direction of the curate in charge. There 
is a small lancet doorw^ay west of the chief entrance from the 
porch, leading to the rooms over the porch A peculiarity of 
^ List of the four missing parts of the Norman archway, since discovered : 

PIECE. PIECE. 

1st. In Porch. 3rd. In N.E. window of nave. 

2nd. Between belfry and tower, has 4th. West end of aisle, 
holes in it. 



282 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



the shallow moulding of the frame-work of the door is a small 
filet, making a pleasing finish and completeness. 

The aisle still retains the high pewing, and contains three 
windows. One, in the south-west end of it, having two lights, 
another, near the Lady chapel, and the smallest, west of the 
south door, leading into the church-yard, the whole of them 
of Perpendicular character, and one in particular with con- 
fused and dilapidated tracery. The fact is, that when in 
the last century any repairs were effected, village workmen, 
unskilled, and therefore unfit, were left to do them without 
supervision, and the result was work of the lowest type and 
character. The carved oak pulpit and sounding board have been 
much admired. The pulpit has the date 1631 carved in relief 
over the back panel, immediately under the sounding board. 
Many of the pews are covered with carving of Jacobean style, 
some of them give the monogram and date ; for example : 
[A W. 1 636]. This must refer to one of the Freams Wyn- 
dowe family. 1 The pews in the nave are open seats of 
mediaeval pattern. They are of solid oak, 2^ ins. in thickness, 
but of later years have been seriously deformed by tinkering 
additions, and the finials, are sawn off to allow thin deal panel- 
ling to rest upon them, with the idea of converting them into 
high pews. Immediately to the left of the chief entrance, 
and within the nave, is a holy water stoup, with a step, but 
no slab or basin. ^ The step may have been used as a shelf 
for an asperge (aspergillum) to rest upon. 

The Porch. — Among the liberties taken with languages, it is 

singular that the old word for porch (porticus) should be given 

^ " The Wyndowes, who were the old squires occupying the Great 
House in Churchdown, came there in the time of Charles I. and left it in 
1752. Their remains are interred on both sides of the nave at the chancel 
end of the church." The writer possesses many interesting particulars of 
this family. 

2 Durandus observes : " Institutum fuit vasa ista aquse benedictse ad 
ostium ecclesiae a latere ingredientis, ubi protest dextro collocari. In veteri 
testamento non nisi lotus templum ingrediebatur. Ceeternm vas isfcud aquae 
benedictse e marmore lapideve solido, non lateritio nec spongioso, fieri debet, 
aspergillum que decens e labro catenula' appensum habere'. — Durand. de 
labro seu vase aquae benedictee." 



Church of St. Bartholomew, Churchdown. 283 

to the aisle. In 1428, " In portica qui vulgariter yle S.M. 
dicitur " (in R. Test. Eb.) The reason for the site of the porch 
of St. Bartholomew is already accounted for by the nature of 
the ground. It is a porch, with three stories, strongly and 
solidly built, and forms a striking feature. Formerly the 
entrance to the porch was through an oak door, defaced with 
the cutting and scribbling of innumerable visitors. Lately it 
has been replaced by iron gates, because the weight of the 
heavy door was telling upon the structure and threatening to 
disintegrate the masonry. The stone vaulting of the porch is 
borne by four-light cylindrical piers, whence springs the groin- 
ing of the stone ribs, both the wall and the diagonal ribbing are 
plain chamfered. These four piers have Early-English capitals 
of the same age as the ribbing or groining, whereas the lower 
drums of the piers repose upon plain early Norman capitals, 
as figured in Plate X VI. , fig. 5, which having served in their 
day to carry the semi-circular Norman arch of the entrance 
door to the church, have been deposed at a later time, and 
utilized by being inverted to serve as the bases of the com- 
paratively new piers, whilst the remains of the Norman arch 
that rested upon these four Norman piers have been shifted 
to the interior of the south door, and the overplus of the 
parts have been used up in the masonry generally as named 
before. There are stone seats on each side of the porch. 
In mediaeval time the porch was of importance. Seeing that, 
where sufficiently spacious, it was used for many ritual pur- 
poses, and the meaning of some of the rubrics of our present 
office books would be less ambiguous, Avere this borne in 
mind, at any rate, the many curious and quaint figures 
and emblems cut into the stones of the porch may have 
been done by the clergy or monks m the intervals of waiting 
there when otherwise unoccupied. A few of these represen- 
tations will be described — many are left for the present. On 
the west side of the porch is carved the figure of one of the 
Persons of the Holy Trinity — an aged bearded face surrounded 
with a plain nimbus and aureole ; on the same side is represen- 
ted a whale spouting water into the sky, which was a favourite 



284 



Tkansactions for the Year 1S88-9. 



emblem of the Resurrection to Eternal Life. Besides, there 
are some attempts at delineating small objects, not at all badly 
conceived, such as finials, floriated crosses, &c., some in bare 
outline, rude as to finish — still, disclosing a notion of drawing, 
not too common in the artizan of our country in the 19th 
century. Another rude carving is on the door-jamb of the 
porch, sufficiently rare, and not to be passed over. It is an 
incised figure of pre-Reformation date, judging by the fashion 
of it, late 14th century — a gaunt emblem of Death, ^ having the 
long hair and breasts of a woman ; the fleshless arms are 
extended, holding in one hand an hour-glass to denote the 
brief span of man's life, and in the other hand, to signify the 
grave, is an asperge, which was used when the sprinkling of 
Holy water upon the corpse at the gi-aveside was enjoined 
at the burial in the old service rubrics. ^ 

Several of these "graffiti," or deep scratchings, or slight car- 
vings, have yet to be examined, as they are now mostly covered 
up by accumulated coats of white- wash. Ascending the narrow 
winding newel staircase, at the tower end of the church, we 
enter the priest's chamber, so called, which is the first story ; 
here there is a stone fireplace and on one side is carved a 
small calvary cross ; there is a flue and outside a low mediaeval 
chimney {Plate XVI. fig. 6) \ there are about six lancet-headed 
windows and other apertures, all now glazed; a frame of 13th 
century stone-work to the largest ; and one window, opening 

^ Death as a woman. Petrarch's conception of Death is embodied in 
the poet's grand and solemn song, " II Trionfa della Morte," where Death 
appears in female form : 

" Ed una donna involta in vesta negra, 
Con un furor qual io non so se mai 

Al tempo de Gig-anti fosse a Fegra."— See Christian Iconography. 

Didron, Vol. II.. p. 157. 

2 In some rituals the rubrical directions to be observed at the grave of the 
defunct, contained the words; " Dum sacerdos corpus aspergit," followed 
by the prayer, " Rore coelesti perfundat et reficiat animam tuam, Deus 
Pater et Filius et Spiritus sanctus. R. Amen." The reason for these prayers 
and the blessing of the grave, the censing and the sprinkling of the body, is 
thus stated by Durandus : " Solent namque (daemones) de saevire in corpora 
mortuorum ut quod nequiverunt in vita, saltern post mortem agant." — 

Durand. RationaUy lib. 7, n. 35. 



Church of St. Barthot.omew, CHTTRPHDOwr^. 285 

into the church, which had for years been blocked up, was in 
1880 re-opened, framed and glazed. This w^as the principal 
window, because from it the priest could command a view of 
the " Lady chapel " and all its belongings, such as th^ altar 
and image-lights. There is no flooring to this chamber other 
than the dust and rubble w^iich fill the pockets of the vault- 
ing of the porch. From the north side walls project three 
stone corbels which supported the rafters and flooring of the 
upper chamber or dormitory, and the one above that was 
probably a store room. 

Dimensions of Priest's Chamber. 

FT. INS. 

Width of wall across E. end by fireplace - - 8 9 

„ „ by !N^. end is - - - - - 11 0 

Clear wddth of doorway into room at top - - 0 19 

Dimensions of Porcli (groiind floor J, 

Width across front, w^all to wall - - - - 11 3 

Lengtli --------- 8 6 

Width at iron gate - - - - - - 4 6 

,, at church door - - - ' - - 3 10 

Tower. — The tower is a square structure, solidly built, and 
battlemented with parapets equally spaced and bordered. 
The old Norman predecessor of this had fallen to ruin and 
the present building was completed and opened about three 
years before the death of Queen Elizabeth. The Tudor win- 
dow in the w-est of it is large, with three mullions and four 
lights round-headed ; the tower entrance from the nave is also 
round-headed, and this semi-circular arch, ^vith flat soffits, rests 
on piers, flat, chamfered and capped with thin poor mouldings 
of debased character, matching those of the chancel arch. And 
this denotes, in connection with other evidence, that it was a 
time w^hen everything in the church underwent extensive 
sweeping alterations. Just in the angle formod by the junction 
of the tower arch and wall of the nave the date of the building 
is recorded, boldly cut into the stone : 



286 



Tkansactions for the Year 1888-9. 



THIS BELHOWS WAS BVYLDEDE 
IN THE YEERE OF OVR LORDE 
GOD-1601 



In the south-east corner of the tower is the little door of the 
staircase leading to the belfry. ^ The five bells, with their 
legends, are hung in strong oak frames, and are well appointed. 
They never fail, such is the custom, to give forth a muffled 
peal on Holy Innocents' Day. For details of the Bells, see 
FlateXVIL 

Exterior. — In going round the church from the porch there are 
visible, used up in the construction, four stone slabs in the 
walls of the porch : — two of them are quite plain and two are 
ornamented with incised crosses, of which one is illustrated 
and drawn to scale {Plate XVI. ^ fig. ^). The window next 
the door of the aisle westward has a small piece of diaper 
work, a fragment of stone worked into the upper coping of 
the head, but we are at a loss to know what part of the church 
it came from. Immediately eastward of this and the side of 
the church are some slabs of an altar tomb that few know 
anything about. Their history is this, that some thirty years 
ago the rural dean visiting and inspecting, was consulted by 
the church-warden as what was to be done with a tomb in the 
churchyard that had become a ruin, and the four stones were 
lying flat on the ground ; the rural dean suggested that they 
should be built into the south wall of the edifice, and his advice 
was followed. The sculpture on them is thoroughly Elizabethan 
in style, with skulls, bones, and other repulsive, stiff, and dole- 
ful decoration, and the inscription, in its pagan sentiment, 
accords well enough with the style. The inscription on one 
tablet will suffice : — 

1 It is curious to note that the word Belfry had, at first, no connection 
with Bells, for its earliest meaning was that of pent-house or of sheltershed ; 
and the word is still employed in this senge in Lincolnshire and Nottingham- 
shire. 



Church ok St. Bahtholomkw, Chukohdown". 



287 



In Memoey of J ohn Gunmen, 
Zoon's Court, 
1689. 

" Omnes eodem cogimur : Omnium 
Versatur urna serius ocivs 

sors exitura, et nos in sternum 

exsilium impositura cymb^." 

Lih. IL, Ode 3. 

Zoon's Court is a farm-house in the part of Hucelecote hamlet 
still comprised ecclesiastically in Churchdown. In 1851 the 
church commissioners cut off from the mother parish the remain- 
der of the hamlet of Hucelecote and converted it into a district 
chapelry, for which a church was erected by subscription, <fec., 
dedicated to St. Philip and St. J ames. The connection between 
Hucelecote and Churchdown, so far as the portion referred to is 
concerned, terminated in June, 1871. 

In front of the glebe-house, which is about quarter of a mile 
up Chosen Hill, is a broad meadow sloping toward the road, which 
skirts the Manor, or " Great House." The field is known as 
" Chapel Haye," and the belief amongst the aged villagers is that 
a chapel existed there ages ago. Human bones, they say, have 
been dug up in this spot. Certain it is, that at sunset, when the 
slanting rays deepen the shadows, and show the irregularity of 
the ground, the traces of some outlines of a building are pretty 
visible. No chapel here seems to be mentioned in records or 
county histories, still, an ancient chapel must have existed to 
originate the place name of Chapel Haye, this building too, would 
have been in charge of the Canons of St. Oswald's. 

In any case, such chapel would have afforded frail and aged 
people, at once, the opportunity of attending Divine Service, and 
a burial ground nearer to the top of the hill than the churchyard. 
Attention now being drawn to the subject, may possibly lead to 
some light being thrown upon it, or some notice of the name 
occuring in ancient documents. 



288 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



ROMAN BRISTOL & ROMAN GLOUCESTER COMPARED 
WITH THE CASTRA PRETORIA & THE SITES OF THE 
CASTRA PEREGRINA, AND OF THE CASTRA EQUITES 
SINGULARES AT ROME. 

By GEORGE ESDAILE, C.E. 

As up to this time all written about Roman Bristol has been of 
the vaguest, and prefaced by — "probably" and "in all likeli- 
hood, " I am, therefore, the more desirous to apply that which, 
in my opinion, is the only solution of the question; viz., whether 
it is possible to plot in, within the City of Bristol, the area of the 
Roman camp, as given by Hyginus, whose 'plan, in my opinion, 
was in practice in Britain from a.d. 43 to a.d. 193 ; and as I 
think it is possible, I will endeavour to rapidly summarise the 
evidence and make the application. 

In the proceedings of the Somersetshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society for 1878, p. 3, I find this remark, "It 
is not improbable that Bristol, in Roman times, may have afforded 
an outlet to Roman Somersetshire commerce, as Roman coins and 
two pigs of Roman lead have been found there, and the river 
Avon has yielded distinct signs of Roman traffic ; but the proof 
of Roman occupation is not yet clearly made out." As there is 
a fulcrum for the lever, I will assume that Bristol is the Caer 
Brito of the British; and that Tacitus means this neighbourhood 
when he states "Ostorius, about a.d. 50, extended his victorious 
arms unto the banks of the Severn, and secured that river and the 
river Avon ; " and, that he (Ostorius) took away the_ arms of 
those who were suspected and restrained those on the rivers Avon 
and Severn, surrounding them with camps ; " in which assumption, 
Corry, in his History of Bristol, (Vol. I., page 38) also agrees. 
Another writer also, Mr. J. F. Nicholls, F.S. A., states that " the 
low hill promontory at the confluence of, and nearly encircled by 



Roman Bristol and Roman Glolx'ester. 



289 



the rivers Avon and Frome offered a most suitable spot for the 
" Castra Hiberna," or winter's quarters, of the Roman legion. In 
this last opinion I cordially concur, considering that the Romans, 
after reducing the British city, took possession and made it one 
of their winter camps. 

I feel that I ought to lead you to the site of Bristol by the 
Roman, or earlier roads adopted by that nation, and I would first 
point out a statement by Dr. Ormerod, in the Bristol Memoirs of 
the Archceological Institute, 1851, p, 58, " The Roman route from 
Bath by Bitton is well confirmed, and its advance westwards to 
St. George's also, by Leman and Seyer,^ and it is then lost in 
Bristol suburbs. It could not, however, reach Durdham Down 
without passing through these suburbs. This is partially repeated 
in the map in the XXIY. Vol. of the Somerset Archaeological 
and Natural History Society, p. 1, where the continuation of the 
Roman road from Cadbury, via Borough Walls, Clifton Down, 
and on by Bitton, points to an assumption that this road should 
cross the site of Bristol. 

This road is the Via Julia,^ which, passing over Durdham 
Down, leads on to the ancient Mere Bank at Kingsweston. In 
Mr. Alfred S. Ellis's paper ^ On the Manorial History of Clifton, 
we have an excellent map of the district to the west of Bristol, 
giving about half the area that I have assigned to the camp of 
Hyginus, as well as all the roads leading to the north, south and 
west from that area ; in that, we have a road to Clifton from 
Bristol, a continuation of the via principalis through Fromegate, 
passing by or over Stanley, skirting Brandon Hill, leading to the 
three camps of Clifton, Stokeleigh, and Borough walls. Return- 
ing to Bristol along the same road, we find that it leads on to that 
place, according to the "instruction " of Vitruvius, "leaving the 
right flank of the advancing force unprotected by their shields." 
The continuation of this road to the south also has the same 
peculiarity, to a sufficient extent, to answer that end ; the road 

^ Coxe's Monmouth, Vol. L, p. 14 ; Seyer's Bristol, Vol. I., p. 151. 
- Treated of at length in the Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society's Transactions, Vol. III., p. 83. 
3 Idem., p. 211. 
Vol. XIIJ. u 



290 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



to the north diverged from that first mentioned, at the top of 
Steep Street, and led north through Redland. The road towards 
the east, from Bristol, crossed the Fossway at Leapyate, near North 
Wraxall, passing in its line places indicative of either British or 
Roman origin, as, Bridge-yate, Camp Brake, The Camp at the 
Rocks, Druidical stones on Barrow Hill, Cold Ashton, Druidical 
stones on Ridgway Hill, Leapyate, before mentioned. Bury Camp, 
and the entrenchments on Colerne Down. Again, Cribb's Cause- 
way is seen in the west from King's Weston, through Henbury 
on to Almondsbury, trending to the north-east ; in the Patchway 
w^e have a line of road by Cold Harbour, through Horfield and 
Patchway, joining the Ridgway near Almondsbury ; in this we 
have the means of communication with the north, from the " via 
principalis " of Bristol ; and its continuation extending to the 
south. 

Mr. G. B. Witts in the Archceological Handbook, p. 116, shews 
how the Patchway, by Patchway Green and Horfield, proceeds to 
Bristol, crossing the main line of the Via Julia before arriving at 
that town. 

There is also the ancient road — footpath at present — leading 
from Bristol to Maes Knoll, near which was found, in 1874, the 
large hoard of coins recorded in the " 1885 " vol. of this Society, 
including specimens from Claudius to Maximinianus. 

We are reminded by Barrett, p. 29, that both St. Michael's 
Hill and Brandon Hill have undergone such alterations by time, 
that large fortifications and entrenched posts were made there in 
later days, especially in the Great Rebellion in 1641, that their 
surfaces have often taken a new form, and that the appearance of 
the ancient entrenchments is lost and every vestige of Roman 
antiquity must necessarily be destroyed and effaced, the coins 
found being now the only proofs of their once having occupied 
these hills. 

In the consideration of the physical appearance of the area of 
Bristol, the great work of denudation that has been going on for 
some 2000 years ought to be taken into account, and the scour of 
the rivers is also an important factor ; the most casual observer 



RoMAX Bristol and Romax (tLOUOestkr. 



291 



must have remarked that the river takes from the outside of its 
bend and deposits on the inside of the next bend, thus continually 
changing its course when running through such alluvial beds as 
those found at Bristol. 

This, with the direct evidence of matters of history, and 
supplemented by the science of geology, gives the site of such a 
camp as that of Hyginus, where we should expect to find one. 
To dwell yet a moment on the rivers ; as far as regards the Avon, 
we must remember that its old course, in the immediate neigbour- 
hood of Bristol, formed the boundary between the counties of 
Gloucester and Somerset, and that old irregular course is nearly 
a quarter-of-a-mile from the southern side of this assumed site of 
the camp ; and that the Avon was esteemed the boundary in some 
portion of its course, is seen in reference to the ordnance survey, 
and is supplemented by a sentence in a petition to Parliament, 
46th Edw. III., (1372) p. 312, where "la Ryvere apelle avene— 
currant en partie par entre les Countees de Somers. &Glouc." &c., 
&c. 

The study of the area of Bristol, through the medium of such 
aids as archaic plans, gives quite another reading than that which 
can be gained by the cursory review of a modern chart, and but 
a single glance at a map of the geological formation of the city, 
published in the Health of Towns Commission, will show that 
there is some consistence in the idea of plotting down the camp 
where I place it as geologically as it was possible ; from this place 
we. see that the river Frome must have very frequently changed its 
course, between two given points — within the last 1,500 years and 
that, as it is now at the most southerly side of the alluvial ; so, 
once, it must have been at the most northerly side and the old 
outlet into the Avon, beyond — that is to say, to the south of the 
New Red Sand stone — must have been between Canons' Marsh 
and the present peninsula on which Queen Square is built. 

In the 2nd Report of the Commissioners for Enquiry into the 
State of Large Towns, Yol. I., pp. 241-247, we have a yet clearer 
insight into the changes, geological, physical and social, that have 
assisted in almost obliterating that which I assume to have been 
the site of the Roman camp. 



'202 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



From this Report we see that the old channels of the Avon 
and Frome have been altered and dammed up, lastly in 1809 ; and 
that the consequences were so disastrous that, under the 37th 
section of the Dock Act, the Harbour and Dock Directors were 
required, at the charge of the company, to alter and amend the 
sewers of the city, as might be necessary from the change of con- 
ditions produced by the floating harbour. In the year alluded to 
" a new cut was made for the passage of the Avon, and the old 
course of the river was converted into the Floating Harbour." 
The Report mainly, if not entirely, drawn up by Sir Henry de la 
Beche, proceeds to state : " There is no public survey of the town 
comprehending a system of levels from a common datum, for the 
regulation of the drainage, or other structural arrangements; 
partial maps exist, and an exhaustive map of the geological for- 
mation of the city and district has been prepared by Mr. W. 
Sanders, F.G.S, which was materially added to by the information 
of Mr. Armstrong, Surveyor to the Commissioners for Paving and 
Cleansing the City from this we see that the "alluvium which 
follows the course of the Frome and Avon, forms the low grounds, 
and Mr. Sanders ascertained from wells and borings that the 
alluvial drifts in Temple parish and Queen Square, consisted, in 
the descending order, of from 25 to 30 feet of dark blue or grey 
clay, locally containing thin beds of peat, and that beneath this 
clay, sand, silt and gravel, the latter occupying the lowest part, 
from 5 to 10 feet thick were found." 

The Report proceeds: "the chief part of Bristol may be 
regarded as naturally dry ; the low alluvial grounds following the 
courses of the Frome and Avon are the principal exceptions." 

It may seem, to those who know modern Bristol well, a bold 
assertion on my part to state that the river Frome ran here or 
there to suit my argument, but what must be thought when I 
argue from the preceding evidence, that it ran where it does not 
now run ; but when we know, practically, that, from Wine Street 
to St. James's churchyard is all alluvial, it is therefore impossible 
to deny that the Frome could not haye run in the line that I have 
assumed as the old course so long back as 2000 years. We should, 



Roman Bristol and Roman Gloucester. 293 

I think, be quite right in saying that the natural scour would cause 
the Frome to change sides, if it originally skirted the Newfound- 
land Road side of the alluvial basin (with its rocky inlet at Ashley 
Road and its outlet at Nelson Street). The name of this road is 
suggestive, but I do not claim it as a witness of the reclamation 
of the land by the shifting of the river. There is another point 
which, at first sight, may seem only to be negative evidence in 
favour of this having been the site of the camp, but I think it will 
be found to be strictly positive in its bearing ; for it is a matter 
of history that in 24th Henry III. (1239-40) the mayor (Richard 
Aylward), and the Commonalty of Bristol, purchased from the 
abbot (Wm. de Bradetone) and Convent of St. Augustine's, all the 
land lying without a certain ditch of theirs that surrounded their 
arable land, the consideration was nine marks of silver. Barrett 
(p. 68) remarks, that on the completion of the purchase the course 
of the Frome was altered and the old course dried up ; this, in my 
opinion, was the channel of the river, which had been utilised as 
a fosse (by the Romans for their camp) and skirted the New Red 
Sandtone. Dallaway (p. 43) states "that the harbour was made 
in 1247, and the river Frome turned into it, the old course behind 
the present Baldwin Street Avas then filled up." We have thus, 
testimony 600 years old as to the probability of my conjecture. 
A further witness appears in the ditch of the Norman fortress of 
Bristol, which ditch, I think, is originally of Roman origin, and 
cut in the rock for a distance of about 500 yards. 

Having then the south-east bend of the Castle ditch, and the 
bend at Lines, or Lewin's Mead, which give two of the rounded 
angles of the camp of Hyginus — diagonally — with the third angle 
found at the east end of Baldwin Street, it is a comparatively 
easy matter to plot in the fourth angle. 

I should noA\ like to endeavour to shew how the changes took 
place somewhat later, and that nature and art have, as it were, 
both conspired to obliterate every memorial oi former times ; it 
is a fact that can be proved from the Patent Rolls, that from 
1231-1446, a period of 215 years, there were 25 patents, if not 



294 



TuANSAOTroNs FOR THE Year 1888-9. 



more, granted for the collection of " Muragia " for the repair of 
the walls of Bristol ; shewing that they were repaired or rebuilt, 
on an average, every eight years ; can it, therefore, be a matter of 
surprise that there is but little to be found in the way of sculp- 
tured remains — Harbours required walls, and roads required 
paving.^ 

There have been "finds" of coins on the~site 1 have laid 
down ; but as Sir R. C. Hoare remarked of Old Sarum, "there 
have not been any remains found except coins ; " still it is 
possible that even in Bristol there may be discoveries made as 
important as those made at Old Sarum since the time of Sir 
E/ichard, where the new found treasures fill a museum. 

In Gloucester we find the form of the camp of Hyginus fully 
shewn, and a glance at the plan I have prepared will shew the 
coincidence. 

The limits of the camp are seen in the red parallelogram, about 
which form, all the surrounding streets seem to curve, as if turn- 
ing the angles of the walls. The "Via Principalis " is represented 
by the line of Northgate and Southgate Streets — the main road 
from London to Bristol; in Eastgate Street we see the "Via 
Prjetoria leading into the Portway. Another factor in proof of 
Ihe identity of the ground plan of Gloucester with the scheme of 
Hyginus, lies in the " find " ^ of a tesselated pavement in Mitre 
Street, as well as another in Eastgate Street (30 ft. long by 20 ft. 
wide) on the site of the valetudinarium.^ 

The fosse of the camp would be fed by the waters of the Severn 
and by the small streams known respectively as the river Twyver, 
the Leddon and the Fulbrook. Boman Gloucester was some 
distance below the present surface, certainly from 6 feet to 18 feet 
at the latter were found in Quay Street ^ " piles in great quantities, 
upon which were massive blocks of stone, well-squared and jointed 
and seemingly parallel with the river." This, I believe, was the 

1 Rolls of Parliament, 3rd Henry VII., p. 390, 

2 Gentleman's Magazine, 1843, Vol. II., p. 420. 

3 Idem., 1806, Vol. 11. , pp. 869-70. ^ 

4 Idem., 1846, Vol. IL, p. 517 



Roman Bristol axd Roman Gloucester. 



295 



foundation of the wall next to the Severn, and that in consequence 
of the fixing of dams and weirs that part next the Severn would 
be rendered swampy and would amply justify the report of Sir 
Henry de la Beche in Health of Town Oommisioners, 1845, Vol.T. 
p. 218, wherein he states "that Gloucester is finely situated in 
the Vale of the Severn, for the most part on a moderate acclivity 
and well placed for drainage ; " however good this may have been in 
theory, in practice " the subject is very little attended to," as may 
be read in the answers of the local authorities and committee to 
to the questions submitted to them. " There is no general system 
of drainage ; " under such state of things the natural flow of the 
rivers and brooks would be checked, and even if artificial dams 
were not numerous, obstructions to the flow would be created by 
the continued deposit of the natural detritus, increased by such 
artificial aids. 

These areas that I have assigned in Bristol and Gloucester are 
in accord with similar data found in Chester, York, Aldborough, 
London, and other well-known and admitted places of Rom an - 
camp-origin, and also agree in a wonderful manner with the areas 
of the sites of camps in Rome, viz., the Castra Prsetoria, the Castra 
Peregrina, and the Castra Equites Singulares ; in the latter, which 
by some are called lost sites, we have the *'limites" of the 
" Regiones " defining a length and a breadth in each case in accord 
with the dimensions given by Hyginus ; and in the Castra Prsetoria 
we see the breadth in the measurement across the present walls, 
allowing only for the filled up fosse on either side ; and the length 
is given the distance from the " via cava," parallel with the agger 
of Servius Tullius, to the outside of the wall projecting beyond the 
walls of Aurelian : as this camp dates from a.d. 23, about the 
time when the "tertiata" camp of Hyginus was adopted as the 
uniform plan for the increased legion, it may reasonably be taken 
as the typical camp of the time, to the entire exclusion of those 
described by Polybius (206-124 B.C.) and Yegetius in the fifth 
century, both of whom are out of court on the question ; seeing 
that the typical camp of Hyginus (over all measurement, 2320 ft. 
by 1620 ft.) first appears in the Castra Pr?etoria at Rome, and 



206 



Thansaotions for the Ykak J 888-9. 



that it was introduced into Britain {tern.]). Claudius) and continued 
in use till reorganised by the action of Severus (a.d. 193), we 
must not hope to find any trace of "Caesar's" camp (1620 feet 
square) as that size was abolished ; nor should we meet with any 
variation from the regular parallel ogramic figure, till the reduction 
of that regulation area, consequent upon complete conquest, 
amalgamation, colonization and complete civilization at some time 
after a.d. 193. 



Testa de Nevill. 



297 



TESTA NEYILL 
RETURNS FOR COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER. 
No. 3. 

By sir henry BARKLY, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., &c. 

That Avliich immediately follows the account of the Carucage, at 
foot of column "a" page 81, comes next, I believe, likewise in 
order of time. It has neither title nor preamble, but consists of 
extracts, evidently taken from presentments made to the Justices 
Itinerant, by Juries for the several Hundreds alluded to, touch- 
ing the Rights of the Crown in respect to Escheats, Adowsons, 
Serjeanties, Heiresses, &c. From internal evidence furnished by 
some of them, there can be little doubt that these presentments 
were made at the Assize which was held next after that of 5th 
Hen. III. (1221), say about the 12th Hen. III. (1228), assuming, 
as is generally done, that the Iters were septennial. The Rolls 
for Gloucestershire between the 5th and the 32nd of the reign 
are missing, so that the entries thus supplied are welcome to the 
county historian. 

The Return opens abruptly with the statements that " Dun- 
chevenal is an escheat of the Crown, and that Godfrey de Crau- 
combe holds it." 

No Hundred is mentioned, but Dunamenal (Down Amney) 
in Gersdon at Domesday, though in Cirencester then, is evidently 
meant. In Return No. 1, it appears in the list of the "Lands 
of the Normans," as given by King John to \Yarine Fitz -Ceroid. 
On his forfeiture, as already stated, it was assigned for the 
support of his wife, and eventually passed to their daughter who 
married Baldwin de Red vers. It can only, therefore, have 
been held temporarily by Godfrey, who was John's Grantee of 
another Escheat. Pinnockshire, which he had continued to hold 



21^8 Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 

in 1221, though it is not here alluded to. He must have resided 
at Down Amney for a time, since he had leave to cut timber in 
the Royal forest for re-building the house there, i He had risen 
to such consideration under Henry III. as to sit in the King's 
council. 2 

HuNDKED OP BlIDESLOE. 

2. The Church of Aure is presented as "of the King's gift." 

Hundred op Gretestan (now Kiftsgate). 

3. Hales is an escheat of the Crown worth £30 per annum, 
and held by Thomas le Veele. 

This Manor is in the List of the Lands of the Normans 
(Return 1) as given by King John to Geoffrey de Lucy. On his 
forfeiture, a few years later, it was granted to Robert de St. 
Valery. 

In 5th Henry III., however, it is found in the hands of Eudo 
de la Jalle.^ So that it can have passed but recently to Thomas 
le Veele. I cannot affiliate him to the Charfield line. 

Cheltenham Hundred. 

4. " Leckhampton, worth 60s., is held by Thurstan le Des- 
pencer by Serjeanty, but by what service is unknown to the 
Jurors." The latter declaration is strange, since the previous 
jury for the Hundred in 5th Henry III, had presented this 
Thurstan as holding 100s. worth of land therein "by the Serjeanty 
of being the King's Dispenser." Possibly their successors thought 
this was like defining an Archdeacon as a person exercising 
Archidiaconal functions," but still they can hardly have been 
unaware, as neighbours, that the service required from the Des- 
pencers was to act as Steward to the King at the great festivals 
of Christmas, Easter, and Whitsuntide. There had apparently 
been a reduction of two-fifths in the value of Thurstan's holding. 
Possibly this may have been consequent on a complaint by the 
jurors of 1221, that his father, Almaric le Despencer, had 
encroached on the King's rights in Cheltenham, a complaint then 
ordered to be legally investigated, Thurstan, till recently a ward 
of the Crown, having by that date come of age. 

1 Close Roll, 9 Hen. III. 

2 Bracton's Note Book, No. 1117. 

^ Pleas of the Crown for the County of Gloucester.— Maitla7id p. 10. 



Testa de Nevill. 



299 



Under the same Hundred. 

5. Peter de Aula and Roger de Monmouth are returned as 
holding " twenty shillings worth of land by the Serjeanty of the 
King's Kitchen." 

This must be the Carucate which in Return 1 "Peter de 
Kingeshome " is said to hold in Leckhanipton of King John, by 
similar service. In 5th Henry III.^ the holder is called " Peter 
son of "Walter," the jurors adding that they know not how to 
describe his Serjeanty otherwise than as " of the Kitchen." No 
doubt these entries refer to the same individual, styled indifferently 
Peter of the Hall, or Peter of the King's Home, from having 
charge, under another Serjeanty, of the " Aula Regis " or Royal 
lodging in the Suburbs of Gloucester." ^ 

How Roger of Monmouth had become associated, subsequently 
to 1221, in the tenure of the land at Leckhampton, does not appear. 
Perhaps he had married Peter's daughter, yet he did not succeed 
on his death to the entire Serjeanty. The Monmouth family 
however, seem, eventually, to have done so, and even to have 
acquired the chief manor from the Despencers. 

There is nothing to indicate that they were an offshoot of the 
great baronial house which derived its surname from the same 
town. 

The next entry, at top of column " b.," page 81, has no heading, 
but at its close the words "ibidem," (^^ Derherst") are appended. 
There can be no question that this is a mistake, and that in 
common with the five succeeding entries, each followed by 
" ibidem," it ought to be placed under Dudstan Hundred — not 
Deerhiirst. 

6. " Margaret, daughter of Isaac of Upton is married, of the 
King's gift, to Thomas of Hawkescombe, who does the service of 
her Serjeanty by (supplying) 200 arrows." Isaac of Upton is 
probably identical with the Isaac of Stradewy, (another vill near 
Cirencester,) whose heir we are told in Return 1 (No, 13.,) held 
a virgate of land by the Serjeanty of supplying 100 arrows. 

1 Pleas, p. 50. 

^ The Mansion became known afterwards, erroneously, as Kingshohn — 
(see Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 245). 

^ Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 37S at foot. 



300 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



]saac, who we learn from a note in the Cartulary of St. Peter, 
{Vol. III., p. 70) had received this land with a messuage in 
Upton (St. Leonard's) from King Henry (II.) was dead therefore 
in 1210, but if, as I conjecture, Margaret's husband were no 
other than Thomas of the Smithy, (de Fabrica) who appear on 
the Close Roll of 4th Henry III.i as delivering 200 arrow heads 
" which he owed the king for the land he holds of him in Upton," 
and who clearly was the same as Thomas the Smith (Faber) 
returned by the Jury in the succeeding year^ as holding a virgate 
worth 20s. in Upton of the gift of the King ; and not improbably 
identical with a Thomas who is elsewhere styled " Faber Regis, 
the apparent increase might be ascribed to the tenure having 
been commuted — perhaps on his marriage with, the heiress — from 
100 complete arrows, into 200 iron arrowheads, barbed as we 
learned from an Extent of the manor in 1265, when they were 
still deliverable by a Thomas de Fabrica, doubtless a descendant * 

7. The Jurors (i.e. of Dudstan) next present that " the Chapel 
of the King's Hall, with a hide of land, is of the King's gift, the 
Prior of St. Oswald's holding it. 

In the presentment of 5th Henry III., it is called the Chapel 
of St. Nicholas, the assertion of the King's right of presentation 
being qualified by the word " aliquando," though the Prior of St. 
Oswald's is said to hold it of Henry III.'s gift, and it is 
added that the key was first entrusted to him " during the War " 
by the King's council. From the History of St. Peter's Abbey it 
appears that certain lands and tithes given by Peter of the King's 
Hall and his ancestors, were in 1218 exchanged with the Priory of 
St. Oswald's. I suspect the Abbot had possessed the right of pre- 
sentation, and that the land referred to was part of the carucate 
and a half, which Peter is stated in Return 1 (No. 10) to have 

1 It is right to mention, however, that on the Close Roll 7th Hen. III. , 
the King certifies the Sheriff of Glouc, that Thomas of Hawkscomhe has 
delivered into the Wardrobe 800 arrows for the service of his land in Upton 
for the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th years of his reign, so that he may be a different 
person from Thomas de Fabrica. 

2 Pleas of the Crown 5 Hen. III., p. 101. 

3 Close Rolls, 9th Hen. III. 

* Cartulary St. Peter, Vol. III., p. 68. 



Testa de Nevill. 



301 



held by the Serjeanty of keeping the door of the King's garden, 
which is not alluded to in Return III., though entirely distinct 
from the Serjeanty of the kitchen in respect to which he then 
held land in Leckhampton. The King's Hall ceased to be a Rcyal 
residence in 1226, on the Hundred of King's Barton being trans- 
fered to St. Peter Abbey. ^ 

8. " Maillard holds a virgate and-a-half of land, and a mill 
in Upton worth 22s. a year, through William Marshal, Earl of 
Pembroke." 

A somewhat different account of his tenure had been given 
by the jurors of 1221,- who stated that he held land then worth 
30s. a year, by the gift of the King as of his demesne, paying 22s. 
rent. 

Apparently, after the death of the Guardian of the Realm, 
objections had been raised to the alienation in question, for on the 
Close Roll of 8th Henry III, there is a Writ directing the Sheriff 
of Gloucestershire "to assign to Maillard, a Serjeant (Serviens) of 
Earl William Marshal, enough land to sustain him in the service 
of the King, until the King orders otherwise." This, probably, 
was the origin of the free grant he is now recorded as holding, 
evidently for life only, Whether he was the same person as 
Vivian Maillard, one of John's foreign emissaries, who was em- 
powered with Theobald Blund to collect Tallage in 1214, I know 
not. 

A further entry (under the same Hundred) states that — 

9. Osbert Giffard holds 3^ virgates of land worth 62s. in 
Pitchcombe of the gift of the King." 

He can only recently have acquired it, for in 5th Henry III.^ 
Ralph de Vernay is returned as holding it at the value of £3, of 
the gift of King John, a fact confirmed by Return 1 (No. 16) 
where it is valued at 63s. 

There were several Osbert Giffards about this period, including 
an illegitimate son of John's, to whom he made large grants in 
this county. The one here mentioned died in 3ist Henry III., 

^ Fosbroke's History of the City of Gloucester. 
2 Pleas, p. 101. 3 Pleas, p. 101. 



302 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



seized, inter alia, of a carucate and 28s. rent of assize in Pitch- 
combe, held of the Crown by soccage and payment of 5s. per 
annum, ^ leaving a son Osbert, aged thirteen,^ who inherited this 
land. 

10. " Henry RufFus holds three Yirgates of land in Brock- 
throp, worth 30s. a year of the gift of the King." 

follows next. The grant was apparently recent, for it is not in 
the presentments of 5th Henry III. The family of le Rous 
(Ruffus) long continued tenants of this place, which was adjacent 
to the lands they held in Harescombe of the Constablewick of 
England.^ 

11. Lastly, in this same Hundred, we are all told that 
Geoffrey de la Grave holds one Virgate "by Archery through the 
whole of England at cost of the King." 

According to Return Ko. 1, in the year 1210, Osbert de 
Grava held a carucate of land in Upton by Archery, and it would 
seem natural at first sight to suppose him Geoffrey's father. In 
1221, however,^ we are told by the Jurors of Dudstan that 
Sabilla de la Grave is of the King's gift, and that Geoffrey de 
Collare has her through Lord William Marshall, the father, and 
holds by Serjeanty of Archery (land) worth 20s. per annum. 
The clue to all this is to be found in an entry on the Close Roll 
of 9th Henry III.,^ from which it appears that on the death of 
Sibilla in that year (1224), the land ^ which she had inherited in 
Serjeanty from her father, Ralph of Marlbergh, was granted for 
life to her second husband, Geoffrey de la Grave, who survived 
her, with remainder on his death to Robert, son and heir of the 
said Sibilla by her former husband, Osbert Reys. It is shown by 

1 Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 266. 

2 Calendarium Genealogicum. 

4 Pleas of the Crown, 5th Henry IIL, p. 101. 

3 Fosbroke, Vol. I., p. 268 and 269 ; also Paper by the Rev. J. M. Hall, 
Trans. Bristol and Cxlouc. Arch. Society, Vol, X. 

2 Fosbroke's quotation therefrom is perfectly unintelligible. { VideYol. I. 
p. 264.) 

Presumably a portion only, for the carucate is replaced by a virgate 
and the serjeanty will be found eventually to comprise more land than both 
together. 



Tksta de Nevill. 



303 



Fosbroke that the land in question constituted the Manor of 
Grove Court, from which, as will be seen, both husbands acquired 
the surname of " de la Grave," or, of the Grove. Robert, her son, 
must have adopted it likewise, for the manor continued nei.rly 
a century longer to be held by de la Graves 

Hundred de Wytestane. 
12. ''The Countess of Hereford is married to Roger de 
Antesy, by whose authority (per quern) the jurors know not. 
Her land (i.e. Wheatenhurst) is worth £15 (per annum)." 

When news of the death of Henry, Earl of Hereford, in the 
Holy Land, reached England in the autumn of 1220, his lands 
were committed to the custody of William Briwer, with the ex- 
ception of the Manor of Wickesay assigned for the support of 
the widow till her son H(umfrey) could give her dower, and 
" except her marriage portion in the Manor of Witehurst which 
Geoffrey Fitz Peter, her father, gave to the Earl of Hereford on 
his marriage with his said daughter Matilda."^ 

The widowed Countess could not have been much under 40, 
seeing that her son did homage and had livery before the close of 
the ensuing year ; but she showed no undue haste in remarrying, 
for in July, 1221, the Jurors of Whitestone return her as a widow 
in the gift of the King.- 

At what period during the next seven years she took it into 
her head to marry Roger Dantesy, a Wiltshire Knight of good 
family, but not even a tenant in capite of the Crown, ^ is unknown. 

1 See Close Roll of 4th Henry III. , membrane 7. In what way Geoffrey 
had acquired this Manor remains to be discovered. At Domesday, though 
mortgaged, it was still nominally held by Brictric, a Saxon Thane, but 
on his death probably escheated to the Crown. It may have been given by 
Henry II. to Geoffrey's father, Simon Fitz Peter, Earl of Essex, who is said 
to have married Eustachia, a cousin of the King's (Doyle's Official Baronage.) 
Its possession was invaluable to the De Bohuns, owing to its proximity to 
Haresfeld and other estates held by them as Constables of England. 

- Pleas of Crown, Glouc, 5th Henry III. 

^ I cannot find that the Dantesys then held more than the Manor of 
Winterbourne-Dantesy under the family of Columbars. We learn from 
Testa de Nevill, p. 142, that Roger da Antesy held it as half a Knight's 
fee of Avicia de Columbariis. The Earls cf Gloucester later on became 
chief lords. 



304 



Transactions for this Year 1888-9. 



The iiiuendo, however, in the presentment of 1228 (which looks 
as if the event were somewhat recent) that the marriage took 
place without the Royal License, must be groundless, for its 
validity was steadily upheld in the courts of law. 

Still, for the daughter, sister, widow, and mother, of belted 
earls, it was a decided mesalliance, and there is little room for 
surprise that after years of quarrelling it ended in divorce. 

There seems no reason to suppose that these quarrels arose 
from anything worse than money matters. They attained their 
height soon after the death of her brother, William de Mande- 
ville, when she succeeded to the Earldom of Essex. From 1228 
to 12.32 we find the unfortunate Roger Dantesy left to defend, 
singlehanded, actions arising out of his wife's refusal to warrant 
gifts and sales made by the Earls of Essex. Meanwhile pro- 
ceedings for a separation were in progress. 

The record in one of these actions tried at Easter 1232, after 
the usual entry "Roger comes, and the Countess comes not," adds, 
" and because judgment is still pending whether they ought to 
be separated, and a divorce celebrated between them or not," — 
Sentence is deferred. ^ The date may seem at variance with 
Matthew Paris's statement, that a Grand consistory of Abbots, 
Priors, Archdeacons, &c., with the whole nobility of the realm, 
met at St. Albans on the 17th Dec. 1231, by order of the Pope, 
to celebrate the divorce between her husband and the Countess of 
Essex, if cause for it should be disclosed,^ and that they left again 
on the morrow ; but no doubt the judgment had to be forwarded to 
Rome, and time and money were needed to get it promulgated. 

Even when divorced, Roger's troubles did not cease, for we 
find him as late as Hillary Term, 1234, sued for debt which he 
pleads had been incurred by Matilda. ^ On what grounds the 
divorce was based nowhere appears, but blame cannot have been 
attributed to him for the result, since he was allowed up to the 
date of the Countess's death in 1236 to retain possession of certain 

1 Bractoii's Note Book. 

2 Chronica Majora — Rolls Series, Vol., III., p. 210. 

3 Bracton's Note Book, No. 830. 



Testa de Nevill. 



305 



of her lands, which only then reverted to her son Humphrey, 
Earl of Hereford. Wheatenhurst was not among them, having 
probably passed direct. 

13. Ingelard holds at Stanley 100 shillings worth of land 
from the King. 

14. John, son of Henry de Berkeley is in the custody of 
Ingelard by the King's gift. His land is worth <£10. 

There are two Stanleys in Whitestone Hundred. The first, 
wherein Ingelard's grant lay, was presumably " Stanley Regis!" 
The second, Stanley St. Leonard, belonged to the Berkeleys of 
Dursley, whose representative was a minor in the charge of this 
same Ingelard de Cigony from 1221 to 1240 ! The manor was 
still worth £10 a year, though a large slice had been given to the 
Priory. 

Berkeley (Hundred). ^ 

15. Lucy, who was wife of Robert de Berkeley is married to 
Hugh de Gurnay. Her land is worth £100. 

This was the relict of the Baron who died in May 1220, after 
having married her as his second wife about three years before 
his decease. Her family name has not been discovered, even by 
the industry of Smyth. In the presentment of 1221 she was 
returned by the Jurors as " marriageble," (maritanda) but with 
her large dower it is not to be wondered that she remarried the 
son of a neighbouring Baron, Hugh de Gurnay, before the end of 
1222. As her death in January, 1234, is on record-^ the extreme 
limits of this Return lies between these dates. 

Hundred of Agmead (now Grumboldsash.) 

16. The Lady of Dodington, who was wife of Henry de 
Berkeley, is marriageable ] her land is worth £8. 

Agnes, widow of the Lord of Dursley, who died in 1221, had, 
we thus learn, had his Manor of Dodington assigned for her 
dower. In 1227 she obtained a royal order "that she was not to 
be vexed or molested by Ingelard de Cigony, because she would 

^ It is not entered like the other Hundreds, but the word " Berkeley " 
appears in a corner. 

Smyth's Lives, Vol. I., p. 98. 
Vol. XIII. w 



306 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



not marry again, and there is every reason to believe thatsh e 
remained a widow till her death, which occurred prior to 1240. 

Here the Return ends as abruptly as it began. Presentments 
in the case of eight Hundreds only are quoted in it, but it is 
so inconceivable that the jurors of the dozen and more remaining 
Hundreds made none worthy of note, that we must either suppose 
that the Assize Rolls were in an imperfect state when these 
extracts were first taken in hand ; or, what is far more likely, 
that the collection, originally known as " Testa de Nevill," was in 
part illegible when the attempt to transcribe it into the existing 
Exchequer Registers was made during the fourteenth century. 

Whatever the cause, Return No. 3 can only be looked on 
as incomplete, if not fragmentary. 



TESTA DE NEVILL 

RETURNS FOR THE COUNTY OF GLOUCESTER. 

Nos. 4, 5, 6 and 7. 

We come now, in order of time, to those relating to " the Aid " 
granted in 1235, " for marrying the King's sister to the Emperor 
of the Romans," which are the most complete and important of 
the whole series. 

Little information is given by modern historians ^ about the 
marriage in question : yet the circumstances attending it were 
remarkable, not to say romantic. Matthew of Paris relates that 
Henry III., after having spent the Christmas of the 19th year of 
his reign ^ at Westminster, received at a Great Council there in 
February, messengers sent by the Emperor Frederick II. to solicit 
the hand of his sister Isabella. She was the youngest of King 

1 Rot. Litt. Glaus., 11th Henry III. 

2 Hume omits all mention. Rapin cites the facts briefly fromMatthew 
of Paris, adopting without comment the preposterous statement that the 
marriage portion was two marks per plougfiland. 

3 As his regnal year began on 28th October, this was 25th Dec, 12S4. 



Tksta de Nevill. 



307 



John's daughters, still under age, and extremely beautiful and 
charming, whereas the Emperor, though little more than forty, had 
been twice married, and had a grown up son,i with whom he was 
constantly at variance. Henry and his nobles, however, not only 
agreed promptly and unanimously to the match, but promised the 
dowry of 30,000 silver marks demanded. This result has been 
attributed to the influence over the devout King of Pope 
Gregory IX., who favoured the Emperor's suit, as likewise to the 
satisfaction of the Baronage at recent concessions made by their 
Sovereign, but it may well have been that it was deemed sound 
policy to enlist the then all powerful Frederick on the English 
side in the war with France, which had begun during the pre- 
ceding year through the invasion of Brittany by Louis IX. The 
wedding was celebrated at Worms on 15th July, 1235, and the 
union is said to have proved a happy one until abruptly terminated 
by the death of the Empress in child-birth on the 1st Dec, 1241. 
She left a son, then three or four years of age, whose issue failed, 
and a daughter a year older, from whom several of the Boyal 
families of Europe descend. Matthew of Paris — or more probably 
an interpolater of his Chronicles ^ — winds up his account with the 
assertion " that the King took on account of his sister's marriage 
a carucage of two marks per plough." As pointed out long since,* 
a scutage of two marks must be meant, and probably have been 
originally written, for a levy of £1 6s. 8d. per ploughland would have 
been not merely unpredecented,^ but out of all proportion to the 
amount to be raised. Apart from much corroborative evidence in 
the " Testa de Nevill," this correction is placed beyond doubt by 
the existence of a copy of the King's writ to the Sheriff of Somer- 

^ There had been fruitless negotiations ten years previously for her 
betrothal to this son, Henry, King of the Romans. 

- Vide History of Frederick II., Emperor of the Romans, by T. L. King- 
ton. London, 1862. Vol. L, p. 520. 

3 According to a note in the " Rolls edition" of the *' Cronica Majora," 
this paragraph is at the foot of the last page written by Roger of Wendover, 
and the words " de cariica " are not to be found in the Cotton MSS. of that 
work. 

* Vide Dr. Brady's History of England, Vol. III., p. 562. Edition, 1684. 
^ The normal carucage was 2s. per plough. 

W 2 



308 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



setsliire appointing J ohn de Aure and Henry^ de Meriet to collect 
this very Aid in that county, at the rate of two marks for every 
Knight'' s fee held in capite, one payable at Michaelmas, 1235, the 
other at Easter, 1236. This document is printed in "Select 
Charters " (p. 364), from Dr. Brady's History of Henry III., but 
owing, probably, to its containing no direct mention of the object 
of the levy, its connection with the Aid does not seem to have 
been recognised, and it is headed simply "a.d. 1235, Grant of 
Scutage."^ So far, however, from regarding it as a mere payment 
in commutation of feudal service, Henry recites that " the Earls, 
Barons, and all others of the kingdom of England had of their 
own accord granted him an effectual aid for expediting important 
affairs," and when it is borne in mind that it was not the usual 
aid exigible for marrying the eldest daughter of a reigning 
sovereign,^ but one for the marriage of the youngest daughter of 
King John, who had died nineteen years before, at war with his 
Baronage, it is clear that this recital as to its having been granted 
" spontaneously, and not as of custom,"^ was literally true, and 
that a special act authorising the assessment was by no means 
superfluous. 

The accounts in the " Testa de Nevill " bearing on the collection 
of this aid in Gloucestershire, are four in number.^ 

Special collectors had been nominated by the King, as in the 
case of Somersetshire, the sheriff for the time being (William 
Talbot) having nothing to do with the business, except when it was 
necessary to distrain. Kalph de Wylington and William de Putot,^ 

1 He renders account in the Testa de Nevill, p. 169, as Hugh. 

2 In a general sense an " Auxilium " was a scutage, being assessed ac- 
cording to the number of Knights' " Shields,*' but the latter term is usually 
applied, in the * ' Testa " and Contemporary Holls, to moneys paid in lieu of 
obligatory military service. 

^ Henry III. had an Aid of 20s. only per fee for marrying his own eldest 
daughter, granted by Act of Parliament in his 29th year. 

^ " Spontanea voluntate sua, et sine consuetudine, concesserunt. " 

^ Two of the original parchment Rolls on which these accounts were 
engrossed at the Exchequer, are still preserved in the Public Record Office, 
— viz., No. 10 R.O. Series — identical with Return No. 4 of the "Testa," 
and No. 11 R.O. Series, which represents No. 6, with No. 7 endorsed on its 
reverse side. No. 5 of the " Testa" is n^ssing. 

^ Not Puccot, Piccot, or Pucort, as erroneously printed in the " Testa." 



Testa dk Nevill. 



309 



these collectors, were chosen from among the tenants in capite in 
the county, but both had had long official experience, the former 
having been Governor of Bristol Castle and more recently (in 1 7th 
Hen.III.) of that of Devizes ; whilst the latter had only lately been 
relieved of the shrievalty of Gloucestershire, which he had held for 
7 years. The duties that devolved on them were by no means light, 
for the levy of the aid in two instalments payable in successive 
years, together with the numerous instances in which those liable 
for its payment in respect to Gloucestershire fiefs, elected to 
account for it in other counties where their interests were larger, 
rendered the settlement at the Exchequer a very complex affair. 
Add to this that the accounts were kept both in marks and in 
pounds sterling, and it would be rather a matter of surprise that 
men more accustomed to the use of the sword than the pen should 
accomplish such a task at all, than that they should make the 
blunders which will occasionally be found in their calculations. 
In rendering their latest accounts, indeed, they had the assistance 
of " Oliver the Clerk " and H. de Walden, probably Exchequer 
officials sent to expedite matters. 

To examine the Returns more closely : No. 4, which comes 
first, at page 73 of the Printed Book, purports to give a List 
of Honours in the county (every crown tenancy, however small, 
being so styled), with the names of those holding them ; the 
nuinber of Knights' fees in each ; and the pecuniary amounts 
for which the holders are liable at the rate of two marks per fee. 

This list is very loosely drawn up, the extent of one-fourth of 
the honours being, as afterwards appears, under-estimated, while 
several are altogether omitted. The Return is, like the rest, 
undated, but there are two allusions to payments as due fi'oni 
Easter term, which seem to prove that it was made at Michaelmas, 
1235. 

Return No. 5, beginning at page 74^ is evidently of somewhat 
later date, for it rectifies some of the omissions in No. 4, supplies 
the names of two feofees there said to be unknown, and makes 
trifling emendations in the case of three or four others. In other 
respects it gives, though in a slightly modified form, similar infor- 



TuANSAdTIONS FOR THK YeAR 1888-9. 



ination as to the tenants in capite, and their liabilties for tiie aid, 
with the very important addition, however, of the names of the 
sub-feofees, wherever the fees are not occupied in demesne. At 
its close three summations of the assessment are appended, viz, — * 

Sum £35 4 5i 

Sum of capital fees . . . 42 11 8 
Sum 98 marks 16^d., converted into 64 16 10 
The information supplied is not definite enough to admit of 
these totals being severally verified. It is clear that they are not 
meant to be taken collectively, seeing that the aggregate of all the 
items specified in the Return i is but £101 5s. IJd. As the first 
and third together come to nearly this amount, £100 Is. 3^d., it 
may be inferred that the sum set down in the second for capital 
fees is included, — an inference confirmed by the next Return. 

Return No. 6, at foot of page 75^, begins by the collectors ren- 
dering account of ten marks received from the steward of Thomas 
de Berkeley, but apparently overlooked in the previous totals, and 
then taking credit for a payment into the treasury of 107 6s. 6d.^ 
They go on to state that they have a sitrplus ^ of £100 14s. 2d., 
which is all allowed ^ to them below. ^ It is hard to understand 

1 This amount is so far below what an aid of two marks per fee might 
have been expected to produce in such a county, that I was led on a hasty 
glance to assume, that it represented only the first instalment of one mark, 
and that the second was accounted for in the succeeding Keturn. — Vide 
Genealogist, (New Series) Vol. V., No, 18, p. 78. Closer inspection shows 
this to be a mistake. 

2 This amount does not tally with the previous figures, for ten marks, 
£6 13s. 4d., added to £100s. Is. 3|d, makes £106 Us. Tfd. 

2 " Sup'plus," i.e. super-plus, which Ducange defines, " Residuum quod 
summam aliquem excedit." Madox (History of the Exchequer) gives the 
extension as " superplusagium," surplusage, meaning, "so much more 
revenue paid by an accountant than he has received." 

2 "Allocatur." Of " allocare," Ducange says, " admittere rem ut veram 
et probatam." French, "allouer" ; English (Bracton), " to allow." 

^ None of the definitions of Surplusage are applicable to the case of the 
collectors of this aid. It seems to me not improbable that it had no exis- 
tence in hard cash, but only in Exchequer counters, and originated in their 
being debited, as soon they sent in Return No. 4 of fees assessable, with two 
marks for each, and only credited with a similar sum in respect to those 
shown to be accounted for in other counties. This, however, would not 
explain why such "allowance" was made in the case of Tenants in capite 
whose manors were in Gloucestershire alone, e.rj. Roger de Berkeley, or 
Henry le Fleming, and it almost looks as if whatever was not recovered 
from such tenants was written ofi" the collectors' account- 



Testa de Nevill. 



311 



how this arose. They can scarcely be supposed to have levied 
nearly twice as much as they accounted for, nor on the other 
hand to have made so large an overpayment out of their own 
pockets. It is plain, however, that the items of the account were 
agreed " on view " at the Exchequer, for they proceed in this, and 
in Return No. 7, which, as already intimated, is endorsed on the 
back of it, to dispose of the whole amount of so-called surplus by 
writing off small sums against the assessments of the various 
crown tenants without the slightest reference to the previous 
Returns 4 and 5. To facilitate this they classify them, into " those 
whose Capital Honours are in Gloucestershire," and "those who have 
not Capital Honours in that county," the former, fourteen in num- 
ber (including Thomas de Berkeley), being dealt with in No. 6, 
and the remaining thirty-three in No. 7. For every one of them 
the collectors " render account " separately, the curious fact being 
that in no single instance is a tenant credited with any payment 
whatever,^ although his liability is notwithstanding stated to be 
reduced, or, in almost all cases in No. 7, extinguished, out of the 
" surplus," 

Stranger still, although in No. 6 the under-rating of fees occur- 
ing in Nos. 4 and 5 is rectified, no doubt at the instance of the 
Exchequer, in no less than eight out of fourteen entries, no hint 
is given as to the liquidation of that portion not included in the 
prior settlement. The amount shown as still due is £75 9s. 5^d. 
and though more than half of it is set down as " surplus," it is 
expressly stated in the case of seven tenants in capite that they 
owe sums amounting to .£35 17s. 8^d. 

In addition to their liability in this respect for the past, the 
collectors render account for six marks (<£4), which " Richard de 
Crupes (not noticed in the previous Returns) owes for three fees," 
and moreover mention that " Pagan de Chaworth " is liable for 
twenty-five marks (£16 15s. 7d.) for twelve-and-a-half fees ; wind- 
ing up by stating the gross amounts owing by the Earl Marshall 
for the Honours of Striguil and Castle Goderich, and by the Earl 

' The invariable formula at the end of each account is " In th^ nichil." 

Et in predicto supp Et debet (or debent) Et quietus est (or quieti- 

suat. 



:\\'2 Tkansaotions for thk Year 1888-9. 

of Gloucester in respect to the fees held by his Knights, no esti- 
mate, however, being attempted in either case of the number of 
such fees situated in Gloucestershire. 

Return No. 7 — of " those not having Capital Honours in the 
county," embraces the names of great Barons like Walter de Lacy, 
the head of whose Honour was in Herefordshire, and of small 
holders like John de Cotele, who held the seventh of a fee of the 
Honour of Wallingford, for which he probably accounted in Berks - 
shire. With three trifling exceptions, where sums amounting in 
the aggregate to £1 Is. 4d. are said to be still due, the collectors 
claim deduction of the entire sums assessed, and at the end of 
their accounts declare themselves "quit." The total thus charged 
against the surplus adds up to <£62 17s. 9d., which with £3S lls.8d. 
written off in No. 6, comes to £101 9s, 5d., not £107 6s. 6d. as 
stated in the last line of the Return. Seeing that in No. 6 the 
collectors put the amount paid into the treasury at £107 6s. 6d., 
and the surplus at £101 14s. 2d., it seems not improbable that the 
figures were by mistake transposed. In either case, however, it is 
a matter of surprise that the account concludes by declaring that 
they owed only 6s. 5d., since it is evident on their own sho wing- 
that the sum which they took credit for having paid into the 
treasury was considerably less than their assessments for the aid 
ought to have produced. There are other proofs indeed that the 
Roll whereon Returns 6 and 7 were engrossed, did not, although 
kept as a record at the Exchequer, give a full account of all their 
liabilities, for it is said in one of the entries that William de 
Putot paid a mark afcerwards for John le Brun, "as is contained 
in the Great Roll of the said Aid,"^ and there is, moreover, at 
the end of the Testa de Neville a statement of collections through- 
out England, in which William de Putot and Ralph de Wilington 
are set down as owing £154 5s. 8d. for Gloucestershire.^ Even 

1 " Et debet Joh^ ij marcas de quibus W. de Putot solvit postea pro eo 
1 marc, sicut continefiir in magno rotulo de eodem mix.''^ — Return No. 7. 
(Ought not the last word to be anno ?). 

2 Deauxilio ad soror Regis maritandam, p. 413. Fourteen counties are 
referred to, and in some of these collectors who had not accounted were 
ordered to be summoned. The custos of the Honours of Gloucester and 
Clare is alleged to owe £5.34 16s. 7d., a plaintive remark being added — '* but 
it is not known what has become of the money." 



Testa de Nevill. 



313 



that amount is a good deal less than should have accrued, as will 
be seen from a summary of the total assessment for the county 
which will be given further on. 

Fortunately the value of these Returns does not depend on 
the system of accounts adopted, but on the information they 
contain as to the names of the feofees and sub-feofees of the 
various manors mentioned, and the light they thus incidentally 
throw on the genealogy of families, and distribution of lands in 
Gloucestershire at this period. The date of the aid may be said 
to constitute an epoch as regards the latter. During the twenty 
years that had elapsed since the death of King John, the castles 
he had seized, and the estates he had confiscated, in the struggle 
with his Barons, had, in most cases, been restored to their former 
owners, while, as yet, no general outbreak against his son Henry 
had led to fresh forfeitures. Moreover, it so happened that from 
about this period greater care began — as testified by the com- 
pilation of the original Testa de A^evill — to be devoted to the 
conservation of Public Records ; so that by means of the In- 
quisitions after death, which henceforth became fuller and more 
numerous in each succeeding year — the Fine Rolls ; &c., &c., 
there is little difficulty in tracing the succession of — at all events 
— the chief tenants of the crown with tolerable accuracy. In the 
case of the minor tenants and the sub-feofees, the Returns of 1 2.35 
are invaluable, there being no others of the kind to refer to until 
Kirby^s Quest, just half a century later. 

Before proceeding to details, it is well to mention that Fos- 
broke, in his History of Gloucestershire, quotes "in loco " many of 
the entries, on the authority of " Cottonian MSS. Julius C. I." - 
As, however, they were believed by him to relate to the reign 
of Edward the First, which did not begin for nearly forty years 
later, his references usually serve but to confuse his pedigrees. 
Indeed, since he, as a rule falls into the still graver error of 

^ On reference to the Calendar of Escheats it will be found that the 
earliest of the Inquisitiones post mortem brought from the Tower bears date 
in 20th Henry III. There are only eight others of that year, but thence- 
forth the number gradually rises. 

2 That is to say the Extracts made by Charles, the Elizabethan Herald, 
from the Testa de Nevill.— >S'ee Trans. , Vol. XII., p. 2. 



Transactions for thk Ykar 1888-9. 



attributing the now familiar "Nomina Villarum " of 1316, or 
upwards of eighty years later date, to the 9th year of the same 
King, instead of to the 9th of Edward the Second, confusion is 
sometimes rendered " worse confounded." 

Nevertheless, considering the enormous disadvantages under 
which the Revd. gentleman laboured in its composition, his work 
is a wonderful monument of industry and perseverance, and 
though I am bound in the cause of truth to criticise mistakes, for 
which, in default of correct information, he can hardly be held 
personally responsible, no one can appreciate the services he has 
rendered to those studying the history of the county more highly. 

I take this opportunity likewise of acknowledging my obliga- 
tions to the E-ev. C. S. Taylor's " Analysis of the Domesday 
Survey,''^ which has enabled me in several instances to identify 
manors. 

1. The first Honour named is that of the Earl of Hereford, 
said to consist (Nos. 4 and 5) of seven-and-a-quarter fees, and 
one-fifth of a fee, or together, rather less than seven-and-a-half. 
This is afterwards (No. 6) corrected to eleven-and-three-quarters, 
but even this is two-and-three-quarter fees less than his father 
held in 1210. (Return 1, No. l).i 

Humphrey de Bohun, known as the " Good Earl," had, after 
a very short minority, succeeded Earl Henry in 1221. His 
mother, Maud de Mandeville, from whom he subsequently inherited 
the Earldom of Essex, was still living at the beginning of 1235, 
and may possibly have been holding in dower some of his Glouces- 
tershire manors, besides Wheatenhurst derived from her father's 
gift, which, on her death, soon after, passed to her son. 

2. The Earl of Warwick has one fee and-a half in Dorsington 
and Weston Mauduit. 

On the death of Henry de Newburgh (Return 1, No. 4) 
in 1229, his son Thomas had succeeded to the Earldom, but, 
instead of accounting as his father had done in 1210 for three fees 
and a-half in Lydney and Chedworth, he is only here assessed in 

1 In all cases when Return 1 is referred to, the reference is meant to be 
to my first Paper on " Testa de Nevill" printed in the Transactions of the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archceological Society, Vol. XII., page 235. 



Tksta dk Nevill. 



315 



respect to one-and-a-half situate on the other side of the county. 
What makes this the more difficult to understand is, that both 
father and son undoubtedly possessed all the manors named, 
the escheat on the death of the latter in 12421 showing that 
he died seized of Dorsington, Weston-Mauduit, Chedworth, 
Pulton, Lydney, and Over. Still more puzzling is it that 
Weston, which Mr. Taylor seeks to identify with Weston-on- 
Avon,- a Domesday manor of Hugh de Grentesmesnil's, should 
have acquired its second appellation at so early a period, seeing 
that William JIauduit, the only member of that family who held 
the Earldom of Warwick, did not succeed to it till 1263, on 
failure of nearer heirs, in virtue of his descent from Alice, daugh- 
ter of Earl Waleran, and sister of Earl Henry. As his mother's 
marriage, however, took place at least fifteen years prior to the 
date of these Returns (he came of age in 1221) it is possible that 
Weston had been held by the Mauduits through sub-infeudation, 
as a part of her dowry. 

3. Thomas de Berkeley, five fees. 

He had succeeded his brother Robert in the Barony of 
Berkeley in 1220, and continued to hold it until his own decease 
in 1243. 

4. Robert Musard, two fees-and-a-quarter, to wit in Eston, 
one-and-a-quarter, and in Heyford, one fee. 

He must have succeeded his father Ralph in 1233, for the 
latter rendered account on the Pipe Roll of 16th Hen. III., but 
on that of 17th, the executors of his will are referred to. 

Eston, in Gretestan Hundred, was held by Hascoit Musard 
at Domesday, and was afterwards known as Aston-Somerville 
from its sub-feofi'ees, who are not, however, here mentioned, 

Heyford, another of Hascoit's manors is called in Domesday, 
Aiforde. 

It is odd that La Musarder (Miserden) which is given in 
Return 1, (No. 10) as the head of the Gloucestershire Barony, is 
1 Inq. p.m. 26th Hen. III., Vol. I., p. 1., No. 22. 

^ Fosbioke say^, that Westoii-Mauduit was a separate manor from 
Westou-ou-Avon, though iughitieij in it afttrwards. 



.SUi Transactions kok thk Ykar 1888-9. 

not even alluded to ; but it must have been included in the calcu- 
lation of Robert's scutage, since he is called on to pay for a quarter 
of a fee more than his father did in 1210, 

5. Ralph de Sudley one fee in Tutington, and one in Sudley, 
stands in the first assessment, but he is afterwards charged for 
three fees, including appurtenances. 

In Kirhy^s Quest we find that these were Newinton, Stanley, 
Grete, Grecton, Pisely, Cotes, Yrape, the whole together with 
Todington, then held as members of Sudley, and rated at two 
fees. 

The Ralph de Sudley of King John's reign, died in 1222, and 
was succeeded by this Ralph, his son,^ who lived till 1254, when 
Bartholomew de Sudley his son inherited. 

6. William de Pucot and Nicholas de Oxehaye one fee in 
Bucton (Button) which was Robert de Amnevill's. They were 
the husbands of his daughters.^ 

The first notice of William de Putot on the Close Roll of 3rd 
Hen. III., looks as if be was one of the King's Gascon subjects, 
for the Sheriff" of London is ordered to find him a robe, as he is 
going as the King's messenger (Nuncius) with two citizens of 
Bordeaux, who are to have similar robes. He seems to have 
remained abroad some time, for in 8th Hen. III., the Seneschal 
of Poictou is directed to let him have for his sustenance in the 
King's service, certain houses with appurtenances in Rochelle, 
which had belonged to one of the rebels. But by the next year 
he had obtained an English wife, for the Abbot of St. Alban's is 
ordered to excuse Robert de Amneville two marks of the scutage 
of Wales for one Knight's fee in Crockel,^ for the sake of our 
beloved and faithful William de Putot, who is married to the 
daughter of the said Robert, and was with us in the army of 
Gascony by our order. In consequence, it may be presumed, of 

1 Fosbroke says "brother," but in Rot. Fin. 6th Hen. III., Rad. fit et 
heres, Rad. de Sutleigh is to have livery. 

2 See Herald and Genealogist, Vol. IV., p. 193, for the Pedigree of 
Amneville of Bitton. 

I suspect Crokesle in Cashio Hundred, Herts., a manor belonging to 
the Abbot of St. Alban's. There is no Crockele in the *' Index Villaris." 



Testa de Nevill. 



317 



this connexion, he was made Sherifi' of Gloucestershire in 10th 
Hen. III., and continued to hold that office for seven successive 
years, standing high in the royal favour, as is shown by such 
entries as that on the Close Roll of 11th Hen. III., which enjoins 
the Bishop of Salisbury to let William de Putot have four does 
(damas) in the Forest of Melksham of the King's gift. I do not 
know the year of his death, but he left an only daughter, married 
first to Hugh de Yivon, a man of some note, who was slain by the 
Welsh, and secondly, to David le Blund, whose posterity even- 
tually inherited the half fee in Bitton. 

Of Nicholas de Oxehaye less is on record. He is said to have 
married Robert d'Amneville's daughter in 1229, and it may be 
conjectured from his name that he was a Hertfordshire neighbour 
of his, the Manor of Oxehey belonging to the Abbot of St. 
Alban's, like Croksley, to which it is closely adjacent. 

7. William de Hastings in Thormiton, Suthrop and Stawell, 
two-and-a-half fees. 

These were all his Gloucestershire possessions, but in No. 6 
hfe is assessed for five fees, that is to say, for the entire Barony of 
Eaton, which included the fee so called in Berkshire, and that of 
Westwell, in Oxfordshire. His father, John de Hastings, was in 
the same way included in the Gloucestershire list of 1210 for five 
Knights. 

That William was his son and heir, we know from the Close 
Roll of 14th Hen. III., and that he had succeeded him in 1221 is 
shown by Muriel, late the wife of John de Hastings, being returned 
as a King's widow by the Jurors of Britwols-barrow in that year.^ 
Whether site is the person meant, when it is stated in No. 5 that 
Southrop is held as one fee by the wife of William de Hastings seems 
doubtful, but the wife of the tenant in capite himself can scarcely 
be referred to. One fee in Thormiton, (now Farmington), was, it 
is added, held by the widow of Osbert Giff'ard,- whilst the other 
half fee in Stawell, (a portion of Leach held as Stanewell in Domes- 
day by Thomas, Archbishop of York), was held by Geoffrey Martel, 

1 Pleas of the Crown, 5th Hen. III., p. 40, No. 146. 
= See Return, III., Trans., Vol. XIII., p. 301. 



318 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



whose descendants continued in occupation at the date of Kirby's 
Quest. William de Hastings therefore held nothing in demesne 
in this county, 

8. Herbert fitz Peter, three fees, in Duntesbourne-Matresden, 
Cernay, Parco Stanchaw and Optune, stands in No. 5, but in No. 6 
he is assessed upon six ^ fees-and-a-half, and a third of a fee ; no 
information being given as to what manors constituted the aug- 
mentation. Herbert had that very year succeeded to these and , 
other possessions on the death of his father, Peter fitz Herbert. 
For some reason the latter only appears in the Roll of 1210, as 
custos of William de Braose's Barony of Tetbury, which was soon 
afterwards restored to the heirs. The sole portion of it which he 
apparently contrived to retain was the hamlet of Optune above- 
mentioned, {i.e. Upton in Langtree Hundred). The other manors | 
enumerated as held by his heir, were derived through the marriage | 
of Peter's father, Herbert fitz Herbert, with Lucy, third daughter | 
of Milo, Earl of Hereford, and co-parcener, after the death of her | 
brothers, with her eldest sister Margery, wife of Humphrey de r 
Bohun, in many of Mile's manors. Besides those named, moieties 
of Barnsley, in Brichtwoldbarrow Hundred, and of Cleeve and * 
Southam, in the Hundred of Cleeve, may be added, and these 
probably represent the three ^ fees and five-sixths, for which j 
Herbert fitz Peter was called on to pay in the revised assessment. 

The Inquisitions after the deaths of neither his father nor | 
himself are extant, but that of his brother Reginald, who, on j 
Herbert's dying childless in 1248, succeeded, shows him to have j 
died seized ^ not only of the three last-named manors, but of | 
the far more important fief of Haresfield, with the Court of the 
Constablewick of England at Gloucester, which had been trans- 
ferred to him in consequence of the adherence of his cousin, the 
Earl of Hereford, to the side of the Barons.* He does not seem, 

^ The assessment, however, of £7 lis. Id. is iov Jive fees only, so that a 
stroke ( | ) must have accidently been inserted after the V, shewing the in- 
convenience which so often resulted from the use of Roman numerals. 

- Two should, of course, be substituted for the reason above stated. 

3 Calendar of Inquisitiones post mortem, Vol. I., 14th Edw. I., No. 18. 

^ See Fosbroke's Gloucestershire y under Haresfield, Vol. 1, p. 300. 



Testa de Nevill. 



319 



however, to have ever performed the duties of the office of Lord 
High Constable, which was restored after his death to the de 
Bohuns by Edward T. 

9. Nicholas de Molend' (inis) is said in No. 5 to hold on fee 
in Estinton, one in Frethorne, and the fifth of one in Tortworth, 
although in No. 4, he is only charged for one-and-a-half, plus 
the fifth of a fee, which indeed tallies with assessment as calcu- 
lated in both Returns. In No. 6, however, he is assessed for no 
fewer than eight fees, and for a third, a fourth, and a fifth of a 
fee, " which he holds with the daughter of James de Newmarch." 

As stated in my Paper on Return 1, No. 12, the custody of 
the lands and daughters of this James had been bestowed by King 
John on John Russell.^ The latter, reserving the hand of one of 
the co-heiresses for his son and heir, Ralph, arranged for the mar- 
riage of the other to John de Bottrell, to whom the purparty of 
her lands in the counties of Gloucester, Somerset and Wilts, was 
granted in 2nd Hen. III., (Rot. Lit. Claus.) Dying, however, 
before the date of this Return, ^ his widow had remarried Nicholas 
de Molendinis, or de Molis, a young Knight who after this match 
rapidly rose to distinction. 

As James de Newmarch had only been called on in 11th and 
1 2th J ohn, to pay scutage for two-and-a-half fees in Gloucestershire, 
it is hard to understand why the husband of one of his daughters 
was so heavily rated for the aid of 19th and 20th Hen. III. in 
respect to a moiety of his Honour. There can be no question, 
however, that the assessment of 1210 was greatly below the mark, 
the three manors held later on by Nicholas de Moeles having with 
others been omitted. They had formed portions of Turstin fitz 
Rolfs Domesday Barony, which, after he was deprived of it by 

* Fosbroke's idea of the " Edwardian " date of all Testa de Nevill 
Returns led him to assume that this was merely a temporary forfeiture, and to 
bring James de Newmarch to life again to hold his lands long afterwards. — 
Vide Vol. II., p. 17. 

^ I have not found the date of his death, but as late as l-lth Hen. III. 
he was excused payment of a balance of 18 marks, which he owed for the 
scutage of James de Newmarch's fees. ( Rot. Finium. ) 



320 



Transactions for thk Year 1888-9. 



William Rufus, caine in some way ^ to the ancestor of tiie New- 
marchs. 

JSastington, held we are told in No. 5. by Margery de 
Balun, as one Knight's Fee, was a member of the manor of 
Frethorne, in which her progenitor had been sub-enfeofFed in the 
11th century. Frethorne itself had been held by the family to 
which it gave a surname, at least as early as 12th Henry II. 
whilst William Mansel, who is said to hold the fifth of a fee in 
Tortworth, was, doubtless, the descendant of him who bore those 
names at the same period. 

Upwards of six-and-a-half fees of the No. 6 assessment remain 
to be accounted for, but it will be more convenient to defer con- 
jectures as to where they were situated, until similar enquiry shall 
have been made in the case of Ralph Russell, whose name will be 
taken next, although through a strange want of arrangement, it 
does not immediately follow that of his brother-in-law in Returns 
4 and 5. 

11. Ralph Russell, according to No. 4, held one-/ee-and-a-half, 
and the eighth-part of a fee in Dyrham, and half a fee in Cotes 
Cokerel ; but in No. 5 he is set down for two fees, and the eighth- 
part of a fee in Dyrham, one fee and the eighth-part of a fee 
which Ralph himself holds, and half a fee in Cotes Cokerel which 
the widow of Elias Cokerel holds. 

As he is in each case assessed for only two fees and one-eighth, 
this apparent discrepancy must be merely verbal. In No. 6, 
however, Ralph, like Nicholas de Moeles, is charged for eight fees 
and a third, a fourth, and a fifth of a fee of the inheritance of 
J ames de Newmarch. 

Dyrham was the sole manor in Gloucestershire held at the 
time of Domesday by William, son of Wido, the predecessor of 
the Newmarchs. It then contained seven geldable hides, three 
others having been ordered to be restored to the Church of St. 

1 CoUinson f History of Somersetshire) avers that Bernard who held 
Hildeslei of Turstin fitz Rolf at Domesday, was of the family of de Novo 
Mercato, though he went by the soubriquet of Paimcefoot (de planco pede, 
splay-foot), but his proofs are wanting. 

- Return of Henry de Newmarch in Liber Niger. 



Testa de Nevill. 



321 



Mary of Pershore, though they had been given to Turstin fitz 
Rolf by William fitz Osbern. They probably constituted the sub- 
manor of Henton, held of this Ralph Russell at the time of his 
death as half a fee.^ Dyrham he had held in demesne unt 'l he 
gave it with his daughter in free marriage to Robert Walerand, 
on whose death, however, it went back to the Russells. 

Cotes-Cokerel, the second manor mentioned, is shown by the 
Rev. Mr. Taylor, ^ to have been included in Achelai (Oakley), held 
by Turstin fitz Rolf. Lying at a distance from Dyrham, in 
Cirencester Hundred, it had long been sub-enfeoffed to the family 
from which it derived the suffix to its name. Elias Cokerel held 
half a Knight's fee in Henry de Newmarch's Return of 1166, and 
his descendants continued there for 120 years afterwards, since 
we find in Kirby's Quest that " Elias Cokerel holds half a fee in 
Cotes of Ralph Russell, and Ralph of the heirs of Dyrham by 
Barony." 

Though these are the only manors named, there is proof that 
the rest of Turstin's Gloucestershire Estate (excepting Stanton 
afterwards Staidey-'Regis, which the Crown retained) passed to 
the Kewmarchs. In Omenie, identified by Mr. Taylor with 
Amney Crucis, a grant was confirmed by Henry de Newmarch ;^ 
Hillesley is found in possession of the Russells of Dyrham,* and 
Hasfield, held by Turstin of the Abbey of Westminster, was 
also in 8th Edw. I. held by the Pauncefoots of the Russells,-^ 
whilst Aust and Gathering ton, which Turstin held of the Church 
of Worcester, had likewise passed to the latter family, which 
held each as half-a-fee. Still, even supposing the Aid of 1235 to 
have been claimed by the Crown direct from these ecclesiastical 
sub-enfeoff'ments, and making due allowance for the other fees 
mentioned, it is difiicult to account for some half-dozen fees in 
Ralph Russell's case, and for at least an equal number in that of 
Nicholas de Moeles, 

1 Escheat 4lst Hen. III., No. 17. 

2 Analysis of Domesday, p. 165. * 
^ Analysis, p. 170. 

* Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 32. 
^ Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 415. 
Vol. XIU X 



322 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



The most natural explanation seems to be, that these deficient 
fees lay in one of the adjacent counties, where the Gloucestershire 
collectors assumed that they had been overlooked. Now in Wilt- 
shire, Ralph Russell had only a single fee, which may have been 
inherited, while Nicholas held but half a one there " of the 
Honour of James de Newmarch.''^ They are returned, however, 
jointly as holding no fewer than sixteen and-a-half fees, plus two- 
thirds, and one-fifth of a fee, in the counties of Somerset and 
Dorset, then forming one sheriffdom. ^ No portion, however, of 
the Newmarch Barony lay in the latter shire (although Ralph's 
hereditary manor of Kingston Russell ^ was situated there) so that 
the seventeen odd fees, last alluded to, must have been in Somer- 
setshire alone. It is rather surprising, therefore, to find the 
collectors of the aid of 1235 in that county putting down Ralph 
and Nicholas as liable for only three-and-half fees each,* thus 
leaving over ten fees untaxed, which would go far to make up 
the apparent deficiency. 

10. Ingelard de Durseley, three-and-a-half fees, stands in Nos. 
4 and 5, but in No. 6 the collectors " render account of fifteen 
marks for seven-and-a-half fees, which were Roger de Berkeley's, 
which Ingelard of Eaton has in custody with the heir." 

As observed in my paper on No. 3, Engelard de Cigony, who 
is here referred to, had had the Honour of Dursley in his charge, 
together with John de Berkeley, son of Henry, and grandson of 
Roger, above named, ever since the death of this Henry in 1221, 
a period of 14 years. It is not strange, therefore, that he is 
described as "of Dursley," though the , Exchequer clerks (No. 6) 
knew him better as " of Eton," where from having been constable 
of Windsor Castle he had property. In spite of the banishment 
decreed against him in Magna Charta, his influence and power 
were as great under Henry III. as they had been under King John. 

11. Ralph Russell, of whom ante page 320. 
1 Testa de Nevill, p. 152. 2 jbid., p. 159. 

3 Bestowed on his progenitor by William Rufus by the Serjeanty of 
being Marshal of the Buttery at Christn^as and Easter. 

** In their final Return Nicholas pays for four-and-a-half fees, and Ralph 
for two-and-a-half and two-fifths. — TeUa de NevUl, p. 1G9. 



Testa de Nevill. 



323 



12. William de Gamages, one-fifth of a fee in Mon, as in Nos. 
4 and 5, but in No. 6 he is assessed for a whole fee there. In 
1210 he was said to hold in demesne, Meon, fifteen librates of 
lands (Return I., No. 43). It passed to the de Penbridges with 
his heiresses, not long after 1235.^ 

13. Hubert Hose is set down in Nos. 4 and 5 as having one 
fee in Winterbourne, but we are told in No. 6, that he only holds 
it as guardian of Richard le Waleys. 

It is thus identified with the fee in Winterbourne held in 
1210 by Richard Wallensis (Return I, No. 29), whose son was 
probably the minor referred to above. 

It continued in that family till 15th Edw. I., when, according 
to Fosbroke, who gives a very confused account, it passed with 
the daughters and coheiresses of Ralph Walsh, as the name was 
then written, to Ralph de Wrokeshall and Ralph de Hadley. 

14. John de Monmouth is assessed for two fees in No. 4, 
one of which, we are told in No. 5, in Tyherton, was held by John 
Juvenis, the other in Hope, by John de Monmouth himself. 

John " Juvenis " no doubt was the son who succeeded John 
"Senior" in 32nd Henry III., and on whose death, in 40th 
Hen. III., the Honour of Monmouth, in consequence of his con- 
tumacy, was given to Prince Edward, his other manors only being 
inherited by his daughters. Neither in the above Returns, nor in 
No. 6, is any notice taken of the Manor of Huntley, which in 
1210 was said to be in the Barony (Return I, No. 14). Fosbroke 
suggests that it may have been ere this alienated to the Huntley 
family, but if so, why were they not called on to pay aid for it. 

15. Thurstan le Dispenser, in Stanley Regis, half-a-fee, is the 
concurrent statement of Nos. 4, 5 and 6. 

According to Dugdale, its tenure had been confirmed to his 
father, Alraeric le Despenser in 5th John, but it is not mentioned 
in Return I. Relying on the same authority, Mr. Taylor says that 
the manor after its forfeiture by Turstin fitz Rolf remained with 

^ See Fosbroke, Vol. 11., p. 99. 

X 2 



324 



Transactions for t)ik Year 1888-f). 



the Crown till given with Stonehouse by Hen. II. to Walter le 
Dispenser, Almeric's father. ^ Both manors were alienated later 
on to the GifFards of Brimpsfield. 

16. John Cotele is assessed in Frampton at 4s. 6d., which we 
are told in No. 6 was for one seventh of a fee, but as it is a sixth 
of two marks, no doubt vii. has crept in for vi. This Framp- 
ton was held at Domesday by Walter Balistarius whose suc- 
cessors were the Bluets. How it passed to the Coteles does 
not appear, but they must have held it a long time, as it got its 
distinguishing appellation from them. They are not mentioned in 
the Return of 1210, but Richard Cotell died seized of lands there 
before 4th Hen. III., leaving two sons, Richard and Robert. ^ 
John, who must have been his grandson, died in 1245 without 
issue, whereupon the manor was partitioned between his three 
sisters. 3 

17. Henry Flandricus in Sapperton one fee ; the only varia- 
tion in the three Returns being that in No. 6, the words " it is 
not known who holds it " are appended, as if it were not in 
demesne. 

On the death of Alard the Fleming, who appeared in Return 
1, (No. 17), as holding one fee in Risenden, Frampton and 
Sapperton, his son Henry succeeded."^ On the strength of this 
extract from the Testa de Nevill, Fosbroke, as usual, prolongs his 
life into the reign of Edward L, but as a matter of fact his son,^ 
the second Alard, died in 47th Hen. IIL,^ seized of Saperton 
Manor, and Risenden. Frampton, parcel of the former, seems to 
have been previously made over to the Mans ells, whose sister this 
Alard had espoused.^ The other two manors were partitioned 

1 Analysis, p. 180. 

2 Plea Eolls, cited by Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 97. 

3 Inq. p.m., 29th Hen. III., No. 7. One of the earliest escheats which 
has been preserved. 

4 Eot. Fin., 4th Hen. III., p. 57. 

^ Fosbroke makes him his grandson, but John, whom he calls his father, 
was really his elder brother, who died s.p. ( See Rot. Fin. Vol. 11. , p. 395 ). 

^ Inq. p.m., No. 31. 
This is to be inferred from the story told by Dugdale about John 
Mansell, Prior of Beverley, whom he describes as uncle of Joan, Alard 
Fleming's daughter. ( Baronage, Vol. /., p. 62H). 



Tksta 1)K Nevill. 



325 



between his daughters, Joan, wife of Henry, son of Matthew 
Hoese, and Florence, wife of Walter (Dugdale says William) de 
L'Isle. At the time of Kirby's Quest, Henry Huse, son of Henry 
Huse, in the King's custody, ^ Walter de L'Isle, and Hemy de 
Leye, (probably second husband of J oan), held the vill of Saper- 
ton in capite by the service of half a Knight's fee, while the hamlet 
of Frampton is held by John, son of William Mansell, from the 
King as the fourth part of a fee. Risenden (Magna) is not men- 
tioned, but the Huseys and Lisles held it as half a fee in 1346.2 

Henry Husey had summons to Parliament as a Baron in 1295, 
and his son Henry, who succeeded in 6th Edw. III., had a like 
summons, but dying 23rd Edw. III. left a grandson, Henry, then 
six years of age, who was never summoned. 

The De I'lsles were sub-feoffees, and not improbably cadets, of 
the family of the Earls of Devon and the Isle (Redvers). 

18. Robert de Gurnay, one fee in Beverston, Albrichton and 
Weston, which, we are told in Nos. 5 and 6, had formed part of 
the honour of Maurice de Gaunt. Beverston and (King's) Weston 
are named in Domesday as members of Berkeley Hernesse. 
Alberton {i.e. the old Barton) was doubtless then included in 
Berkeley itself. 

All three were granted to Robert fitz Harding shortly after 
the middle of the 1 2th century, and by him given to his third son 
Robert, commonly known as Robert de Were, from whom they 
descended to Maurice de Gaunt, his son and heir. 

On the latter's death in 14th Hen. III. they passed to his 
sister's son, the above Robert de Gurnay.*^ 

Robert fitz Harding had taken the precaution to get Royal 

Charters confirming to his younger sons the manors destined for 

^ His father, whose name is found on the roll of rebel Barons in 49tli 
Hen. Ill,, must have been disinherited, for he was certainly still alive in 
1285, the date of the Quest, since his Inq. p.m. does not occur till 18th Edw. I., 
1290. Henry, son of Henry, his son and heir, is returned as being then 24 
years of age, which would make him only 19 when noted as in custody of 
the King, 

2 Trans., Bristol & Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. X. " Aid for Knighting 
the Black Prince," 

2 Smyth's Hundred of Berkeley, p. 177. 



326 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



their inheritance, so that their descendants held direct from the 
Crown, and were rightly called on therefore to pay this Aid. It 
seems hard, however, this being the case, that Thomas, Lord 
Berkeley, should be assessed for the full five fees, with which the 
Barony was burdened when confirmed to his grandfather by King 
Henry II. It was not till some years later that the service was 
reduced to three-and a-half Knights. 

19. Nicholas, son of E-oger, half-a-fee, which he holds in 
Nimdesfield. The circumstances were the same as in the pre- 
ceding entry. Nimpsfield together with Hull, two members of 
Berkeley Hernesse at Domesday, were given by Robert fitz 
Harding to his second son Nicholas, who held them till his death 
in 6th Bich. I., when Boger his son succeeded. He died in 15th 
Hen. III., when the Nicholas above mentioned inherited. 

20. Arnold de Bosco holds seven-and-a-half fees of the Earl 
of Leicester's, it is not known in what vills." 

In Beturn 1, No. 2,^ Arnold de Bosco (iii) held ten fees in 
Ebrington and Pebworth with appurtenances; so that a reduction of 
25 per cent, had been apparently made in the service. I fancy we 
have now to deal with the fourth Arnold, but it is hard to say 
who was his over-lord. The Earldom of Leicester had been restored 
or re-created (Doyle) in 1230, in favour of the famous Simon de 
Montfort, whose mother was the elder sister of Earl Bobert fitz 
Pernelle, but the estates had been divided in the reign of John, 
and as already pointed out, we find in Kirby's Quest that the 
De Boscos held Pebworth, &c. of the Earls of Winchester, 
descended from Fitz Pernelle's younger sister. 

21. Walter de Lacy holds eight-fees-and-a-quarter, viz : in 
Wyke Besinden, two fees which he holds; in Eastleach, two fees 
of Henry Fleming's, it is not known who holds them ; in Cotes 
Badulph, one fee, which the same holds ; in Wormington, one fee, 
minus a fifth, which Berta holds ; in Bulley, half-a-fee, minus 
three-fourths of a hide, which Walter de Mucesgros holds; in 
Kempley, half-a-fee, which Isabella de Luchamp holds ; in Kars- 
well the fifth of a fee, which Gerard de Hussman holds ; in Qxhale, 

1 Tranf^., Vol XIL,p. 242. 



Testa de Nevill. 



327 



the fourth of a fee, plus the tenth of a fee, which she who was 
wife of Stephen Devereux, holds, and Walter de Lacy received 
thence 8s. lOd. In Stratton, one fee, it is not known who holds it. 

If this statement be checked, it will be found that besides the 
eight-and-a-quarter-fees, a tenth-of-a-fee, less three-fourths of a 
hide, had to be accounted for, and for this a sum of twopence 
farthing is added in 4, 5 and 6. 

In Return 1, No. 26,^ the same Walter de Lacy is expressly 
said to hold in Gloucestershire, thirteen Knights' fees, and the 
twelftli-of-a-fee, but at that date they were in the King's hand on 
account of his share in the rebellion of William de Braose, his 
father-in-law, and though he was pardoned by John in 1214, some 
of them may have been forfeited. His Irish estate was not re- 
stored to him for several years. He was probably at this time in 
Ireland, where he died six years later (25th Hen. III.) " old and 
blind," 2 His great inheritance was thereupon divided between 
the daughters of his son Gilbert ; who had died during his father's 
life-time, the eldest Maud, married : first, to Peter de Geneve, who 
died in 35th Hen III., second, to Geoffrey de Geneville, who in 
38th Hen. III. got her Irish estates ; and Margery, married to 
John de Verdun. The latter seems to have got most of the 
Gloucestershire manors for her share, as we find them in Kirby's 
Quest held of Theobold de Verdun, while the former had the 
Honour of Weobly, in Herefordshire ; where also Gilbert de 
Lacy's widow had Ewyas-Lacy for her dower. 

Of Walter de Lacy's feofiees in the former county there is not 
much to be said. 

It is a surprise to find Henry Fleming holding two De Lacy 
fees, but the arrangement must have been of a temporary nature, 
for his heirs, the Huses and De L'Isles, had nothing to do with 
East Leach at the date of Kirby's Quest, when it was held by 
the Abbot of Bruern and Robert Devereux, of William Comyn, 
and by him of Theobold de Verdun. 

^ Trans., Vol. XII., jo. S71. 

2 No stronger proof can be cited of the confusion occasioned by Fos- 
broke's misconception of the date of these Returns, than the fact that under 
every one of Walter de Lacy's manors he is asserted to have hekl in the 
time of Edward /., who l)egan to reign tliirty-one years after his decease. 



THANSACTIONS FOK THK YkAR 1888-9. 



The Ralph who held the fee in Cotes was known as Ralph de ij 
Cotes. It was held in 1285 by Richard le Waleys of the heirs 
of Pouneye, and ultimately of the same Theobald as representing 
the De Lacys. 

The lady whose Christian name only is given as holding in 
Wormington, was presumably a relative of the Lacy family. 

Walter de Mucegros was either himself the sub-feoffee, or else | 
his father of the same name, who died in 49th Hen. III. seized of 
the manor of Bulleye held of Walter de Aylesford, who appears to 
have been originally enfeoffed in it by Walter de Lacy,^ De 
Mucegros likewise held Lassington of the Archbishop of York, 
as his ancestors had done for generations. 

Isabella de Luchamp (Longchamp) must have been a descen- 
dent of Henry de Longchamp, who held a fee of Hugh de Lacy in 
12th Hen. IL, and daughter, probably, of Geoffrey de Longchamp 
who gave the advowson of the manor of Kempley to Ledbury 
Hospital, cir. 1232. What relation she was to Maude de Long- 
champ, who not long afterwards carried Kempley as well as 
Wilton, in Herefordshire, to Reginald de Grey ^ in marriage, is 
not clear. 

Karswell, is Craswells, in Compton Tithing, but nothing is 
known of its descent from the time of Domesday, nor can Gerard 
de Husseman's history be discovered. 

Oxenhall had long been held by the Devereux family of the 
Lacys, and came to be held of the Crown in capite by Stephen's 
son. Lastly, as regards Stratton, whose tenant was unknown, 
Fosbroke asserts that the earliest on record is Walter de Cardwill, 
but as the date given is 33rd Edw. 1., whilst in Kirby's Quest, 18 
years previously, it was held by Richard de Hampton of Theobald 
de Yerdun, he was clearly mistaken. 

22. William Pantof for two hides, one in Gretton, and one in 
Wormington, ten shillings and eightpence. 

His name is written Pa union ^ in No. 6, but I have no doubt 
was Pantolfi there being a family of some position so called. 

1 Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 205. ^ gee Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 246. 

^ In the Index to Vol. IX. of StafforclsMre Collections, General Wrottesley 
makes them the same name. A Wm. Pantolf was Justiciar in that county in 
7th Hen. III., and held nine Knights' fees there, — Madox Hist. Exchequer. 



Tksta 1)K Nkvill. 



329 



The lands he held apparently belonged to the Knights' Tem- 
plars, who claimed free warren in Grete and Gretion} which 
they had probably acquired by gift from the Lords of Sudley, 
whilst a similar concession in the Lacy manor of Wormingtor. had 
been made as far back as 1175, of course with the De Lacy's assent, 
by Roger de Worminton. The payment is for two-fifths of a fee, 
shewing that five hides reckoned as equivalent to one. 

The Dastyn family seem to have held both these hides of the 
Templars at a later period. 

23. James de Solers, in Postlip one fee held by William de 
Solers, in Backsore one fee which Thomas Golafre holds. 

Both these manors belonged to Ansfrid de Cormeilles at 
Domesday, and continued in that Barony until it was partitioned 
among heiresses in 1218 (Return I., No. 9). 

Margaret, one of these coheiresses, married Hugh le Poer, by 
whom she had a daughter and coheiress, wife of Simon de Solers, 
father of this James, who inherited Postlip and Backsore as her 
share. 

The head of the Solers'^ Barony was in Herefordshire, where 
he no doubt continued to reside, one of his Gloucestershire manors 
being held of him by William de Solers, probably his brother, the 
other by Thomas Golafre, who, according to Sir Robert Atkyns, 
was of the GifFard family. The Golafres continued to hold Back- 
sore of the Solers at the time of Kirby's Quest as half a Knight's 
fee, but the Bishop of Worcester is said then to be their chief 
lord, not the King. How this had come to pass does not appear. 
Postlip is not mentioned, but the De Solers held it in cajnte as 
late as 9th Edw. II.s 

24. William de Stuteville, half-a-fee in Lutheton, which 
Thomas de Hinston holds, and lialf-a-fee in Ullington, held by 
Hugh of Ullington. In Return 6, both are stated to be of " the 
Honour of Richard's Castle." 

^ Plac de quo Waranto, 15th Ed. I. 

^ De Solariis, i.e. of the *' Parlours, or House having an upper storey." 
' Nomina Villarum. 



330 



TUANSAOTTONS FOR THK YeAK 1888-9. 



Tliis William was not the great Yorkshire Baron of the name, 
but his first cousin, son of a younger brother, and fourth in de- 
scent from Robert de Stuteville of Domesday. 

He married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Hugh de Say 
of Richard's Castle, and widow of Robert de Mortimer. Dugdale 
says it was in 15th Hen. III., but this must be a mistake, for in 
13th Hen. III. he paid scutage for 23 Knights' fee of the honour 
of Hugh de Say. The Mortimers of Richard's Castle were de- 
scended from a younger son of the Mortimers of Wigmore. William 
de Stuteville merely held the estates temporarily in right of his 
wife, whom he survived, though, if, as Dugdale states, he had a 
son by her, named Robert, who continued his line until the reign 
of Edward IL, he probably retained some portion. William 
himself died in 43rd Hen. III. 

LiUheton, (Littleton) in Gretestan Hundred, was held at the 
time of Kirby's Quest by the Abbot of Abingdon, of Robert de 
Mortimer of Castle Richard, as half-a-fee, nothing being said of 
the Hintons. 

UUingto7i, called Wenitone in Domesday, (Taylor) is a hamlet 
of Peb worth, and then belonged to Willian Goizenbod, from whom 
it passed to the Earls of Leicester. It was now a separate manor, 
and in 13th Edw. I. was held by John of Olynton, perhaps a son 
of Hugh's, of Robert de Mortimer. ^ 

25. Walter de Baskerville, in Wonestan, one fee (No 4). In 
Nos. 5 and 6, "held of the Honour of Cormeilles," is added. 
Ansfrid de Cormeilles, at the Domesday Survey, had two manors 
of this name, some seven or eight miles apart, the one in Bisley, 
the other in Bradley, Hundred. 

In Eosbroke's opinion the former was that which had come to 
Walter de Baskerville, but the facts he cites seem to negative this 
idea, whilst there are others, which, as will by and bye be shown, 
tend to the contrary conclusion. How Walter had acquired an 
interest in the Honour of Cormeilles has not been discovered. 
His name does not appear in the pedigree of the latter family 
given by Dugdale, but he may have married one of the grand- 
daughters of Walter de Cormeilles, the last Baron. 

^ Kirby's Quest 



Testa de Nevill. 



331 



Although the chief seat of the Baskervilles was in Hereford- 
shire, a branch of the family had held Iccumbe (in Slaughter 
Hundred), thence known as Combe-Baskerville, from the early 
years of the 12th century. A Walter de Baskerville confirned 
in 1157 a hide of land there which his grandfather, Bernard, had 
given to St. Peter's Abbey when he became a monk there,^ and his 
descendants continued to hold it at least till the date of " Nomina 
Villarum" (1316) when Isolda Pantolf, widow of a Walter de 
Baskerville, had the manor in dower. ^ 

Another Walter de Baskerville held Cold Aston in the Hun- 
dred of Bradley in 7th Bichard 1.,^ and may very well have been 
the father of the one who in 19th Henry III. held of the Honour 
of Cormeilles in that neighbourhood. It is more probable, there- 
fore, that his fee was Winson, as it is now called, in Bradley, * 
than Winstone in Bisley,* 

Walter seems to have left no issue, as the name does not occur 
in Kirby^s Quest in connection with the Winston there mentioned. 

26. The Earl of Chester in Biseley, three fees. These he 
apparently held in demesne, as in No. 5 it is stated that the 
six marks assessment was paid by his steward in a lump sum, 
though in No. 7 the amount is written off the account of the 
collectors. Banulph de Blundeville, who held Bisley in 1210 
(Return No. 1), had died in October, 1232, and the Earl at this 
date was his nephew, John le Scot, son, by his sister Matilda, of 
David Earl of Huntingdon Earl John took the cross in June, 
1236, and died in 1254 without issue. 

27. The Abbot of Westminster, in Hestfield, eight shillings 
and elevenpence for the fee which he holds. In No. 6 the H 
is omitted. This must be Hasfield, in Westminster Hundred, 
which was among the Gloucestershire possessions of St. Peter's, 
Westminster, at Domesday, as a hide and a half, about equivalent 

1 Cart., Vol. I. p. 70, &c. 

2 Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 402. 

^ Pipe Roll for Gloucestershire, 

* This is put beyond doubt by an entry in the Return of the Aid for 
Knighting the Black Prince in 1346, which shows the Winston in B!sl('i/ was 
the one which belonged to Heniy de Penabridge (see No. 33,) 



832 



TRANSArrroNs for thk Ykak 1888-9. 



to the third of a fee, represented hy the above assessment. It 
was then held of the abbey by Turstin fitz Rolf, and I presume 
that Mr. Taylor's statement ^ that this manor of Hasfield " was 
lost to the church before 1166," is based on the supposition that 
the fourth part of a fee which Rolf's successor, Henry de New- 
march reported to the King as held of him by " Eustace Pancevot," 
lay in Hasfield. Eustace, however, may have held elsewhere, for 
the Pauncefoote family were sub-feofees of Henry's in various 
places. Whatever the explanation, it is clear that the Abbot of 
Westminster remained chief lord of the fee in 1235, and there is 
nothing in these Returns to indicate that his right was disputed 
by Ralph Russell, of whom the Pauncefoots still continued to hold 
Hasfield, unless indeed it be the fact of this manor being thus 
singled out from the rest of the abbey's possessions for separate 
taxation. 

In 1210 (Return I. No. 35), the Abbot of Westminster 
answered for three and a half knights' fees and the fifth part of 
a fee in this county, the remainder of which must have been 
included in the Return which the Abbot made on the Roll of the 
Prelates for the Aid of 19th Henry III., but the payment for his 
Gloucestershire fees is not stated separately. It is worth noting 
that on the Pipe Roll of that year he is credited with two marks 
on account of lands in that county, but this was probably some 
arrear of scutage. 

28. Warin de Munchansy, half a fee in Eggeworth, which 
Peter de Eggeworth holds. 

Warin, in 1213, had succeeded his nephew, William de Mont- 
chesny, who appears in Return I., No. 23, as holding the great 
manor of Wyke, otherwise Painswick, by the merely nominal 
service of one hide. The vill of Edgeworth was a dependency of 
that manor. It had been held in sub-feofment since the beginning 
of the century by a family which took their surname from it, and 
which was now^ represented by Peter de Edgeworth, who, after 
having acted as Deputy Sherifi" under Ralph Musard, William de 
Putot, and William Talbot, in succession, had only retired from 
ofiice in the middle of 1235. 

^ Analysis of Domesday, p. 148. 



Testa de Nevill. 



353 



29. Walter de Esseleg', half a fee in Cherleton, a member of 
Cheltenham, " whose is unknown " being added in No. 5, whilst in 
"No. 6 his naiue comes as an addition at the close of the list of 
those having " Capital Honours." I presume the uncertaint}? as 
to ownership arose from the forfeiture of King's Charlton in 
1217 by the Walter de Ashley, whose name had appeared as 
holding 14 librates of land in the royal manor of Cheltenham 
seven years previously (Return I., No. 42). When he recovered 
possession is not stated. Probably this Walter was his son, and 
he was the last of the name, for on his death s.p., in 30th 
Hen. III., Charlton passed to a sister. 

30. The Honour of Cormailles, two fees and a half, viz., in 
Norton, which Hugh Giffard holds, half a fee, and in Alkestan 
two fees held by John le Brun (4, 5 & 6). Both manors belonged 
to Ansfrid de Cormailles at Domesday. The former adjoining 
Weston-sub-Edge, acquired the name of Norton GifFard after pass- 
ing to Hugh Giffard on his marriage with Sibilla the youngest 
daughter and coheiress of Walter de Cormeilles. Hugh ^ alienated 
it subsequently to Henry de Pembridge, but it was re-acquired 
by his son Walter Giffard, Archbishop of York, and passed to the 
latter's brother Godfrey, Bishop of Worcester, who held it in his 
own right at Kirhi/s Quest. 

Elkstone had come to John le Brun through the marriage of 
his father Richard le Brun with Albreda, second daughter of 
Walter de Cormailles. Their descendant, John le Brun, held it 
at the time of Kirhijs Quest, of the Barony of Cormeilles, but he 
alienated it to the Actons twenty years afterwards. 

31. The Earl of Arundel, half a fee in Campden, "of the 
Honour of Chester," (added in No. 6). 

Mabel, the second sister of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, married 
William de Albini (iv.) Earl of Arundel, who, dying in 1221, 
left a son William (v.) who, on Earl Ranulph's death in 1232, 

1 Hugh's connection with the Giffards, of Brimpsfield, has not been 
traced. He was Constable of the Tower of London, and, after the death of 
Sibilla, married one of the sisters of Alexander Crancumbe. — Dugdale. 

^ See Sir John Maclean's note in Lay Subsidies, Transactions, Vol. XL 
page 2. 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



inhcritocl his mother's share of that estate, but himself died in 
1234 (the year preceding the date of these E,eturns), leaving 
his brother Hugh, then a minor, to succeed to the Earldom of 
Arundel and his other possessions. Earl Hugh only lived till 
1243, when the vt^hole of these came to be divided among his 
four sisters. 

Campden, being assessed at only half a fee, must have been 
reduced in service, since it, with Bisley, was held as six fees in 
1210 (Return I., No. 1). 

32. William de Cantilupe, in Salperton, half a fee, which 
Robert Tingtor, of Winchcombe, holds (No. 5). 

Salperton, in Bradley Hundred, belonged at Domesday to 
Hugo I'Asne, most of whose manors came into possession of 
the Chandos family before the middle of the 12th century. It 
probably did so likewise, as Robert de Chandos, who died in 
1174, confirmed the gift of the church there to the Norman abbey 
of Lire. In some unexplained manner it became, however, 
divided between the Warwickshire families of de Limesey and 
Corbucion. 

In 7th and 8th Henry III., Ralph de Limesey sued Walter 
Cumin, and Margery his wife, for half a fee in Salperton, which 
had been his late father, Ralph's, in 7th Rich. I.^; but the 
Comyns retained possession, though in Kirhy^s Quest it is stated 
that their overlord was unknown. 

The other half of the fee must have passed, at an earlier 
period, into the hands of Peter Corbucion, better known as Peter 
de Stodley, who, in the reign of Henry II., gave 100 acres of his 
demesne land in it, and the Chapelry, to a priory which he 
founded at Wicton, in Warwickshire, adding afterwards 200 
acres more.^ The patronage of this priory, with the residue of 
his moiety of Salperton, a later Peter Corbucion transferred to 
William de Cantilupe, Seneschal of King John's Household, and 
a Justice Itinerant in his reign and that of Henry III., to whom 
had been granted the Manor of Aston, in Warwickshire, which 
Ralph de Tancarvill forfeited on the first seizure of the lands of 
the Normans. 

1 Fosbroke, Vol. II., p. 444. - Dngdale's Warwickshire. 



Testa de Nev^ill. 



335 



William de Cantilupe removed the canons to Stodley itself, 
which he had likewise acquired, and which was nearer to Aston- 
Cantilupe. He died in 1238 ; but whether his son William, junr., 
succeeded to the overlordsliip of Salperton I know not. Robert 
"the Dyer," of Winchcombe, the sub-feoffee, bore a surname 
which was very common in Gloucestershire, as seen in the Jury 
List of 32nd Henry III.^ 

Peter de Stodley had given a virgate and a half in Salperton 
to the Templars, and they claimed free warren there in 15th 
Edward I. 

33. Henry de Penebridge two fees of the Honour of Cor- 
mailles, which he holds, one in Weston Marmiwy, and one — the 
twentieth part of a fee excepted — in Wonestan (Nos. 4 and 5). 

Pembridge, from which this family acquired its surname, was 
a vill in Herefordshire, held by them, as one Knight's fee of the 
old enfeoffment, of the Honour of Radnor, which, in 1235, was in 
possession of the Mortimers of Wigmore.^ Mr. Eyton, in his 
" Antiquities of Salop," gives a very full account of this Henry, 
and of his successors in Weston and Woneston, but does not 
explain how his connection with the Honour of Cormailles origin- 
ated. 

He died in 1254, just after paying 100 marks for the wardship 
of the daughters and co-heiresses of Godfrey de Gamages, whom 
he married to his two sons, Henry and William, who thus ob- 
tained lands in several counties, Gloucestershire included. The 
elder son nearly shipwrecked the fortunes of the family by insult- 
ing Prince Edward, after the battle of Evesham, for which he 
was deprived of his lands and of his liberty, dying in prison in 
1272. Weston was given to W^alter Giffard, Archbishop of York, 
by whose father it had been alienated, but being perseveringly 
claimed, under the terms of the " Dictum of lienilworth," by a 
third Henry de Pembridge, son of the disinherited Baron, the 
Archbishop agreed to give him in exchange for it the Manor of 
Ullingwicke, in Herefordshire, and 1000 marks.'' Godfrey Giffard, 

1 Trans., Vol. X., p. 203 ^ ^p^jg^^ de Nevill, pp. (34 ami 68. 

' Yet in an Inq. p.m., 17th Edward I., Henry de Penbrugge (iii.?), is 
said to have died seized of Weston-sub-Edge Manor, Gloucestershire. 



336 



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Bishop of Worcester, Walter's brother and heir, maintained his 
right to free warren in both Norton Giftard and Weston-sub-Edge 
before the Quo Warranto Connnission of 1287, holding them, as 
we learn from Kirhy's Quest, in caiite of the King as a fee and a 
half. Why the latter manor is here called Weston Marmiwy is 
not apparent, but as the suffix is no doubt a corruption of Mar- 
myun,^ it had probably been at one time held by that family of 
the Honour of Coi'mailles. It clearly is not, however, the Weston 
which Robert de Harcourt held of the Earl of Warwick (see 
No. 39), and of which, in conjunction with Queinton,^ his son 
Richard was subsequently overlord. 

Wiinesian appears to have been recovered by Henry de Pen- 
bridge (hi.)) ai'icl left at his death, in 1279, to a son of the same 
name, by another wife than Isabel Harcourt who was the mother 
of his principal heir, for Mr. Eyton refers to a grant therein, made 
by Sir Henry Penbridge in 1303. It was Winston, in Bisley, 
for the aid for knighting the Black Prince, in 1346, was paid by 
John de Alspathe for half a fee in that Hundred, " which Henry 
de Penbridge formerly held." ^ 

34. Ralph de Mortimer, two fees, viz., in Bisley and Lang- 
borowe one and a half, which he holds, in Newenton half a fee, 
which Baldwin holds. 

Roger de Mortimer, of Wigmore, who had held Lechlade and 
Langeberg of the inheritance of his second wife Isabella, daughter 
of Walcheline de Perrars (Return I,, No. 22), died in 1217. 

According to Dugdale,* Ralph was their eldest son, but this 
assumption is beset with insuperable difficulties, and I am con- 
vinced that Mr. Blore is right ^ in the amended pedigree which he 
puts forward, showing that Isabella's son was Hugh de Mortimer, 

1 In the List of Sheriffs of Warwickshire, printed by Dugdale, Philip 
il/M7*mwt6-2/ appears, in 34th, 35th and 36th Henry III., in which years the 
Lord of Taniworth held the office. 

Weston-sub-Edge had been two separate manors in Saxon times, and 
Ansfrid de Cormaille held it at Domesday for such. He may have alienated 
one of them. 

3 Trans., Vol. X., p. 387. 

^ Baronage, p. 140. 

^ History of County of Rutland, p. 230. 



Testa de Nevill. 



337 



who died in November, 1227, s.p.j and that this Ralph was son of 
Roger by his first marriage with Millicent Ferrars, daughter of 
the Earl of Derby. 

It seems impossible otherwise to account for the fact th \t all 
Isabella's possessions, including Oakham Castle, Lechlade and 
Longborough, escheated to the Crown on her death in 1251 ; for 
although Ralph had died six years previously he had left a son 
Roger, who, if grandson of Isabella, ought to have succeeded her. 
Fosbroke tries to get over the difficulty by asserting that the 
manors in question were " seized as lands of the Normans," ^ refer- 
ring in support to a deed in the Monasticon, relative to the 
priory of Lechlade, in which it is recited that certain messuages 
and lands in this vill had been claimed in the King's court on that 
ground, but on its being admitted were re-granted to the priory. 

The name of Isabella de Mortimer, the supposed foundress, is 
not mentioned, but assuming her to have died without nearer 
relatives than some branch of the Ferrars family, settled in Nor- 
mandy, such a plea on behalf of the crown may have been well- 
founded, although, be it observed, it is not that assigned in the 
Close Roll of 36th Henry III. as the ground on which Lechlade 
is ordered to be taken into the King's hands as an escheat. That 
the proceeding was at best a high-handed one may well be inferred, 
for this writ seems to contemplate resistance to the escheator as 
not improbable, and seeing that not only had Isabella herself paid 
400 marks and a palfrey for her brother's inheritance in 7th John, 
but her husband, Roger de Mortimer, 700 marks and 7 palfreys, 
two years later, to hold it quietly, it might well have been con- 
sidered that the latter's heirs had acquired a title. 

Evidently indeed it long rankled as a grievance in the family, 
for the most notorious member of it, his great-grandson, Roger de 
Mortimer, made use of his influence with the Queen-mother during 
the minority of Edw.III. to get a re-grant of these manors, though 
they had long passed from the heirs of Richard Earl of Cornwall, 

^ He had a very vague idea of what this phrase signified, for in one 
place he explains that it was the Norman soldiers of King John, who were 
" ousted and banished by Henry III."— Vol. II., p. 251. 

Vol. XIII. V 



338 



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on whom they were settled by Henry III., Lechlade and Long- 
borough being then held by Hales abbey, of the gift of his son. 
Earl Edmond. 

To return, however, from this digression to Ralph de Mortimer, 
and the two fees for which he is here assessed, the names of the 
manors in which they are said to be situated appear at first some- 
what puzzling, Bisley, as we have seen, belonging to the Earls of 
Chester,^ (26) and Longborough having, as just stated, escheated 
to the crown. Some light is, fortunately, thrown on the subject 
by details furnished in the Escheat Rolls of later years ; in the 
List of the Possessions of which Roger de Mortimer, Earl of 
March, died seized in 22nd Richard IL, we find the following 
included, viz.. Stokes End and Bisseley fsic), one fee for William 
Rodborow ; Langborough — half a fee for Thomas Lambank under 
(postea) Bryan de Bampton ; Newynton, half a fee Baldwynus.^ 

There is no manor now known as " Stokes End," in Biseley, 
nor can it be identified with any one of the five hamlets in that 
parish. Perhaps " the Prebend " therein, which the Mortimers 
bestowed after their alliance with the Earls of Gloucester, on the 
college of Stoke Clare, in the county of Suffolk, may have acquired 
the name, but if so, it cannot have been till late in Edward III.'s 
reign. Atkyns says that they had a grant of the Manor of Bisley 
when Edmund Mortimer, who succeeded 10th Edward I. and died 
31st Edward I., married a Spanish cousin of Queen Eleanor's, but 
it is evident that they possessed this fee at an earlier date. 

The manor held by Ralph de Mortimer in Longborough, com- 
monly known as Bank's fee, was quite distinct from that of which 
his step-mother died seized. Judging from its extent it was 
identical with that of two hides held at Domesday by the Earl of 

1 Nothing can be more unsatisfactory than the accounts of Bisley given by 
the several historians of Gloucestershire. Though aware the Earl Hugh was 
its Domesday possessor, they are one and all ignorant that it continued for 
nearly two centuries to be held by the Earls of Chester. Atkyns writes as 
if it had gone "soon after the Conquest" to the Mortimers, whilst Fos- 
broke confuses it with Bisseley (now Bushley), near Malvern, and cites 
numerous entries relating to the Earls of Gloucester, which are, of course, 
out of place. I presume it came to the crown with the Earldom of Chester. 

^ Not BaXconnus, as Fosbroke read it, Vol. II. p. 383. 



Testa de Nevill. 



Moriton. The abbot of Hales claimed free warren there in 15th 
Edw. I., but unsuccessfully, for Kirhy^s Quest states that Richard 
Labanc holds two carucates in Langbury, of Brian de Branton 
(Brampton), and Brian of Edmund de Mortimer, 

Newynton, the third of Ralph's manors, is Naunton, in Slaugh- 
ter Hundred.^ Who Baldwin was, by whose name the fee was 
designated for a hundred and fifty years, there is nothing to show, 
but it seems really to have been held by the Priory of Little 
Malvern, in 20th Edward III.'- 

35. Stephen d'Evereux, two hides in Guitinges Temple, five 
shillings and fourpence, held by himself, according to No. 6 as a 
fourth and a fifth part of one Knight's fee. 

1 presume the words in italics were meant to be erased, since 
the assessment is for a fifth only, though the quantity of land 
held might have warranted a higher one. 

The principal possessions of this family, obtained through 
marriage with a daughter of the first Walter de Lacy early in 
the 12th century, were in Herefordshire, where, no doubt, Stephen, 
then the head of it, paid scutage in 12th and 13th John. From 
what is said as to the tenancy of Oxenhall, by "her who was wife 
of Stephen d'Evereux," in the return of Walter de Lacy (21), it 
would seem that, despite the mention of him above, Stephen was 
no longer alive. That manor lay on the further side of the county 
30 or 40 miles from Guiting, and his connection with the latter 
had probably been due to the fact that it also had belonged to the 
De Lacy's, one of whom had bestowed it on the Templars, subject, 
perhaps, to this sub-infeudation. Very possibly, however, the two 
hides in question were those which the widow of Geri de Loges 
had retained, which, Mr. Taylor says, cannot be accounted for.'^ 

As William d'Evereux, Stephen's son and heir, did not inherit 
till 36th Henry III., he must at this time have been a child. 

36. The Bishop of Rochester, in Eston John, one fee, which 

the said John holds (No. 5). 

^ Some of Fosbroke's references under this head relate to another 
Newington held of the Mortimers of Richard's castle. 

2 Trans. Bristol & Glouc, Arch. Society, Vol. X. p. 288. 

3 Analysis, p. 144. 

V2 



S40 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Estuno, afterwards Aston-imder-Eclge, appears in Domesday 
as held by St. Mary's at Lambeth of the gift of the Countess Goda. 
That church belonged to the see of Rochester, to which the 
Countess's gift was confirmed by the Conqueror, but Rufus took 
the manor in question away, and sold it back to Bishop Gundulf, 
whose successors held it for centuries. 

It had long been known as Eston John, being so called in the 
Carucage of 1221.1 The tenant was probably spoken of commonly 
as John of Eston. 

37. Roger de Chandos, two and a half fees, viz , one fee in 
Schipton Chamfleurs, held by Richard Tyrel, one fee in Brock- 
worth, held by Ralph de Chandos, half a fee in Bagindon, held by 
Richard de Bagindon. 

In Return I., No. 15, Robert de Chandos held Brockworth, 
Bagindon and Sipton, two Knights," so that this was an increase 
in the service. 

Dugdale's Baronage says that Robert died in 1219, and was 
succeeded by Roger. 

Of their tenants, Richard Tyrell and Dionisia his wife, had a 
law-suit with the Master of the Knights Templars, in 9th Hen. III. 
as to lands in Shipton,^ and one of the divisions of that manor 
became known as Ship ton Tyrell.^ 

Ralph de Chandos, who held Brockworth, was head, no doubt, 
of the Gloucestershire branch of the family. According to the 
Rev. Mr. Bartleet's history of that manor, he was one of the 
Justices Itinerant in the reigns of John and Henry III.^ — the 
date of his death being unknown, save that his son was in pos- 
session in 1260. 

The Bagindons long held the manor from which they took 
their surname. 

At the date of Kirhijs Quest William de Solers held Shipton 
of Roger Tyrel, and he of Robert Chandos, while Richard de 
Bagindon held one fee of the same overlord in Bagindon. Brock- 
worth is not mentioned. 

1 Testa de Nevill, p. 80. 2 Bracton's Note Book, No. 1101. 

3 Fosbroke, Vol. IL, p. 434. * Trans., ante Vol. VII., p. 171. 



Testa de Nevill. 



341 



38. Henry de Vere in Thormaton (Tonnarton) two fees, held 
by John de Thormaton (No. 5). 

The same Henry in Return L No. 20, held three fees, which 
his grandfather had taken from the Fitz Alan inheritance, .is he 
was of age so far back as 1193, he must now have been past sixty. 
On his decease Tormarton probably reverted to John Fitz Alan, 
as it passed with his adjacent manor of Acton at a later period. 

39. Matthew de Lovein, three quarters of a fee in Seisincote. 
In No .5, Matthew de Seisincote is said to hold it, but whether he 
was the same person, or his feoffee, is not clear. Fosbroke, mis- 
reading this entry, calls him de Love7nore, but the family of de 
Loveyn was of good standing in France, and held in (Somersetshire 
temp. Henry III. How they got their interest in Seisincote, I 
cannot say. Of the five holdings into which that parish was ap- 
portioned at Domesday, that alone of Walter the Deacon (the 
supposed ancestor of the line of Hastings), was of sufficient extent 
— four and a half hides — to be reckoned equivalent to three -fourths 
of a fee ; each of the others containing one hide only. The 
Matthew de Loveyn, who held it in 1235, was presumably the one 
whose inquisition post mortem is to be found under 46th Hen. III. 
(1262). His son Matthew was then 24 years of age. He died in 
30th Edward I. (1302), leaving lands in Suffolk and in Yorkshire 
to his son and heir Thomas, but in neither case is Gloucestershire 
mentioned in the escheats. Nor does Seisincote occur in Kirhy^s 
Quest; but in the aid for knighting the Black Prince, in 1346, 
half a fee there is said to be held by John de Walyford, and the 
fifth of a fee by a family named de Seisincote, possibly descended 
from Matthew. Strange to say, however, the name of de Loveyn 
is found in the Gloucestershire Visitation of 1623, so that the 
family must have had root in the county. 

40. Richard de Harecourt, half a fee in Quenton (No. 4) it 
being added in No. 5, " which Robert Marmicn holds," while in 
No. 6 it is referred to merely as " Robert Marmion's half fee in 
Quenton." 

It is rather a surprise to find Queinton thus held of the 
Harcourts, for although the legend as to a Marmion, " who came 



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Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



ill with the Conqueror," and drove the nuns of Polesworth from 
their cell here, is refuted by the evidence of Domesday, and it is 
now known for certain that the church of Quenton was first given 
to the nunnery in 4th Stephen (1139) by Robert, son of the 
Robert Marmion, Lord of Fontenoy in Normandy, on whom 
King Henry I. had conferred by a charter (without date) the 
royal manor of Tamworth, it is nevertheless generally taken for 
granted that Queinton was held in capite at the period named, 
and continuously afterwards, by that family. This idea was con- 
verted into all but certainty by Fosbroke's reference to the Pipe 
Roll of 24th Henry II., as showing that a Robert Marmion then 
paid an aid of one mark for it. It will be found, however, that 
this statement is based on a misconception, on his part, of the 
meaning of the entry, ^ whilst further examination of the records 
will show that the Marmions did not hold Queinton ''sine medio" 
for upwards of a century after the death of Henry II., but always 
of some overlord or other. 

At Domesday, Quenintune (Queinton) was held of the King, 
by Hugh de Grentesmesnil, for two manors, it having been 
divided before the Conquest. The smaller, containing only two 
hides, Hugh added to the demesne lands of his adjacent manor of 
Merston; the larger, of twelve hides, was held of him by one 
Roger, who was likewise his feofiee in Weston for four hides 
more. Both these manors had belonged to Baldwin ^ in King 
Edward's time, and the circumstance of their continued associa- 
tion throws light on what afterwards happened. Who Roger was 
there is nothing to show. It might be assumed he was a Marmion, 
but the christian name of the alleged companion of the Conqueror 
is given as William in one account, and Robert in another. 
Nevertheless, it is a curious coincidence that a Roger Marmion is 

1 The words are, '* Villata de Quenton, Rob^ Marmiun red comp de 1 
marc in defaltd .... In perdonis," implying no more than that the free- 
holders of the vill had been fined a mark for not attending some jury ; but 
that Robert Marmion, who, as their head, was accountable, had been ex- 
cused payment. 

2 It is noteworthy that Hugh had a tenant named Roger in two of his 
manors in Warwickshire, which had beldnged to a Baldwin, but they did 
not come to the Marmions. 



Testa de Nevill. 



343 



the earliest of the family, whose presence in England has been 
traced as far back by Dugdale as the reign of William Rufus, 
who appears, from the recital in a charter of Henry III.'s time, 
to have given him the manor of Arrow, in Warwickshire, on its 
forfeiture by Odo of Bayeux.^ Dugdale, moreover, asserts that 
Midleton, another Warwickshire manor, held by Hugh de Gren- 
tesraesnil at Domesday in demesne, " was ere long disposed of to 
one of the Marmions,"^ although the single fact he cites in cor- 
roboration does not necessitate its acquisition earlier than the 
middle of Henry II. 's reign, before which time the Earls of 
Leicester had obtained the Grentesmesnil estates by marriage. 

The real question is, however, when and how the Harcourts 
acquired the overlordship of Queinton. This family appears to 
have come into England in the reign of Henry I., under the 
auspices of his great minister, Robert de Beaumont, Count de 
Menlau, afterwards Earl of Leicester, of whom they certainly 
held Ilmedon (Elraington) in Warwickshire, a parish which 
marches with that of Queinton, in Gloucestershire. They likewise 
held largely of the Earls of Warwick sprung from that Earl's 
brother, as is shewn by the Return of William, the third Earl in 
the Liber Niger, in which, after stating that Ivo de Harcourt 
holds seven Knights' fees of him, he adds that his father, Earl 
Roger, had pledged three and a half of these to the Earl of 
Leicester, getting three and a half in exchange, of which he gives 
the names, as well as of their tenants, including Robert de Har- 
court one fee in Weston. He subsequently mentions that Robert 
Marmion holds a Knight's fee of him, but without saying where, 
and it need scarcely be remarked that it does not follow by any 
means that it was in Queinton, as the Marmions held of him else- 
where. ^ Unfortunately, there is not any Return in the Liber 

^ Dugdale's Warwickshire, p. 845. 

- Idem., p. 1051. — In his Baronage he says that Ivo, Hugh's heir, rebel- 
ling against Henry I., was deprived of his lands, but obtained the protection 
of Robert, Earl of Leicester, by engaging that his son Ivo should marry the 
Earl's niece, daughter of Henry, Earl of Warwick. It was, probably, 
through the bargain then made that a portion of Hugh de Grentesmesnil's 
Domesday estate came into the possession of these Earls, though Dugdale 
adds that the greater part was restored to Hugh, son of the second Ivo. — 

Baronage, p. 425, 

^ e.g.^ iu Dosthill, see History of Warwickshire, p. 1065. 



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Niger from the then Earl of Leicester, Robert le Bossu, so that 
we have no information as to what either Harcourts or Marmions 
held of him in 1166. Upon his death, two years later, consider- 
able changes may have taken place, for Robert Blanchemains, his 
son and heir, married in that very year Petronilla, the daughter 
and heiress of Hugh de Grentesmesnil, and thus obtained all that 
was left 1 of the Domesday estate of her great grandfather Hugh. 
It was, probably, about this time that Robert de Harcourt, who 
had succeeded his father Ivo, was allowed such complete indepen- 
dence that he claimed to hold both Weston and Queinton direct 
from the Crown, for the de Beaumont Earls were always, as shewn 
in the case of the de Bos'jos,^ liberal in the extreme, and careless 
in enforcing their strict feudal rights. Robert, in fact, was a very 
powerful man at the beginning of the 13th century, for his 
daughter was married to Waleran, Earl of Warwick (who had 
succeeded his brother William), and he was Sheriff of Warwick- 
shire from 1199 to 1202 inclusive, and witnessed Royal Charters 
as a member of the King's Council. In 1205, however, he 
was deprived of all his English estates by King John, for not 
relinquishing his Norman patrimony, and they were given, or, 
perhaps, rather restored, to the first Simon de Montfort, hus- 
band of the elder sister and co-heiress of the last de Beaumont 
Earl of Leicester. In 5th Henry III., however, after Robert de 
Harcourt's death in Normandy, his son Richard came over, and 
on engaging to pay £100 obtained a re-grant of all his father's 
lands in England,^ the Sheriff of Gloucestershire, among others, 
being ordered to give him sasine. " Howbeit," says Dugdale, 
" Simon de Montfort (probably the second of that name) continued 
to hold the possession," though eventually he allowed John, son of 
this Richard de Harcourt, to hold the estates of him. This story 
tallies with a series of entries on the Gloucestershire Pipe Rolls, 
which, as they confirm the fact of Richard's overlordship of 
Queinton, must be here alluded to. The earliest, in 8th Hen. III., 

^ He was not the eldest son, but, owing to the heir remaining in Nor- 
mandy, and to the death of other brothers, he got the estates in England. 

2 See Trans., Vol. XII., Return 1, No.. 2, p. 242. 

3 i^ot. Finium, 



Testa de Nevill. 



345 



is to the effect that Richard de Harcourt has " fined " for two 
fees, Queinton and Weston, as also for the scutage of Poitou in 
respect thereto, £l4c. Out of this sum, we are told in 11th 
Henry III. that Robert Marmion had paid 50 shillings intc the 
treasury, — perhaps as liable for the scutage, — leaving £11 10s. 
still due. This balance of debt is repeated on several Rolls up 
to 26th Henry III., but thereafter ceases to be entered. With 
regard to the Robert Marmion, who contributed the fifty shillings 
in 1227, and who was clearly the same person who is mentioned 
in these Returns as holding Queinton of Richard Harcourt in 
1235, there is abundant proof that he was a younger son of the 
Robert (iii) of Tamworth, who died at the beginning of Henry 
the third's reign, leaving two sons by different wives, who each 
bore their father's christian name, and were distinguished from 
each other as Robert " senior " and Robert "junior." The former 
was abroad, in disgrace, in 3rd Henry III., when the latter fined 
no less than .£500 to have Tamworth castle and the rest of his 
father's inheritance, prudently stipulating, however, that if his 
elder brother were pardoned (as happened two years later) he 
himself should be left in the enjoyment of the Lordships of Wet- 
ringham, in the county of Lincoln ; Berewich, in Suffolk ; and 
Queinton, in Gloucestershire. ^ The inclusion of the last might 
be supposed to indicate that he expected to hold it henceforth 
in capite, were it not for the evidence supplied by these Returns, 
which is corroborated by that of Kirhy^s Quest half a century 
afterwards, wherein John Marmion, Robert's grandson, appears 
as holding it of Philip Marmion (of Tamworth), and he of the 
Earl of Leicester, the mesne tenancy of the Harcourts, if it still 
existed, not being noticed. 

It was urged indeed by John, before the Quo Warranto 
Commissioners in 1287, when he claimed plenary feudal rights in 

^ In 1224 he was forced to admit that he held them of his elder brother 
who alleged that he had live hides in Queinton, whereas Robert, junior, 
pleaded that he only held three, Robert the Bastard holdmg the other two. — 

Bracton's Note Book, No. 98G, 

- As the two manors contained at Domesday no less than 14 hides, it is, 
of course, conceivable that the Marmions held 5 hides in capite, and the 
remainder only of the Honour of Leicester, but, if so, it is strange that this 



346 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



half^ Queinton in virtue of his enfeoffment by Edmund the King's 
brother (on whom the Earldom of Leicester had, after Simon de 
Montfort's forfeiture, been conferred), that notwithstanding the 
vill was of the Honour of Leicester, its subjection to the courts 
thereof had been so nearly nominal that neither he nor his tenants 
were called on for contributions or loans. His claim was on that 
occasion disallowed, on the ground that view of frank-pledge, &c., 
was never given without the special concession of the King, M^hich 
he had not ; but three years later, in 20th Edw. I., the boon was 
conceded, and a charter of Free Warren in Nether Queinton and 
Over Queinton granted him by the King. In 1346 the Lady 
(domina) Marmion paid aid for half a fee in Queinton, " which 
John Marmion formerly held there." 

4L John Fitz Alan, in Aketon Thurville one fee (4), which 
Robert de Turville holds (5). 

William Fitz Alan, as stated in the paper on Return L CNo.lQ), 
died in 1215, and was succeeded by his brother John, who held 
the Honour until his death in 24th Henry III. (1240). Robert 
de Turville, the feoffee, was probably the one who had been 
admitted as heir to his father of the same name in 9th John. 

42. Fulk fitz.Warine, in Alvestan, half a fee, called Hale- 
weston in No. 6, where it appears as a " Capital Honour." 

He was probably the son of Fulk, who in Return I. (No. 28) 
held in Alveston one Knight's fee, and who had paid for his relief 
in 1195, for on the Close Roll of 14th Henry III. the manor is 
confirmed to another Fulk and his heirs, the service being probably 
then reduced as above. 

In Kirhy^s Quest " Halweston " is said to be held by Fulk, son 
of Fulk, in capite as half a fee. It was probably this last Fulk 
who in 3rd Edward II. got leave to alienate Alveston to Walter 
of Gloucester, said by Atkyns and Fosbroke to be his son, but 
quite erroneously, as he is not so described in the Inq. ad qu( d 
damnum. 

was not asserted during the " Quo Warranto " proceedings. What became 
of the 3 hides held by Robert the Bastard is unknown, but a family w^hich 
bore the name of de Quenton existed there, and the de Cloptons also at a 
somewhat later date held the manor of Radwick, in Quenton parish, of the 
Marmions. 



Testa de Nevill. 



347 



43. One third of a fee in Scipton, held by John, son of Simon 
the Templar, it is not known of whom (5). There can be little 
doubt that it was in Scipton Chamfleurs, where, as already- 
mentioned 1,37), the Templars had lands given them by the Chan- 
dos family, for which they claimed view of Frank Pledge, tfec, 
before the Quo Warranto Commission in 1287. John, son of 
Simon, must therefore have held of the Master of the Temple in 
Ena^land. 

44. The Abbot of Evesham, in Weston and Laverstock, one 

fee. 

In Return I. (No. 34) the Abbot of Evesham answered for 
one Knight's fee and the eighth of a fee, but it is not said where 
they are situated. 

The church of Evesham at Domesday held Weston and Stocke, 
in Wideleis Hundred, the latter, with the manor of Hedecote, 
having, we are there told, been put under the protection of the 
abbey by two Knights, probably of Saxon descent. It was, no 
doubt, on this ground that the Military Service continued to be 
exacted. 

Weston is Weston-on-Avon. Stoke, now Larkstoke, is a ham- 
let of Ilmington parish, county Warwick, adjoining Quenton. 

45. The Earl of the Isle, half a fee in Sandhurst, which 
Ralph de Wilinton holds. 

In Return I. (No. 1 8) the Earl of the Isle (of Wight) answered 
for one Knight in Sandhurst, so that the service had been reduced. 

William de Vernun, the then Earl, died about the close of 
John's reign,^ whereupon Ralph de Wilinton, who had held the 
manors of Mary church and Brading of him as one fee, was ap- 
pointed to take chargf^ of his lands in the counties of Hants, 
Dorset, and Somerset. ^ 

The Sheriff of Gloucestershire had already been ordered to 
allow this Ralph to hold 100 solidates of land in Senandon,^ which 

1 Dngdale says 1215. Doyle "before 1217." 

2 Close Roll, 2nd Henry III. 

** I think there can be no doubt that this is a perversion of Sandhurst. 



/ 



348 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Earl William Marshall had committed to him/ and ahout the 
same time he received other similar favours.''^ 

Baldwin de Redvers, grandson of William de Vernun, suc- 
ceeded to the Earldoms of Devon and the Isle, and as he lived till 
1245, was the Earl referred to in these Returns, but it is open to 
doubt whether the Ralph who held of him was not the son of the 
Ralph de Wilington last alluded to, since in the Cartulary of St. 
Peter's, Gloucester, in 1224, he is styled " Junior^-' In his own 
account indeed of his title to the tithes of Sandhurst, bestowed by 
him on that abbey in 1218, as set forth in the recital to a confir- 
mation in 1229, he speaks of the land as having been given to 
himself by King Henry, son of John, but this may refer simply 
to his having had sasine. 

It is, at any rate, certain that so far back as 1203,^ a Ralph 
de Wilington had acquired by fine an interest in several Glouces- 
tershire manors, including Sandhurst, the latter, according to 
Fosbroke, being a member of Yate, although in a different Hun- 
dred; and it seems natural to assume that this was Ralph "senior," 
the first of the family who settled in the county,* no doubt as a 
vassal of the great House of de Redvers, Earls of Devon. 

1 Close Roll, 17th John. 

2 In 17th John, 1215, writ to Sheriff of Gloucestershire to give sasine to 
Bishop of Worcester of manor of Ablinton — " Salvis Radulphi de Wilinton 
catallis suis in eodem manerio." 

In 1216, writ to Sheriff of Worcestershire to give sasine of lands in 
Ablinton to Ralph de Wilinton. 

In 1st Henry III., lands of William de Bushlington in Leicestershire 
granted to Ralph de Wilington. 

In 2nd Henry III. , Sheriff of Gloucestershire to allow Ralph de Wiling- 
ton a weekly market in his manor of Yates (not Sintes, as Fosbroke misread 
it), Sandhurst being a dependency of the manor of Yate. — Rot. Lit. ClauM. 

3 Vol. L, p. 27. 

* Vide Pedes Finium, Glouc, No. 45 of 4th John. 

^ Rudder asserts, in the usual fashion, that they held Willington Court, 
in Sandhurst, soon after the Conquest, and tries to support the assertion by 
misquoting the date of a grant made by Ralph (ii) and his wife Olimpia in 
12th Henry III., as if it had been in 12th Henry I. The Cartulary, by mis- 
take, has 12th Henry II., but the name of the abbot suggests the correction. 
The family, in fact, was of humble origin, the Ralph de Wilington of 
Edward I.'s time, maintaining before the ,Quo Warranto Commissioners his 
right to be hereditary " Beadle" of a portion of the Hundred of Buddlegh, 
CO, Devon. 



Testa de Nevill. 



34d 



The de Wilingtons, always maintained a close connection with 
Devonshire, Ralph (ii) being its Sheriff in 38th Hen. III., and his 
son Henry, during the reign of Edw. I., whilst his great grandson 
was summoned to parliament in 16th Edw. III. as Baron Wi'ing- 
ton, of the county of Devon. Shortly after the beginning of the 
young King Henry's reign, Ralph de Wilinton, " Junior," evidently 
stood high in the confidence of the government. He was made 
Constable of Bristol Castle in 1224, and in that capacity acted for 
two years as gaolor of the unfortunate Eleanor, the King's cousin, 
receiving an allowance of four Knights' scutages for his sustenance. 
In 1233 he became Governor of the Castle of Devizes, a post which 
he exchanged two years later for that of collector of this aid for 
marrying the King's sister, not it may be surmised a very con- 
genial task for one accustomed to exercise authority in military 
matters. 

This concludes the List of Honours in No. 4, but two names 
are added in No. 5 to this assessment, viz. — 

46. Godfrey de Craucombe, a quarter of a fee in Dunamenel. 
He is thus assessed for Down Amney alone, as in Return III. 
No. 1., no allusion being made to the other Gloucestershire manor, 
Pinnockshire, which had been conferred on him by King John.' 
That he continued, however, to hold the latter till his death is 
certain, since an Inquisition, taken after the event, is extant,- 
wherein the jurors, on the strength of minute details, declare it 
worth £13 10s. 2d. per annum. The writ ordering this Inquisition 
(the only one relating to his possessions which remains, though 
we know from the Testa de Nevill that he held as well in the 
counties of Hereford, "Wilts, Dorset, Oxon, and Huntingdon) has 
not been preserved, and as, unfortunately, the usual information 
as to the day of his death, and the heirs to his lands, is omitted 

1 Trans., Vol. XII. p. 283. 

2 Vide Calendar Inq. post mort., Vol. I. p. 41, incerti temporis Hen. III. 
No. 21, Galfridus de Craucombe. It runs : " Inquisitio facta coram Abbate 
de Pershore Escaetore Domini Regis citra Trentam, et Dom. Galfiido de 
Langley, super extentu terre in Pinnockscire cum p'tais que fuit Codefridi 
de Craucombe," &c., &c. The word Pinnockslnre proved a stumbling block 
to the compilers, who entered him as having died seized of lands in Pershore, 
Laforde and Lahide, in Worcestershire, the two latter names picked, ap- 
parently, at random from the description in the Extent. 



350 



Transactions for the Vear 188S-0. 



by the jurors, tlie only clue to the date of the former arises from 
the fact that such Inquisition was made before the Abbot of Per- 
shore, as escheator south of Trent. Eleurius, the abbot in question, 
was not elected till 19th March, 1249,^ so that it is improbable 
that Godfrey de Craucombe died earlier than the middle of the 
13th century, though he must then have been upwards of three 
score and ten, assuming him to have been over thirty at the time 
of his naval command under King J ohn. 

Apart from the silence of the Inquisition, the presumption 
seems to be that he left no issue, for we find Down Amney re- 
verting to the heiress of its former owner, and his other manors 
distributed by the crown. There can be little doubt, at any rate, 
that he died without male heirs, for the name does not occur 
again either in the Index to the Testa, or in the Calendar of 
Escheats brought from the Tower. 

47. Walter de Clifford one fee in Frampton, held of him by 
Richard de Clifford. 

The manor of Frampton-on-Severn, which had descended from 
Drogo fitz Ponz, of Domesday, the first of this family, was con- 
firmed, after much litigation, during the reign of Richard I. 
to Richard de Clifibrd, to be held by him of his older brother 
Walter, who then recovered the Shropshire Barony. 

Richard was the first to die, for in 1213 Walter de Cliff'ord 
fined 100 marks and a palfrey, to have the custody of the land 
and heirs of Richard de Clifibrd, his brother, in Frampton.*^ 

Walter's death followed ten years later (7th Henry III.), so 
that the above Return relates to a second generation, each of the 
cousins bearing his father's christian name. 

Though Walter's liability for the aid of 1235 is here recorded, 
it would appear that Richard was really looked to for payment, 
since on the Fine Roll of 27th Henry III. an order to the Sheriff 
appears, to postpone the collection of scutage for one fee in Framp- 
ton on the ground that Richard de Clifford is in foreign parts with 
the King. 

1 Dugdale's Monasticon, Pershore Abbey. 

2 Rot. de Oblatis et Finibus, p. 485. 



Testa i»e Xevill. 



351 



At the close of the Return No. 6, four more tenants in capife 
are referred to by name, though the amounts owing by only the 
two first of them are entered, viz. — 

48. Richard de Crupes three fees held by himself. These fees 
were, respectively : Whittington, in Gloucestershire ; Baldington, 
in Oxfordshire : and Ordington, in Berkshire. Henry de Scrupes,^ 
their lord in 1210, held only the first in demesne, the other two 
beins: then in the hands of his feofiees. 

It is not known in what year Richard succeeded, but he clearly 
cannot have been a son of Roger de Berkeley's widow whom 
Henry fined to marry in 1221. 

According to the pedigree put forward by Sir Harris Nicolas, ^ 
Henry's immediate successor was a son named William, this 
Richard being his grandson. This, however, is on the basis of 
Dugdale's theory that the Gloucestershire D' Escrupes, and the 
Yorkshire Le Scropes, were for three centuries after the Conquest 
one and the same family, a theory which it is quite impossible on 
investigation to accept. It is sufliciently refuted in the case of 
this very Richard, M-ho is set down as dying before 1279, ivithout 
issue, whereas the inquisition on his death proves that he left a 
son and heir, Richard de Crupes. alias Croupes, of the age of 
twenty-eight years. ^ We learn from Kirhy's Quest ^ that this 
latter Richard held Whittington of the King in 1285 as one fee, 
and it further appears from an entry in the Return of the 
Collection of the Aid for Knighting the Black Prince in 1346,^ 
that the manor was subsequently held by Robert de Crupes, whose 
name, like that of the second Richard, finds no place in Sir 
Harris's pedigree, wherein the succession is made to pass direct 
from the first Richard to Sir William le Scrope of Bolton. 

49. Pagan de Chaurcis, twelve and a half fees, of Pagan de 
Mundubbel's. 

1 Return I. No. 16. 

- History of the Manor of Castle Combe, by Pou'ett Scrope. 
3 Calendarium Genealogicum, p. 264, where Rot. Fin. 6th Edward I. is 
also quoted. 

* Trans. Bristol and Glouc. Arch. Society, Vol. XT. p. 145. 
^ Idem., Vol. X. p. -281. 



352 



Transactions von the Year 1888-9. 



The history of tlie family of Oadurcis, Chaurcis, or Chaworth, 
was sketched in my paper on Return I., in connection with the 
Earl of Salisbury (No. 5) and the custom of its head's assuming the 
title of Montdoubleau, from their original seat in France, alluded 
to. The Pagan above-named, probably grandson of the Pagan de 
Mundubbel, who asserted a claim to these twelve and a half fees 
in his Return in the Liber Niger, had been compelled in 1218 to 
defend his rights against a law-suit brought by William Long- 
sword, Earl of Salisbury,^ who claimed the Gloucestershire Barony 
of Kempsford in right of his wife Ela, descended from the first 
Patrick de Cadurcis. Pagan must have died within a few years 
of the date of these Returns, for in 27th Henry III. Pa'rick de 
Chaworth obtained the grant of a market in that manor. On 
Patrick's death, in 42nd Henry III.,^ another Pagan succeeded, 
who, dying in 54th Henry III., without issue, was replaced by 
his brother Patrick, after whose decease in 1283,^ the barony 
passed to his infant daughter, eventually married to Henry Earl 
of Lancaster. 

50. The Earl Marshal, sixty five and a half fees, of the 
Honours of Striguil and Castle Goderich. 

Gilbert, one of the four sons of William who inherited this 
earldom in rapid succession, held it from 1234 to 1236, and must 
therefore be the Earl here referred to.* 

Few of his fees were in Gloucestershire. In Return 1 (No. 3), 
the Earl, his grandfather, held in Badgworth and Stanhouse, with 
dependencies, three Knights. Daglingworth, though then omit- 
ted, was likewise held of his Honour down to the time of Kirhy^s 
Quest. 

51. The Earl of Gloucester, two hundred and sixty one and a 
half fees, answered for in Kent by Richard de Lade,^ "who has 
his lands in custody." 

1 See Bracton's Note Book, Vol. II. p. 3, No. 3. 

Inq. p.m. 42nd Hen. III. No. 26. 
3 Inq. p.m. 11th Edw. L No. 3. 
^ Doyle's Official Baronage. 

^ He is called Richard de la Hyde in a repetition of this entry at p. 413, 
but there was a Richard de la Lade in- Wilts in 25th Henry HI.— ^(^66r. 
Placit. 



Testa de Nevill. 



353 



On the death of Gilbert de Clare, in 1230, his son Richard 
^vas but eight years old, and consequently, at the date of these 
Returns, still remained a ward of the Crown. 

In Return 1, No. 25, the Honour of Gloucester answered for 
twenty seven and three quarter fees in the county, but it was then 
apportioned among several claimants, and a larger number not im- 
probably pertained to it now. 

The last two entries are evidently by way of memorandum 
only, and the same may be said as to that which follows, viz. : — 
"The Abbot of Winchcumbe will answer with the prelates." 
As this recalls to mind that, in 12th and 13th John, the con- 
tributions of the church were included with those of the laity, 
whereas, in 19th and 20th Henry III., they were recorded separ- 
ately, it may be well to insert here copy of a list of the sums paid 
by the prelates for lands in Gloucestershire at the latter date, as 
extracted, according to the practice of the compilers of the Testa, 
from a General Roll of Contributions of Religious Houses through- 
out the kingdom, and tacked on, without heading, to a Return of 
Serjeanties, &c., which will be found at page 825. 

This list, however, will do little to render a comparison be- 
tween the Returns of the two periods more complete, few of the 
contributors, at the two periods, being identical. Thus the Arch- 
bishop of York and the Bishops of Worcester and Bath, are 
omitted in the later one, as is also the Abbot of Evesham ; but, 
on the other hand, the Abbots of Tewkesbury and of St. Augus- 
tine's, Bristol, and the Prior of Lanthony, are now included, 
whilst the Abbot of Gloucester, instead of holding his possessions 
free, as before, is called on to pay the large sum of one hundred 
marks. Moreover, no fewer than five cells belonging to foreign 
religious houses, whose revenues had probably been sequestrated 
on account of the war with France, appear for the first time as 
contributing. 

The acffifrefjafce of the sums thus accounted for amounts to 
£189 2s. 3d., which contrasts favourably with the lay subsidy. 
Vol. XIII. z 



354 



TuANSACTioNs FOR THE Year 1888-9 



There is no title nor explantation of what the aid is raised for, 
but the mere fact of its being paid, in most cases " in two tallies," 
serves to identify it with that of 19th and 20th Henry III. 

MARKS. £ s. d. 

1 Prior of Esseling ^ (sic) - - - - - 3 6 8^ 

2 Prior of Horseley (Cell of Troarz Abbey) - - 5 0 0 

3 Prior of Lantony - - - - - 20 

4 Abbot of Gloucester - - - - 100 

5 Abbot of Tewkesbury - - - - - - 20 0 0 

6 Priory of Deerhurst (Cell of St. Denis) - 20 

7 Prior of Beckford (Cell of St. Barbe en Auge) 6 

8 Prior of Newent (Cell of Cormailles Abbey) 10 0 0 

9 Abbot of Cirencester - 20 0 0 

10 Prior of Lantony 2 20 

11 Abbot of Winchcumbe - - - - 10 

12 Abbot of St. Augustine's, Bristol - - 20 



58 6 8J 



Total marks 196 = 130 15 61 
£189 2 3 



In order to facilitate comparisons I append, in tabulated form, 
a summary of the holdings of the tenants in capite in 1210 and in 
1235 respectively, wdth the amount of the assessment on each at 
the latter period. It will be seen that at the former date, exclud- 
ing lands held by the church and by serjeanty, 46 tenants held 
165 fees, whereas, in the subsequent Keturns, 51 are enumerated 
holding 157, if we assume that those of the Earl Marshall and 
Earl of Gloucester remained unaltered. The difference, therefore, 
between the two Returns is not material, and is due to omissions 

1 Esselegh, at p. 413, where the sum of five marks is set down as still 
due by the Prior. No such priory is mentioned in the Index to the Monas- 
ticon as having ever existed in Gloucestershire, or any where else. Ashley, 
the only place in the county that can be supposed to be meant, was a 
chapelry of the church of Cheltenham, and belonged, like it, to the abbey of 
Cirencester, which, it will be seen, is duly assessed. 

2 I suppose this repetition of the former entry refers to payment of the 
second instalment of the aid. In all the^ other cases, from Nos. 6 to 12, it 
i§ said to be paid in two tallies. 



Testa de Nevill. 



5 



arising from wardship or other causes, of which a note is added in 
the case of both {appen. b.), as also to a reduction in the service in 
several instances at the later date. Without entering into details, 
which would be tedious, it may be assumed from the data there 
presented that the Crown was entitled to feudal services from 
about 175 Knights' fees in the county. This would make the 
levy of an aid of two marks equal in value to £233 lis. 3d. 
gross, but, as we have seen, a considerable deduction had to be 
submitted to in practice. 

The aggregate of the amounts for which the collectors of 
1235-6 rendered account appears from Table A. to have been 
£152 16s. 7d.,i and even adding to this 25 marks for the twelve and 
a half fees of Pagan de Chaworth, and 61 J marks for those of the 
Earl Marshal and of the Honour of Gloucester, which would give 
£57 lis. Id. more, the total is £210 7s. 5d. only. Adding the 
£189 2s. 3d. derived from the prelates, Gloucestershire therefore 
contributed as nearly as possible £400 on this occasion — not a 
very large amount for a wealthy county. Indeed, however, sup- 
plemented by tallages from Towns, payments from serjeanties, 
and other minor sources of revenue, it is not easy to comprehend 
how the total marriage portion of £20,000 was made up, unless 
other parts of the kingdom contributed in larger proportion. 

In conclusion, it may be worth while to call special attention 
to the changes which had taken place during the quarter of a 
century in the ranks of the Crown tenants. Owing to the failure 
of direct male heirs, and the consequent division of fiefs among 
daughters, these had been by no means inconsiderable. The 
Gloucestershire fees of the Earldom of Leicester had passed 
definitely with a younger sister of the last de Beaumont Earl to 
the De Quencies Earls of Winchester ; the Earldom of Chester had 
already undergone partial dismemberment ; and the Barony of 
Newmarch had been divided into two through the same cause : 
whilst, not to mention minor instances, the Barony of Cormailles, 
one of the eight remaining in 1210 which had come down from 
father to son since the Conquest, had likewise been partitioned 

^ Viz., \b^ marks-£102 6s. 8d. -f-£50 9s. lid. =£152 lOs. 7cb, not 
£158 5s. 8d., as at p. 413. 
z 2 



356 



Transactions t-'on the Veah 18S8-9. 



among the three co-heiresses of Walter de Cormailles, its fees 
appearing in these Returns under four different headings. The 
result of all this was of course to augment the number of tenants 
in capite, but at the expense of the size and importance of their 
holdings, the effect socially being often enhanced by the heiresses 
of great lords marrying sub-feoffees of merely knightly rank, 
some of them not previously connected with the county. As yet, 
however, the process had not gone very far. and though acceler- 
ated during the Barons' Wars, it was reserved for the 14th century, 
with its pestilences, its rebellions, and its Scottish and French 
Campaigns, to bring about the extinction of the original Norman 
families of Gloucestershire, and the almost universal disintegration 
of their Domesday fiefs. Portions of the latter no doubt continued 
to be held for centuries afterwards by junior branches, or in right 
of female descent, but the direct male line of all those barons, 
who had held "from the conquest of England," had ceased to 
exist by the time Henry IV. ascended the throne. 



KVDIX A. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENT. 



1235. 

Rkturx of Hoxofrs, 

Xo. 4. 
Karl of Hereford 
K;-rI of Warwick 
^mas de Berkeley 
tert Musard - 
nh de Sudley 
. iiam de Putot 1 
N .ch. de Oxehaye J 
\A'illiam de Hastings - 
Herbert fil. Peter 5 ' 
Xicholas de Molend^ - 
Ingelard de Dursley ■ 
Ralph Russell - 
William de Gamages ■ 
Hub. Hose (R.Waleys] 
John de Monmouth ■ 
Thurstan le Dispenser 
John Cotele 
Henry le Fleming 
Robert de Gurnay 
Xicholas lil. Roger 
Arnold de Bosco 
(E. of Leicester's Hon. ) 
Walter de Lacy 
William Pantulf 
James de Solers 
William de Stuteville 
Walter de Baskerville 
Earl of Chester - 
Abbot of Westminster 
Warine de Munchausy 
Walter de Ashley 
Honour of Cormailles 
Earl of Arundel 
William de Cantilupe 
Henry de Penbridge - 
Ralph de Mortimer - 
Stephen d'Evereus 
Bishop of Rochester - 
Roger de Chandos 
Henry de Vere - 
Mathew de Lovein 
Richard de Harcourt 
John litz Alan - 
Fulk fitz Warine 
John fitz Simon - 
Abbot of Evesham 
Earl of the Isle - \ 
Ralph Wilington / 
Additions ix Xo. 5. 
Godfrey de Craucombe 
Walter de Clifford - 
Additions ix X'o. 6. 
Richard de Crupes 



Pagan de Chaworth 



Earl Marshall - 
Earl of Gloucester 



Retc 

Fees. 
Ill 

H 
5 
2i 
3 

1 

5 

6t 
8f 



Rx OF Assessment, 
X^o. 5-6. 

MARKS £ S. d. 

10 



1 
1 

h 
i 

2 
1 



1 

2 

Hi 

2 

1 

1 

2i 



1 

3 

1134 
121 



126/, 
3 ? 

151 ^\ 



6 



10 



16i 

4 
2 
2 
6 

1 
1 
5 
1 
1 



2 
6 

153^ 
25 



6 

554 



3 0 0 



11 U 2| 



0 4 6 



11 0 0 



Xo. 

6 
4 
7 

10 
11 

30 

13 
40 
12 
8 

12 
43 
29 
14 



1210. 

Names. 

Earl of Hereford - 
Earl of Warwick - 
Honour of Berkeley 
Ralph Musard 
Ralph de Sudley - 

Robt. de Amneville 

John de Hastings 
Peter fil. Herbert 
Jas. de Xewmarch 
Roger de Berkeley 
Jas. de Xewmarch 
Wm. de Gamages 
Richard le Waleys 
John de Monmouth 



17 Alard le Fleming 



2 Arnold de Bosco 



0 0 2i 26 Walter de Lacy 
0 10 

9 Walt, de Cormailles 



0 8 11 

2 12 0 

0 5 4 

1 0 0 

0 8 lOi 



50 9 11 



119 0 0 
4 0 0 
37 0 0 



210 9 11 



9 Walt, de Cormailles 

1 Earl of Chester 

35 Ab. of Westmmster 

23 Wm, de ]Munchausy 

42 Walter de Ashley - 

9 Walt, de Cormailles 

1 Earl of Chester 

9 Walt, de Cormailles 

22 Rog. de Mortimer 



15 Robert de Chandos 
20 Henry de Vere 



19 William fitz Alan 

28 Fulk fitz W^arine 

34 Abbot of Evesham 

18 Earl of the Isle 

- Warine fitz Gerald 

16 Henry d'Escrupes 



3 Earl Marshall 

!5 Hon. of Gloucester 



See Aiipendix B. 



358 



Testa de Nkvill. 



APPENDIX B. 



No.in Omissions in 1210. 




No.in Omissions in 1235 






1235. 


FEES 


1210 


FEES 


£ 


15 Thiirstan le Dispenser - 


2 


21 William de Kaynes 


o 




16 John Cotele - 


h 


24 Elias Giffard 


9 




22 William Pantnlf - - 


2. 


27 Honour of Walingford - 






32 Wm. de Cantilupe 


1 
2 


40 Peter f. Herbert, Tetbury 




35 Stephen D'Evereux 


1. 


41 Ilbert de Hereford 




6 


36 Bishop of Rochester 


r 


44 Theobald le Blund 




10 


39 Matthew de Lovein 


1 


45 Walesius de Cotes 




30 


40 Richard de Harcourt 




Lands of the Normans. 






43 Knights Templars 




1 Geoffrey de Lacy, Hayles 






49 Pagan de Chaworth 




2 Godfrey de Craucombe, 








Pinnock 

4 E. of Salisbury, Amney 







I do not go on with the other names in the list of lands of the Normans, 
because they relate to lands given to the Church or held in Serjeanty, which I 
purposely exclude. 

No. 41, 44, and 45, might also have been omitted, as they are only grants 
for life out of the Royal Demesne. 

If these omissions were added to the total enumerated in 1235, viz. : 1572V 

24;V 

It would bring the total to 181 xV 



But some of the fees of Pagan de Chaworth and of Elias GifFard 

were in Wiltshire, and I imagine 175 fees 

is a fair estimate for the county of Gloucester. 



Paktsh of Bkookthorpe. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE PARISH OF BROOKTHORPE. 

BY THE 

Rev. J. MELLAND HALL, M.A., Rector of Harescombe. 

Brookthorpe is situated in the Hundred of Dudstone and 
King's Barton, four miles on the south of Gloucester ; and is 
intersected by the turnpike road leading thence to Stroud. 

Portions of Harescombe and Whaddon were formerly inter- 
mingled with it, and detached pieces adjoined the Church of 
Pitchcombe, three miles distant. The operation of the " Divided 
Parishes Act," (1882), has removed these anomalies, and its 
present boundary line includes certain scattered lands formerly 
belonging to Whaddon, Harescombe and Quedgeley, whilst the 
remaining outlying portions have been, for the most part, annexed 
to the civil parishes of Harescombe and Pitchcombe. 

The Manor. 

What cause of offence the first lord of Brookthorpe (of whom 
we have any certain knowledge) had given King Harold, we know 
not J but it appears from the Domesday Survey that, during his 
brief reign, Aluric, lord of Brostorp was dispossessed of his lands, 
as were also Edmar, lord of Haresfield, Sandhurst and Hatherly, 
and Wiflet, lord of Harescombe. " In Brostorp Aluric held iii 
virgates of land : he had two plough teams, one villein, three 
'bordarers,' four serfs." 

At the date of the Survey, these five manors, which were taken 
away by Harold after the death of King Edward, were in the 
hands of the Sheriff, Roger de Ivreio, who had put them to farm 
for £46 13s. 4d. per annum. 

This Roger, who had obtained Siward's great lordship of 
Tetbury, containing twenty hides, married Adelisa, a daughter of 
Hugh de Grentmesnil, whose donation of Brock tliorp Cluu cli and 



360 



Transactions for the Ykar 1888-9. 



Manor to the Abbey of St. Peter is thus recorded — "Adeliza 
uxor Rogeri de Breio dedit ecclesije Sancti Petri Gloucestriaj 
Brocthrop tempore Serlonis Abbatis cum ecclesia ibidem. 

This grant was confirmed by a charter of Henry I. The 
tithes of the demesne of Brockthorpe were granted by Walter the 
Constable to the Church of St. Owen in Gloucester, probably 
between the years 1101 and 1131. The possessions of this church, 
however, not long afterwards, were almost entirely absorbed in the 
foundation of the new Lanthony at Gloucester, and by charter, 
dated in 1181, the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, on the 
petition of Roger Fitz Alan, granted the tithes of five virgates of 
land which the villeins of Brockthorp held, and which pertained 
to the Church of St. Owen, to the chaplain of his Chapel of 
Harescombe.2 

Between 1148 and 1179, Gilbert de Myners confirmed a 
grant of lands in " Brocthrope " which Roger Parvus had made in 
the time of Abbot Hameline, who also obtained from Roger and 
Hugh his heir, eight acres near the Court of Brocthrop. 

Hugh, holding a virgate of land of the monastery, situated 
near Queddesley, at an annual rent of ten shillings, some dispute 
arose, which was referred to arbitration — one of arbitrators being 
Gilbert Foliot, Bishop of Hereford, and previously Abbot of St. 
Peter's ; it was decided that Roger, son and heir of Hugh, should 
grant a virgate of sixty-four acres " in his manor of Brocthrop to 
the Church of Gloucester" — " non de ipso tenendam, sed ab ejus 
tenura et feodo comitis," but lest this should be deemed too favour- 
able to the monastery and too disadvantageous to Roger, he was to 
receive seven marcs of silver ; thus, says the bishop, the assent of 
the Earl of Hereford having been obtained, this virgate at 
Brocthrop passed into the possession of the church and St. Peter 
(1148-63). 

William de ' Punthdelarge (Pont de I'Arch), with the assent 
of Margaret his wife and their heirs, granted to God and St. 
Peter, and the abbot and convent, the course of a certain spring 

1 Hist, et Cart. Hon. Scti Petri, Glouc, I., 62, 123. 

2 Trans. B. & Glouc. Arch. Soc, Vol.'X., p. 88. 

3 Hist. etCart. Vol. I., p. 177. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



361 



called Bersewelle — which rose in the field of Brockthrop ; and it 
was conceded that they might make a watercourse, two feet wide, 
through ' Cuthesthorne ' and the land which William Bisp held of 
the said William, and thence *at their convenience until '".hey 
come to their Court of Brocthrop', provided that if any impedi- 
ment arose in the said land, it should be lawful for the abbot 
and his men to have free entry to remove it.^ 

John " le Hay ward de Grofende " granted an acre and a half, 
arable, lying in Kylthornescrofte, between the land of Walter de 
Oure and the grove of Robert de la Felde, to the abbot and convent 
for ever, rendering to him and his heirs one silver penny at the 
feast of the Nativity of Our Lord, for all services, for which con- 
cession, the abbot and monks gave him a cow and a calf 

" Alexander Heremon, by the counsel and forethought of his 
parents and friends," quit claimed for himslf and heiis to Henry 
Foliot (Abbot, 1228-43) all his right in a farundel of land and a 
messuage with appurtenances, in the ville of Brocthrop, which 
Walter le Graunger formerly held ; for which he received seven 
shillings of silver. ^ 

A messuage and three virgates here were given to Sir Henry 
Rous by King Henry III,, says the Chartulary, but afterwards 
claiming to hold the land of the Earl of Hereford,* Edward 
"ousted him and compelled him to redeem it by the payment of 
fifty marcs, half a marc per annum, and suit of court." It was 
found by the inquisition taken on the death of Henry's son. Sir 
Roger le Rous, dated 22nd Edward I. ,^ that he held three virgates 
of land of the king in capite, belonging to the Berton of Glouces- 
ter by socage, 6s. 8d. rent per annum, and suit of court at the 
King's Berton, John son and heir.^^ 

In the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, a.d. 1291, we find the 
abbey rated for two carucates in this manor of " Brotehrop "— 
each carucate worth 30s. per annum, and 6s. 8d. for relief from 
work ; total value £3 6s. 8d. 

1 Hist, et Cart., Vol. I., p. 175. Hist, et Cart. Voi. II., p. 200. 

2 Hist, et Cart. Vol. I., p. 177. ^ Fosbrooke. Vol. I., p. 209. 

^ Inq. p. m. 22nd Edw. I., (No. 5). Ibid, Fosbrooke cites this inquisition 
but it is not now extant. 



362 



Transactions for the Ykar 1888-0. 



When Roger, Earl of Hereford, became a monk at Gloucester, 
he gave to the abbey one hundred solidates of land in the county 
of Hereford ; but in the time of his brother Walter de Hereford, 
these were exchanged for six virgates near Haresfield. Four of 
these being in ' Harescumbe,' and adjoining the manor of the 
abbey at Brockthrop, were annexed to it ; hence in the " Extent 
of Broctrope," given in the Chartulary, it is difficult to distinguish 
between them ; some tenants, described as of Harescombe, holding 
lands situate in Brookthorpe : — 

Reginald Atteparde had a messuage with curtilage, a virgate 
of 40 acres and a grove, rent 13s. 4d. ; he was required to give 7s. 
of aid, to provide one man to reap in the autumn for three days ; 
he was to have pannage for his pigs, for which he was to pay Id. 
per annum for pigs of over one year old, and |d, for those under 
that age ; if he brewed and sold his ale, he paid " octo lagenas 
as toll ; if he sold a horse, shod, 4d. ; if unshod id. ; he could not 
alienate his son or give his daughter in marriage without license, 
and he was to make suit at the Hallimot Court. After his death, 
the lord should have his best chattel as heriot, and his heirs should 
be admitted to the land at the will of the lord ; and his widow, if 
she died in the same lands, should be treated as the said Reginald. 
Richard de Holeberwe, Elyas Bunte, Will. Colston, and Robt. de 
Felda de Brocthrop held their lands on like terms. Adam Atte- 
hulle. Rich. Oswolde, Hen. Mereyet, Rich. DanyeV Robert Locke, 
Walter le Bonde ; ' Lundinarii ' or ' Mondayers,' (from their being 
bound to work on the lands of the abbey each Monday), Walerond, 
J ohn Colston, Robt. Bissop, Will. Colston ; these are followed by 
the cottagers who held messuages with curtilages, and laboured 
for the abbey in time of harvest, &o., the value of their services 
being 62s. lid. per annum. 

There is now an interval of a hundred and fifty years marked 
by many stirring events in our national history, during which 
we have no record of this manor.^ 

1 A flagon or stone bottle. — Ed. 

2 The name of this man probably survives in that of the stream called 
" Daniel's Brook, ^ Heg. Braanche. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



363 



By Indenture, dated lOtli June, 16th Hen. VII., (1501), the 
Abbot granted to Andrew Nyblett, his wife Johanna, and a son 
yet unborn, a lease of the site of the Manor of Brokethrope with 
appurtenances, also the reversion of a certain pasture called " Le 
Burne " which John Nyblett held for the term of 70 years, after 
the death or surrender of the said John, if they or the survivor of 
them should so long live, rendering to the Cellarer of the monas- 
tery <£8 per annum, for the tithes 40s., and for the pasture 10s., 
and to the vicar for pension assigned 33s. 4d., at the Feast of St. 
Michael, the Nativity of our Lord, the Nativity of St. John 
Baptist, and the Annunciation of the B.V. Mary, by equal 
portions. 

Twenty years afterwards, 5th Sept., 1514, (6th Hen. VIII. )^ 
a lease of the same premises was granted to Andrew Nyblett, 
Johanna his wife, and Agnes and Margaret their daughters, for a 
like term of 70 years,^ and on the surrender of this, a new lease 
dated Oct. 23rd., 1528, (20th Henry VIII.) to Andrew Niblett, 
Johanna his wife, and Robert Wood, and Margaret his wife, for a 
similar term of 70 years, and a like rent. This is, apparently, the 
beginning of the connection of the family of Wood with this 
manor, which lasted for a hundred and eighty years. This 
Robert will be the Rot)ert a Wood,'^ who paid P. viii^. on xix^\ 
He died ante 1584, and Richard his son, in that year paid sub- 
sidy. In 1598 the latter was buried in the chancel, where was 
formerly a brass plate with this inscription : 

''H^Mt X\)t Ijotii? of i^tdjartJ OTooti, (Sent, tofio 
after tije ptignmage of lit geare.Q surrentiereli ijis 
sottle mto tibe ijanUes of i^tss MeQeemer — l^flense 
Jfunu, ^utto MMxxxx^^iil 

Vixtm post funera bibtt/' 

The abbot and convent granted July 1st, 1504, (1 9th Hen. VI.) 
to Symon Wyman, Johanna his wife, and Edward their son, for a 
term of 70 years, at a rent of 27s. 4d. per annum, the reversion of 
two messuages with appurtenances, meadows, &c., in "Brookthorpe 
and Harescombe," which Thomas Organ had formerly held.'^ Also, 

1 Reg. Malvern. 2 jbid., 912. 

3 Subsidy Rolls, 4th & 5th Phil, and Mary. Reg. Braunche, fol. 38. 



364 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



in 3rd Jan., 1529, to William Walter, Margaret his wife, and 
John their son, a messuage with one virgate and appurtenances, 
lying in Brokethrope and Harscombe, lately in the tenure of Simon 
Colley, for 61 years, paying to the cellarer 16s. 8d. per annum 
suit at the court for the manor of Brokethrop and Harscombe, 
heriot, 13s. 4d. ; Housebote, hey bote and fyrebote as usual. ^ Also 
to Edward Harres and Mabella his wife, on Oct. 23rd., 1538, three 
farundels of land, — the name occurs in Subsidy Roll, 4 and 5 Phil, 
and Mary, where he pays 24:S. on a rateable value of ix^^ A family 
bearing this name has been connected with this parish and that of 
Whaddon, till quite recently. 

Under the year 1532, (23rd Hen. VIII) we meet with a very 
interesting document, ^ viz., a grant by the abbot and convent to 
John Niblett ^ and Richard Organ, proctors of the Church of St. 
Swithyn, of Brokethrope, of a house built upon a parcel of land 
there, and called the " Churche House," for a term of 80 years, 
paying 4d. per annum to the collector of rents. A chamber called 
" le Crosse Chamber " to be used by the presbyters who celebrate 
the divine oifices, but when the wardens are preparing for the 
Church Ales * or similar entertainments, they are otherwise to 
accommodate the priest.^ 

The abbey registers show that serfdom existed on their 
manors so late as the 16th century.^ In 1505, Abbot Braunche 
and the convent declare that they have manumitted and set at 
liberty John Bond, a " native" of their demesne of Brokethrope, 
with all his children (sequela) already begotten, or in the future 

1 Reg. Malvern, Vol. II., p. 37. 

2 Reg. Malvern, Vol. II., p. 392. 

^ The will of John Nyblett was proved a.d. 1543, and has been printed 
in Olouc. Notes and Queries, Vol. II., p. 350. 

Vide Recoi'ds of Gloucester Cathedral, Vol. I., 125-6. 

^ The Church House was an important factor in ancient parochial life, 
in and around it festive gatherings and public games were held. Every 
parish possessed such a building— Whitsun Alea, Bride Ales, Church Ales, 
Clerk Ales, Bid Ales were found an easy mode of raising money and enter- 
taining friends, and " many an honest man decayed in his estate was again 
set up by the benevolent contribution of his neighbours " at such feasts. 

^ For Manumission granted in 1575, See History of Trvig, by Sir John 
Maclean, F.S.A., Vol. 11. , p. 269. 



Parish of BrooktKorpe. 



365 



begotten,^ together with all his goods and chattels whatsoever, 
so that thenceforth neither the abbot and convent, nor their 
successors, ^\ill have any right or title or claim or demand in 
connexion with him, " vel vendicare poterimus in futuro " : — to 
this charter their common seal was affixed in the chapter house, 
Nov. 2.2 

There is a later charter, dated Dec. 18th, 1507, which mentions 
J ohn Bond, alias J olin Buckland, (another of their manors) lately 
of our Manor of Brokethrope." 

The "Valor Eccles." 1534, furnishes us with the returns for 
this manor : — 



Rents of Assize of Customary 
Tenants in Brokethrope, per 
annum _ . . 

Bents of Customary Tenants in 
Harscombe, per annum 

" Site " of Manor and Demesne 
Lands, per annum - 

Perquisites of the Court held there 

Farm of the Rectory, per annum 
Reprises : 

Fee of Thomas Morgan, Bailiff 
and Collector of Rents, per 
annum _ . . 

Annual Pension paid to the Per- 
petual Yicar there - 

Clear yearly value - 



£ s. 

16 13 

4 9 



13 

5 



2 0 



d. 

6 

4 
3 
0 



33 



1 2| 



0 9 4 



1 13 4 



£30 18 6f 



At the Dissolution of Religious Houses this manor was happily 
chosen to form a portion of the endowment of the new See of 

^ A Commission was issued on the 5th March, 1628, to Sir Thomas Wise 
and others, to examine the tenures in villenage of the tenants of the Kiu^, 
and compound with them, (State Papers, Dom., Charles I.) Moreover' 
tenures in villenage continued as late as 1654, as shewn by various petitions] 
in very violent language, presented to Oliver Cromwell from tenants of 
manors in some of the northern counties, complaining cf the services due 
to the Lords according to the customs of the manors from time immemorial, 
and the petitioners allege "• that they are kept as absolute vassals and bond- 
slaves to their (the Lords') tyrannous and perverse wills, and ourselves and 

- Reg. Braunche, fol. 118. 



366 



Transactions for the Year 1S88-9. 



Gloucester founded in 1544, by Henry YIII, The foundation 

charter mentions " All those our Manners of , . . - 

Brokethrope and Harescombe in Our County of Gloucester, with 
all their rights, members^ and appurtenances " — and a yearly pay- 
ment of 26s. 8d. to the bailiff thereof. This grant was confirmed 
6th Edward VI. Willis gives the annual value, in 1541, as £28 
13s. 9d. In 1647, the "present profitts" of these manors aver- 
aged £29 10s. per annum, 'worth upon improvements over and 
above the said annual rent £200 ' ; and on the subsequent sale of 
Bishops' Lands, " the Manors of Brockesthropp and Harescombe " 
were purchased by Arthur Cresswell and John Watson for the 
sum of .£817 8s. 4d. ; at the Restoration, however, ' all such 
pretended sales were declared null and void ' and the Manors 
reverted to the Bishopric. 

A lease of these lands was granted to Richard Wood in 1608. 
They were held by his descendants for several generations. As 
was frequently the case during the Great Rebellion, when families 
w^ere divided in their opinions, some members of this family sup- 
ported the King, others, as Sylvanus Wood, opposed him ; a 
politic course, which, in some instances, obtained its reward ! 

Later on, Atkyns states that " this manor has been lately pur- 
chased by John Cox, (Cocks) Esquire, who has a large house 
by the Church (see PL XVIII.) and a fair estate; he is the son 
of Sir Richard Cox, of Dumbleton, and uncle to the present Sir 
Richard." In this, however, Atkyns is inaccurate ; doubtless, he 
refers to a lease, granted by Edward Fowler, Bishop of Glouces- 
ter in 1703, to John Cocks, Esq., of that city, of the capital 

posterities miserable and slavish Beggars for evermore." The particular 
services of which they complain, are among others, having to grind their 
corn at the manor mill, to give service in harvest time, to pay certain rents 
in poultry, and to pay a heriot on the death of the tenant, and a fine of one 
or two years' rent on the renewal of the tenancy, Whether any oppression 
was or was not committed by the Lords does not concern us now. If so, 
from the violence of the petitioners' language we should conclude that it was 
grossly exaggerated. Our object is simply to shew that tenure in villenage 
continued down to the latter half of the 17th century, and, notwithstanding 
the petitions, Cromwell refused to abolish them, but affirmed by a " special 
Act that all rents certain, and heriots due to mesne lords or other private per- 
sons should be paid," (See Archceological Review, Vol, I. p, 444.) The status 
of villans in (yross or villans regardant had fallen into disuetude long before 
this time, but many of the services here complained of, such as grinding at 
the manor mill, payments of poultry and heriots have continued to our own 
time. — Ed. 



Parish of Bkookthorpe. 



367 



messuage or tenement called the " Mannor House " with all 
buildmgs, dove-houses, gardens, and orchards : Little Goclwyns, 
Luffley, the Plack, Stonylands, Berryfields, AVhitehill, Rodley 
Mead, Cowleasowes, Gilsmore, Far Bradley, 17 acres arable in 
Wickfield, ttc: these lands being parcels of the ' scite of the 
Mannor of Brokesthrope and Haresconibe ' ; except two messuages 
and lands demised to Thomas Lysons for the lives of Sylvanus, 
Mary, and Elizabeth his children ; e.g. Grand Leaze, Grand Ley- 
stalls, Buckmead, 10 acres in Avrfield, Dockworth, Demesne lands 
lying in Grandley, Goodingworth, Ashenstabling, Shortborne, 
Edg\\-orth and Monkenfield, in the parishes of Brokethrop and 
Harescombe rent, Grandleaze, <£2 , Demesne lands, £1 lis. 8d. 
and 13s. 4d. heriot. Except, also, lands demised to Rowland 
^Yood, of Brockthrop, Gentleman, viz., Perry Close, Grove, Har- 
nells, Windowe's Orchard, Is'iblett's Harnells, Oatcroft, Cow- 
leaze, kc. for his life, and those of Elizabeth and Judith his 
daughters, spinsters, at the yearly rent of 15s. Except, also, 
lands demised to John Shorey, citizen and pewterer of the City 
of London, for his life, and the lives of John, William and Bar- 
tholomew his sons, viz., one messuage tenement and one yard-land, 
rent 16s. Sd., with 13s. 4d. in lieu of heriot. Except, also, lands 
demised to John Cocks, for the life of Anne Cocks his wife, John, 
eldest son of Robert Cocks, of Rowbright, co. Oxon., Doctor in 
Divinity ; and Thomas Savage, eldest son of George Savage, of the 
City of Gloucester, Esquire, one pasture called the "Burns" at 
the yearly rem of 10s., to hold Godwyn Leaze, Whitehill, Little 
Wick, etc., to John Cocks, and John, Charles and Richard, sons of 
Dr. Robert Cocks, yielding £o per annum for the capital 
messuage, and for the remainder, £27 6s. 8d., at Lady Day and 
Michaelmas. 

The Manor and Demesne were afterwards held by Ann Busby, 
spinster, then by Caroline her sister, who became the wife of 
Alexander Maitland, Esq., father of the Rev. Samuel Roffey 
Maitland, D.D., Librarian at Lambeth Palace, and a well-known 
author, Avhose grandson, Mr. Frederic W. Maitland, Downing 
Professor of Law in the L'niversity of Cambridge, is the present 
owner of the estate. 



368 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



THE CHURCH. 
The church consists of chancel, nave, south porch and west- 
ern tower with " pack-saddle " roof, and gables. Such towers 
are, we believe, common in Normandy. M. de Caumont considers 
them to belong to a period as late as the 1 4th century, consequently 
they are additions, when found with earlier work. Duntesbourne 
Rous has a tower of this description, also Maidford and Thorpe 
Mandeville, in Northamptonshire. The date suggested in Parker's 
Glossary of Architecture is circa 1380. 

The general character of the 
church is Early-English of the 
13th century. The stairs of the 
rood-loft still exist, and above the 
present ceiling there are traces of 
the canopy (extending westward of 
the chancel arch 8 or 10 feet) which 
once surmounted it. Under the 
wall colouring can be seen the re- 
mains of the Lord's Prayer (black 
letter with red border) which, with 
the Commandments, and texts of 
Holy Scripture, had, during the 
reign of Edward VI., taken the 
place of mural paintings, anciently 
found on the walls of churches ; 
and in their turn were treated, 
during Mary's reign, to a course 
of " whyte-lyming," in subsequent 
days periodically renewed.^ 

We are permitted to add a description of the fabric from the 
MSS. of the late Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart., after inspection in 
1850 :— 

^ Bishop Bonner's Visitation Articles relate to the Restoration of Images, 
Roods, &c., and to the defacement of Scripture Texts put up by the Re- 
formers. 

1549. (Edw. VI.) Item, payde to John AVhyte for whytyng of the 
Churche and pavyng of bothe porches, liij^ x^. 

1554. (Mary) Item, Three bushels Lyme. xviij^. — Cliurclmardms^ 

Accounts, Hawkhurst, Kent, 




Fig. 13. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



369 



" A small church having nave and chancel only, the latter 
well developed and lower than the nave. There is a south porch, 
and western tower, which is the most remarkable feature of the 
church, the upper part being of the saddle-back form, the east 
and west sides gabled. This steeple is First Pointed and of rather 
small dimensions, opening to the nave by a discontinuous pointed 
arch. The west window is a trefoil-headed lancet of good splay 
and deeply recessed. The belfry windows all vary, but each a 
single light, that on the south, a squared trefoil ; the others lancet 
or trefoil-headed (see fig. 13). There is no west door. The south 
porch is Middle Pointed, the outer door having a shouldered arch. 
The chancel has a pyramidical buttress on the north, near the 
Rood loft's place. 

On the south side of the "nave are Third Pointed windows of 
two lights, not good ; on the north is one of single light, moulded, 
with cinquefoil moulding. ^ * -s^- ^ 

The chancel arch is segmental, discontinuous, and of early 
First Pointed character. The east window a sinoie lancet. On 
the south of the chancel are two windows : one of two lights, 
trefoiled ; one, square headed of three lights ; also a [priest's] 
door. On the north, a window as above. The rood-stairs and 
doors remain. The chancel has an open roof of the 13th century. 
It has been rather nicely arranged, fitted with stalls and has an 
arcaded reredos with shafts and buckle hoods. There is a pointed 
arched recess in the south pier of the chancel arch facing west, jusi, 
backing the pulpit. The font is octagonal, modern, and too small. 
The gables have crosses. The church is prettily mantled with 
ivy. April 23rd, 1850." 

The socket of a Village Cross is preseived in the gardeii of the 
vicarage. It had been built into the angle (base outwards)^ of a 
barn taken down about the year 1865. Its upper bed is an octagon^ 
reduced to a thin square lower bed by large and remarkably fine 
broaches, there is a square mortise for the insertion of the shaft ; 
it measures 26 inches square, and 15 inches in height, the outlines 
as sharp as if just chiselled — late 13th century. A fragment of 

^ Pooley's Notes on the Old Crosses of Gloucesterbhire, p. 2. 
Vol. XIII. 2 A 



370 



Transactions for the Year J 888-9. 



a large stone slab, probably 12th century, having an incised cross 
fleurie, 25 inches from point to point, within a double aureole, 
27 inches in diameter, was found near the door of the modern 
vestry, also ancient encaustic tiles, bearing the emblems of Our 
Saviour's Passion, with crowns and inscription. 

The restoration of this church is proposed. When sufficient 
funds are forthcoming, it is desired to add a north aisle, to re- 
move the western gallery, to open out the elegant tower arch, and 
to re-seat the church. 

There are two bells, with clock in the tower, one of which, 
belonging to the Pre-Keformation period, probably early 14th 
century, has the legend, in early Gothic capitals : 

1. ►f, ETERNIS § ANNIS § RESONET § CAMPANA ^ § 

JOHANNIS. 32 ins. 

2. GLORY TO GOD ON HIGH." A.R. ^ 1711. 39 

ins. F. Jf. 

The hexameter verse, found on No. 1, also occurs on a bell in 
the Cathedral of Gloucester, at Sapperton, Turkdean, and on one 
lately in St. Werburgh's, Bristol. ^ 

The church is dedicated to St. Swithun. It is one of forty- 
three in England so dedicated, of which four are in this county, 
viz., Hempsted, Quinton, Brokethorpe, and Stanley St. Leonard's ; 
probably, in the last instance, a re-dedication through the acquisi- 
tion of relics of this English Saint. 

There is an inscription, which may easily escape observation, 
rudely cut on the western side of the cornice in the porch ; it is, 
however, of some interest as a Chronogram, the letters of larger 
size furnishing the required date : — 

Ter Deno Ian I Labens reX soLe CaDente 
CaroLVs eXVtVs soLIo sCeptroqVe seCVre. 

From first line, DDCLLXII, .. .. 1212 

From second line, CCCLLXVVVVVI. .. 436 

Year of Martyrdom . . . . 1648 

Literally : "In the afternoon of the 30th January, the falling King was 
stripped of Throne and Sceptre by the Axe." 

^ Ellacomhes Bells of Gloiiceste7'sJnre,'ip. S.^. 
The Old Bells o/Glouc.-B. & G. Arch. Trans., Vol. VII., p. 63. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



371 



Or in verse by the late the Rev. F. T. Bayly, Rector of St. 
John's, Gloucester, and father of the late Vicar of this parish : 

*' On Thirtieth January's Setting Sun, 

The Axe on Royal Charles its work had done — 
His Throne and Sceptre lost — his short race run." 

The Benefice. 

As we have seen, the Church of Brockthrop was given to the 
monks of St. Peter's by Adeliza, wife of Roger de Ivreio. There 
is, however, an interesting document contained in the Chartulary 
(1092-1112) which shows that it was not an absolute, but a con- 
ditional gift^ — and also, that, in such transfers of churches and 
endowments, the donors were disposing of what was their own, 
and not national property, or anything given in any way to the 
church by the nation. 

"Omnibus Sanctte Marine Wygorniensis Ecclesise fidelibus 
S[amson] Dei gratia Wigorniensis Episcopus, Salutem ; 

Notum sit omnibus vobis quod A[elyna] Yurerio, me audiente 
et concedente, concessit monachis et Ecclesise Sancti Petri de 
Gloucestria Ecclesiam de Brochthrop liberam et quietam. Eo, 
tamen tenore, quod filius G. earn teneat liberam et quietam, dum 
vixerit. Et post mortem ejus, nisi sponte sua earn dimiserit prius, 
redeat in dominatum ecclesise et monachorum." 

On the dedication of Serlo's Abbey, a.d. 1100, " Broctrope " 
was one of the churches, the tythes of which were appropriated 
by Bishop Samson to the abbot and monks " for their sus- 
tentation and the increase of hospitality," reserving portions to 
be assigned by himself or his successors, to the Vicars ministering 
therein.'-^ The " portion " assigned, in this instance, was not large ; 
nearly a hundred years afterwards we find <£1 6s. 8d. (two marcs) 
mentioned, as the value, in the Taxation of Pope Nicholas. A 
similar sum was paid by the Knights Hospitallers to the vicar of 
" Nethergutyng " (Guyting) in 1338. But it is evident that some 
other arrangement existed in such cases, since we find "praeter 

1 Hist, et Cart., S. Pet., Glouc, Vol. I., p. 177. 

2 Hist, et Cart., Vol. II., p. 40. 



372 



TiiANSACTioNa FOR THE Year 1S88-9. 



mensam " named in connexion Avitli stipends paid to chaplains and 
others : e.g. " Vicarius de Grafton, de certa pensione, prfeter 
mensam, per annum xx^" A statute 39th Edward I., contains 
a provision for the restraint of any excessive liberality on the 
part of the laity towards the clergy of that day: "If any 
secular man pay more than five marcs to any priest yearly in 
money or other things, or if he pay to any priest abiding at his 
table above two marcs for his gown and other necessaries, he shall 
pay to the king fully as much as he paid to the priest." 

From this we gather that entertainment at the table of the 
lord — or in case of monks, at their manor — was to be reckoned 
equivalent to 40s., or three marcs per annum. ^ 

In A.D. 1340, the parochial church of " Brokthrop," returned 
as of the value, with its portion, of two marcs, fifteen shillings is 
declared exempt,^ because it was within the tax. 

In the " Valor Ecclesiasticus the Farm of the Rectory is 
stated to be worth 40s. per annum and the vicar's portion paid 
by the abbey, <£! 13s. 4d. (two marcs and a half). Total value of 
the benefice £7 17s. 5^d. 

Brokethorp Yicaria. 
Valet in redditibus et firmis unacum decimis et Oblacionibus 
ibidem per annum ultra v^, solutes Domino Episcopo pro 
visitacione juxta ratum cujuslibet tercii anni xvij*^, minus 
In tota oblatione - - vij^^ xvij'^ v^^ ob. 

Decimis inde . _ . - xv^ ix'^ 

By ancient custom the vicar received sixteen thraves^ of wheat, 
sixteen thraves beans, and thirteen and a half bushels of pulse 
per annum, for which, after a while, a money payment was sub- 
stituted. 

1 Inquisitiones Nonarum, p. 413. 

2 Parochialis Ecclesise de Brokthorp. 

De nonis garbarum vellerum et agnorum parochialis ecclesise de Brokethorp 
taxatis cum porcionibus ad duas marcas xv^, nichil hie quia infra taxationem 
et respondit de eadem nona inter alia minuta beneficia ut patebit infra." — 
Liqvisitiones Nonarum, p. If.13. 

3 Valor Ecclesiasticus, Vol. II., p. 499. 
* A thrave is 24 sheaves.— Ed. 



Parish of Brookthokpe. 



373 



Although the manor with all its lands passed to the bishop, 
the King included in the grant of endownment of the new Dean 
and Chapter of Gloucester, "all that our Rectory and Church of 

Brokethrope in the said county We also give and by 

these presents do grant to the said Dean and Chapter, all and 
all manner of advowsons, nominations, donations, presentations, 
collations, free dispositions, and right of Patronage to the Yicaridge 
of the Churche of Brokethroppe, in our said County of the City 
of Gloucester," 

Certain lands called Sawyer's, and a portion of tythes here, 
formerly belonging to the Priory of Lanthony, were granted 35th 
Hen. VIII. to Rich. Andrews and Nicholas Temple 

£ s. d. 

First fruits - - - - - 7 17 6 

Tenths - - - - - 0 15 9 

Procurations - - - - 0 0 0 

Synodals . - - - - 0 2 0 

Pentecostals - - - - - 0 0 4J 

The National School, with class room, built in 1874, by volun- 
tary subscriptions, aided by a government grant of £101 — total 
cost £G51 Is. 9d. — is intended for the children of the Parishes 
of Brookthorpe, Harescombe, and Whaddon. The site was given 
by the Rev. S. R. Maitland, D.D., owner of the estate of Brook- 
thorpe and Harescombe. 

The Great and Small Tythes of this parish were commuted 
Feb. 10, 1841, and thus apportioned: — 

£ s. d. 

To the Dean and Chapter of Gloucester, or 

their Lessee, S. R. Maitland, D.D., 

Clerk, of Lambeth - - - 155 0 0 

To the Vicar - - - - 92 0 0 

To the Impropriator (Thos. Lediard of 

Cirencester) - - - - 4 7 0 

£251 7 0 

The First Schedule refers to lands estimated at 950 acres, of 
which 204 w^ere arable, and 746 pasture ; the Second Schedule to 



374 



TKANSACTrONS FOR THE YeAR 1888-9. 



lands paying tythe to the Impropriator/ 22 acres 2 r. Vicarial 
Glebe, 2 acres 6 perches, free of tythe. This appears to be a relic 
of the ancient endownnient. Additional glebe was acquired in 
1747, (by means of a Benefaction of £200 from the Rev. Thomas 
Savage aided by a grant from the Governors of Queen Anne's 
Bounty) by the purchase of " an estate situated in the parishes of 
Hartpury and Hasfield, in this county, consisting of a messuage, 
out-buildings, garden, and twenty acres of land with right 
of common." Kudder, apparently, refers to this benefaction 
as "a legacy bequeathed by one Mr. Hodges." Other small 
augmentations have been made of late years by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, viz : 6 acres of Glebe adjoining the vicarage house, 
in lieu of a rent charge of £15 per annum " out of the Rectory of 
Brookthrop," previously given by the Dean and Chapter. 

By an Order in Council, dated May 22nd, 1840, the Perpetual 
Curacy of Whaddon was united ^ with the Vicarage of Brook- 
thorpe ; provision being made for the patronage and right of 
presentation, thus : Dean and Chapter, two turns, Sir John Neeld, 
Bart., one turn. This was a convenient ecclesiastical arrangement 
by reason of locality, yet it destroyed the ancient connexion which 
had subsisted for many centuries between the parishes of Whaddon 
and Moreton Valence, which formed a part of the Prebend of that 
name, founded in the Cathedral Church of Hereford. 



A terrier of 1679 mentions the " Vicaridge House conteyning 
about Power Bays of building and the garden and orchard adjoining 
to the said house," whilst a later terrier dated 1731, speaks of " the 



1 The Impropriator's Tythe is 


chargeable on the following lands, 


viz : — 




acres, r. 


P- 


Part of Barn Close 


3 1 


23 


Berry Field 


13 0 


10 


Ratty or Badley Mead 


2 2 


3 


Litlile Berry (or Bury) Field - 


3 2 


4 




22 2 


0 



These were probably connected with Lanthony Priory. — Vide Supra. 

2 It may be remarked that this was the first union of benefices effected 
under the " Plurality Act," of which Mr. Thomas Holt, Bishop's Monk's 
Secretary, was said to be Editor. 



Paktsh of Bkooktttokpe. 



375 



vicaridge being lately neiv hiUt and containing six rooms." These, 
apparently, occupied the same site, at the very edge of the parish, 
in the garden adjoining the hostelry known as " the Four Mile 
House," which is situated in the parish of Harescombe. 

The present commodious vicarage was erected in 1846, during 
the incumbency of the late vicar, the E-ev. Francis T. J. Bayly, 
upon a new site, and close to the church, at a cost of £1.000, from 
the designs of Messrs. Wyatt and Brandon, of Great Russell St., 
Bloomsbury. 

VICARS OF BROOKTHORPE, 

With dates of Institution. 

A.D. VICARS. PATRONS. 

12GS. Sir William de Norleche, Abbot and Convent 

chaplain.^ of St.Peter's,Glou- 

cester. 

1289. V. Kal. Octob. Sir Gilbert de Rysin- do. 
don, presbyter.^ 

1297. Ill Id. Sept. Sir Robert de Meisi do. 

Hampton, presbyter. ^ 
Sir John Keke. 

1430. Sir Thomas Taylor, chaplain. do. 

Vacant by the death of 

Sir John Keke.* 
1438. Oct. 23. Sir John Watthe, presbyter. do. 

Vacant by the resignation 

of Sir Thos. Taylor. ^ 

1449. Apr. 10. Sir Richard Forde,^ chaplain, do. 

Vacant by the resignation 

of Sir John Watthe. 
r- Sir Richard Scaltok. 

1499. June 28. Sir William Coke, chaplain, do. 
Vacant by the death of Sir 
Rich. Scaltok. 

1 Reg. Giffard, fol. 14. * Reg. Pulton, fol. 85. 

2 Ibid., fol. 302. ^ Reg. Bouichier, fol. 51. 
Mbid.,fol. 401. 6 Ibid., fol. SO. 



376 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



1503. Sep. 15. Sir Robert Barton, chaplain. 

Vacant by the resignation 
of William Coke. 

1509. Jan. 19. Sir John Grefyth, chaplain. 

Vacant by the resignation 
of Robert Barton. 

1513. Aug. 8. Master William Burghill, 
' utriusque Juris Baccalaur,'^ 
Vacant by the death of 
John Grefyth. 

1521. Mar. 8. Sir Wm. Nicholson. Vacant 
by the resignation of 
William Burghill, Doctor 
in Decrees, with annual 
pension of sixty shillings. 

1534. Jan. 10. Walter Marwent, Bachelor 
in Theology. 2 

1559. Apr.21. Sir Roger Wheler.^ Vacant 
by the death of Walter 
Marwent. 

1571. Jan. 29. Rich. Tyrrel. Vacant by the 
death of Rosier Wheler. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



do. 



do. 

Thos. Bell, by grant 
of Abbey of Glou- 
cester, 1 0th June, 
30th Hen. VIII. 
Walt. Jones, LL.B. 
by grant of the 
Dean & Chapter 
of Gloucester, 25 
Nov. 1561. 



Unknown. Edmund Bynge. 

1583. May23. Richard Smythe. Vacant by 

the death of Edm. Bynge. 
1613. Sep.27. James Bradshaw, A.M. 

Vacant by the death of 

Richard Smythe. 
1618. July22. Withastone Massinger. 

Vacant by the death of Jas. 

Bradshaw. 

1 William Burghill became Rector of St. Michael's, Gloucester, in 1521, 
and June 13th, 1522, Vicar of Churcham and Bulley, on death of Richard 
Cooke ; he was also Vicar of Kempsford. 

2 Sir John Reynald, probably a parish chaplain, witnesses the will of 
John Niblett, of Brookthropp, in 1543. 

3 Vicar of Matson and resident there ; also curate of Moreton Valence. 



Dean and Chapter 
of Gloucester, 
do. 



do. 



Pakish of Brookthorpe. 



377 



1632. Mar.22. William Lord. Vacant by do. 
the death of Withastone 
Massinger. 

1659. Unknown. George Yenn.^ 

1690. Sep. 3. John Hodges, A. B. Vacant by Dean and Chapter 

[resignation of G. VennJ. of Gloucester. 

1700. Dec. 2. Thomas Pugh, A.B. Vacant do. 

by the death of John 

Hodges. 

1708. Sep. 21. Richard Collins. Vacant by do. 
the resignation of Thomas 
Pugh. 

1727. Unknown. Jeremias Butt Vacant by do. 

the death of B. Collins. 
1733. Nov.8. Rich. Done, A.M. Vacant do. 

by the cession of J. Butt. 
1740. July 19. Wm. Hewlett, M.A. Vacant do. 

by the death of Richard 

Done. 

1751. Apr. 15. Wra. Deane, B.A. Vacant do. 

by the death Wm. Hewlett. 
1754. Aug 17. John Newton, A.M. Vacant do. 

by the death of William 

Deane. 

n91. Apr.l. Samuel Farmer Sadler, A.M. do. 
Vacant by the death of 
John Newton. 

1804. Nov. 12. Arthur Benoni Evans, A.B. do. 
Vacant by the cession of 
S. F. Sadler. 

1809. Apr.28. Robert Clifton, A.B. Vacant do.- 
by the cession of A. B. 
Evans. 

1817. Jan. 4. Wm. Wilton Mutlow, A.M. do. 
Vacant by the resignation 
of R. Clifton. 

^ 1694. "Mr. George Venn, formerly Minister of this Parish, was 
buried March 9.'"— Parish RcgMer. 

He was probably an intruder in the time of the usurpation. — Ed, 



378 



Transactions fok ttfe Ykar 1888-9. 



1820. July 6. John Bishop, A.B. Vacant 



do. 



by the cession of W. W. 
Mutlow. 



1828. Dec. 11. Richard Jones, B. A. Vacant 
by the cession of J. Bishop 

1835. Dec.24. Thomas Evans, M. A. Vacant 
by the death of R. Jones. 

1839. JunelT. Francis Turnour Jas. Bayly, 



do. 



do. 



do. 



B.A. Vacant by the 
cession of T. Evans. 



1883. June25. Stuart Routledge Majendie, 



do. 



B.A. Vacant by the death 
of F. T. J. Bayly. 



The Registers of Christenings, Marriages, and Burials in this 
parish, now contained in the parish chest, begin with 1730, but 
the transcripts deposited in the Bishop's Registry, commence with 
the year 1569 ; thence to 1577. A second series dates from 1617 
to 1638, after which for 30 years they are wanting, viz., between 
1639 and 1669; in 1671 a fresh start is made, and the transcripts 
come down to the middle of the present century. 

Terriers dated 1678, 1679, and 1807, exist in the Diocesan 
Registry ; also the " Catalogue of a Parochial Library in the 
parish of Brockthorp, in Gloucestershire, No. 17," with values 
appended, together with the acknowledgement of the receipt of 
the books by the Rev. Richard Collins, vicar, Nov. 25th, 1713, in 
the presence of John Cocks (probably the lessee of the manor) and 
James Butt: mention is made of certain "rules prescribed by 
the Act of Parliament for the better preservation of Parochial 
Libraries." The Terrier for 1678 is given in the Appendix. 

This parish receives £4 10s. per annum from the trustees of 
"Giles Cox's Charity" (1620) and £1 18s. 2d. from the bequest 
of Ellen Matilda Bed well, spinster, in 1876. 

SUBSIDY ROLLS (1327-1584). 
The annexed lists furnish us with the names of the principal 
residents in the parish of Brookthrop at different periods of time, 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



379 



viz., in the reigns of Edward III., Philip and Mary, and Eliza- 
beth ; the third is taken from the Gloucester Corporation Records. 



1. 

Sub-sidy Roll, 1 Edw. III. (1327). 
Hund: de Duddeston. 
Brocthrop. 



John Bonde 


xviij** 


Robt. Colston 


viij^ ob. 


Robt. Oswrede - 


xvjd 


^Yalter Meriet - 




Ric. Meriet 


xiiij^ ob 


Robt. D any els - 


ix^ q 


Gilbert in the Felde - 


viij'^ ob 


Robt. Bysshop - 


viijd q 


Ric. Fox ... 




Henr. Joene _ - _ 


xviiij^ q 


Willm. in the Felde - 


xijd q 


Agnes Loke 


vj<* ob. 


Thomas Bigge - 


xiiij^ q 


Walter de Holbergh - 


xxiiij^ q 




Siimma xiiij^ xj^ ob q 



II. 

Sub-sidy Roll, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary (1557-8). 
(Public Record Office : Glouc. ^jf) 

This subsidy was required for the war with France, which 
Queen Mary had declared, on the 7th of June, in support of her 
husband. In the course of the war Calais was lost, which oc- 
casioned great discontent throughout the kingdom. 



Will. Payne, on goods 




xvj« 




Elizabeth Niblett ,, 


C« 


xiij« 


iiijd 


Robt. Richards „ 


C^ 


xiij« 


iiij«i 


Thos Richards ,, 


c-^ 


xiij« 


iiij-i 


Robert a Wood 


xix'' 


1« 


viiij^ 


Edward Harres 


xi^i 


xxiv^ 




Will. Hallyng 


ixii 


xxiv^ 






Sma 


vij^' xiij^ 


viiij«i 



380 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



TIL 

Sub-sidy Roll, 26 Elizabeth (1584). 



E/ichard Wood 


- 


iij« 




Edward Harres 


- 


xj« 




Margery Hawlynge - 


- 


xj« 




Johan Berry 


- 


viiij^ 




Robert Winston 


- 


v« 




John Loarde 






vjd 


Agnes Niblett 




iiij« 




Robert Woman 




v« 




William Blisse 




v« 


George Morgan 




iiij« 




Simon Organ 




ij^ 


vjd 


Robert Pain 




ix^ 





25 Eliz. Levy for powder and bullets. Brockthrop paid xviij^ 
2nd do. „ do. do. xxxviij^ 

30 Eliz. Levy for expenses of 1500 footmen. Brockthrop paid 
(Time of the Spanish Armada) iij^^ 
( Gloucester Corporation Records.) 
CIVIL HISTORY. 
From its proximity to Gloucester, Brockthrop could hardly 
escape suffering during the Civil wars ; accordingly, under date 
Aug. 5th, 1643, we read that " Garrett, a royalist general shewed 
himself in the vale with a regiment of cavalry, and that plunder- 
ing and skirmishing took place on Monday at Tuffley and Brock- 
thorp." " News being brought to Gloucester that the enemy was 
plundering at Tuffleigh, Capt. Evans, Capt. Pury the younger, with 
Lieut. Pierce, went out to surprise them, but found they were 
gone away with their plunder to Mr. Wood's house at Brock- 
throppe, about a mile and a halfe further. They thereupon (having 
not above 40 foote, and some few of Capt. Backhouse's horse) left 
some few foote to secure their retreat, and with the rest marched 
forward to meet with the enemy, skirmished with them, compelled 
them to take refuge in the house ^ (Brookthorpe Court), killed 
one in the orchard, and hurt or killed others in the house, and 
tooke one prisoner and seven horses." — Diurnall. 

^ In the course of repairs to the Court House, a few years ago, a musket 
of this period was discovered under the flooring ; it is now to be seen in the 
Museum, Gloucester. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



381 



Corbet describes the skirmish near Brookthrop Hill, in which 
Governor Massey had a narrow escape, thus : " Two thousand men 
of the King s forces, after the siege of Gloucester, marching from 
Tewkesbury to Painswick, the Governor Massie sallied out of 
Gloucester ^\itll 200 musketiers and 100 horse, and marched to the 
top of Brocktrop Hill, there to expect the enemy, whom he found 
divided into three bodies, and himself borne down by the multi- 
tude : for whilst two parties faced him, the third stole down a 
hollow lane, and had almost surrounded him unawares, by the 
negligence of his scouts : so that our whole body was brought into 
danger, driven by a sudden and confused retreat, and the Governor 
himself left deeply engaged. Yet most of our men got off, being 
preserved by the gallantry of a few resolved men that stood in the 
breach ; and of them Captain George Massie, striving to retard 
the pursuit, grappled with three together, hand to hand, received 
a very sore wound in the head, and was happily rescued by a 
Serjeant of the company. Of ours, two lieutenants and sixteen 
private soldiers were taken prisoners ; the rest, in disorder, ran 
down a steep, through a rough and narrow lane, and recovered a 
house at the foot of the hill, where a party was left to make good 
the retreat, and the enemy durst not pursue ; by which means all 
the bottom was preserved from spoil," — {Corbet's '^Military Govt, 
of Gloucester.''^ 

Local tradition points to a disused road, formerly the " King's 
Highway," leading from Painswick, vid Huddiknoll Hill to Brook- 
thorpe, and to certain pits near the house called Whitehall, as the 
graves of the slain in the encounter. 



In 1622, Royal aid 
1694, Poll tax 
,, Land tax 



>5 

1770, 



£93 12 0 

6 4 0 

103 4 0 

77 18 0 



at 3s. in the £ 



POPULATION. 

Li Bishop Cheyney's account of the Diocese of Gloucester, 
1562, the number of Households here is given as 16. 



382 



Transactions for the Year 1888-0. 



The following table shews the number of inhabitants and of 
dwelling houses in this parish in the years 1700 and 1774, and 
at the stated intervals of the census in the present century : — 





1700 


1774 


1801 


1811 


1821 


1831 


1841 


1851 


1861 


1871 


1881 


Inhabitants 


200 


107 


112 


137 


160 


193 


169 


151 


180 


165 


151 


Houses 


40 


27 


24 


22 


26 


29 


38 


40 


40 


36 


36 



The gross estimated rental (1888) of the newly-arranged civil 
parish of Brookthorpe is .£2258 15s., and the rateable value 
£2033 15s. Acreage, 1031 . 0 . 22. 



APPENDIX I. 
Brockthrop, A.D. 1678. 

A Terrier of all the glebe lands and tythes, small and great, 
lying and being in the parish of Brookthropp, belonging to the 
church thereof, exactly drawn up by us whose names are hereunto 
subscribed the 4th day of Aprill, Anno Domini, 1678. 
Imprimis. The Vicaridge House the Garden and Orchard adjoyn- 

ing to the said house. 
Item. The Churchyard and the close of ground adjoyning to it, 

lying on the North side of a ground belonging to Rowland 

Wood Esquire called Hill Mead and butting on the High Way 

containing by estimac'on about half an acre. 

A Terrier of Predial Tythes. 

Imprimis. The predial Tythes of about twenty acres now in 
possession of Thomas King of the parish of Pitchcomb lyeing 
between Paynswick and Pitchcomb. 

Item. The Tythes of about eleven acres now in possession of 
Richard Gardiner and lyeing under the Hill called Huddynoll. 

Item. The Tythes of about nine acres now in the possession of 
Thomas Eldridge lyeing under the aforesaid hill called Huddy- 
noll. 

Item. The Tythes of about Twelve acres now in possession of 
Sara Bryan Widdow lying also under the hill aforesaid. 



Parish of Brookthorpe. 



383 



Item. The prediall Tythes of a little ground called Harnells 
containing by estimac'on one acre or thereabouts and now in 
possession of Rolland Wood Esquire lyeing and being on the 
side of the Hill neare the King's High Way. 

Item. All the Privie Tythes of the whole parish. 



Geo. Venn, Cler. 




Exh. in Reg. Glouc. 

29« Aprilis a.d. 1678. 

Car. Peirson Reg' Dep'. 



3S4 



Tran!sactio.ns foe the Year 1888-9. 



THE SEALS OF THE CITY OF GLOUCESTER. 
By W. H. St. JOHN HOPE, M.A. 

Assistant Secrelai^y of the Society of Antiquaries. 
Read at Gloucester, 16tli July, 1888. 
By the kindness of Mr. George Sheffield Blakeway, the Town 
Clerk of Gloucester, I have recently been permitted to examine 
a number of impressions of early seals of the city and its officers 
that have been brought to light by Mr. Stevenson during his 
researches among the city records. 

These seals are of very great interest, and moreover exhibit 
some unusual features; I have, therefore, put together a few 
notes descriptive of them. J. have also included in my description 
the later and better known seals, so as to make, as I hope to shew, 
a complete series of the city and official seals of Gloucester from 
very early times down to the present day. 

The seals I propose to describe are ten in number. Of these 
five are corporate seals, four are those of city officers, and the 
tenth is the Statute Merchant seal. 

It is not my intention to enter into a dissertation on muni- 
cipal seals in this paper, but for the sake of illustrating my 
subject I will just say a few words on the general characters of 
the devices they bear. 

The earlier seals, that is those anterior to 1500, for the most 
part favour one or other of two devices : 

(a) A representation of the town or castle. 

(6) A figure of a ship. 

The former is usually confined to inland places, the latter to 
maritime towns. 

To these a third subject may be added : 

(c) A figure of the patron saint or saints. 

This, however, often occurs in combination with one of the 
other devices, as in the early London seals, or appears on the 



Seals of the City of Gloucester. 



385 



counter-seal, as in the seals of Rochester, York, and Great Yar- 
mouth. Shields of arms are added as accessories at all periods. 

After 1500 the seals are chiefly armorial, some with true 
shields of arms like those borne by the cities of London, ^.^ork, 
and Lincoln, others with arms concocted or adapted from the 
device of an older seal, such as a castle or ship, by the very simple 
plan of placing it on a shield. 

The earliest of the five corporate seals used successively by the 
city of Glouces- 
ter is a circular 
one, 2|in. in dia- 
meter, bearing 
a conventional 
representation of 
the city (fij.l^ ). 
It IS depicted as a 
triangular walled 
and crenellated 
enclosure, with a 
square embattled 
tower in the mid- 
dle, and a circu- 
lar bastion or 
turret flanking it 

on either side ; the third turret is not shewn, being covered by 
the tower. In the centre of the front wall is a double doorway, 
shewn as closed, and on either hand a circular window. In base 
are the waters of the river Severn. Round the margin is the 
legend in Lombardic characters : 

+ SI6ILL' BVR6GCSIV I)[a 6ILDA MaR]aATO[RV 
6L0Vaa]STRIGC. 

This interesting seal is known from two impressions only, both 
unfortunately broken. The one is appended to an exceedingly 
interesting deed whose date is fixed by the attesting witnesses as 
between 1237 and 1245, and which also bears the seals of William 
de Cantelupe, bishop of Worcester, and of the Hospital of St. 
Vol. XIII. 2 B 




(Fig. 14). First Seal of the City of Gloucester. Circa 1200. 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Bartholomew inter pontes. The other impression is attached to a 
document of 38th Edward III. (1364-5). 

The description of this seal as that " of the burgesses of the 
gild merchant " is most unusual, if not unique. None of the 
early grants to the city include that of a gild merchant, thus 
shewing its early date. Its first mention in a charter occurs in 
that granted by king John in 1200, where it is spoken of as 
already in existence. This charter of John is, however, a very 
important one, and that under which the city was first formally 
incorporated. Looking at the style of the seal and the character 
of the lettering I think its date may fairly be set down as that of 
John's charter, viz., 1200. As we have already seen, it was cer- 
tainly in use some forty years later, and it is known to have 
existed as late as 1365. 

The second seal is also a circular one, 2^ ins. in diam. Five 
impressions of it have been found by Mr. Stevenson, all, (fig. 15). 
unfortunately, more or 
less broken. Still, as 
each one supplies some- 
thing that is missing 
in another, the com- 
plete design is easily 
recovered. 

The device is some- 
what similar to, and 
clearly derived from, 
that of the older seal. 
The representation of 
the city has, however, 
now shrunk into an 
embattled gateway or castellated building, with central and side 
towers, also crenellated, and a pointed doorway with the port- 
cullis drawn up. Above is on either hand a circular cinquefoiled 
sinking, and at the sides a flowering plant or tree. In base appear 
the waters of Severn. The legend is also the same as that on the 
older seal, but in black-letter characters : 

Sigillum : ijurgcnfium : tie : gtljia : mercatoru : glouce ftne. 




Seals of the City of Gloucester. 387 

The five impressions known of this seal are appended to deeds 
dating from 22nd Rich. II. (1398-9) to 4th Edw. VL (1550-1). 
As there is only thirty-four years interval between the latest known 
impression of the older seal and the first of this one, we have 
strong presumptive evidence that the one took the place of the 
other, but the exact date cannot safely be fixed until more early 
impressions are forthcoming. If the city accounts go back as far, 
a search through them would probably give us the information 
we want. 

The third seal is a good and unusually interesting example of 
the armorial seals so common after 1500 {fig. 16.) It is, moreover, 
of special value in 
being dated. 
Like its prede- 
cessors, and in- 
deed like most 
municipal seals, 
it is circular in 
form, and mea- 
sures 2 1 inches 
in diameter. 

The device 
consists of a large 
shield of the ex- 
traordinary arms 
granted to the 
city by Christo- 
pher Barker, Gar- 
ter, in 1538, with the date 1564 above, and on either side a 
pair of maces saltirewise. 

The legend, in Koman characters, is : 
+ SIGILLVM MAIORIS ET BVRGENSIVM DE GILDA MERCATORVM 
CIVITATIS • GLOVCESTRI/^:. 

The representation of the maces on the seal is a most unusual 
feature. The only other instance I can call to mind is the late 
fourteenth century seal of the Mayor of Totnes, which has on either 
side of a crenellated buildinsr, a small mace with the flanged ends 




(Fig. 16). ; Third Seal of the City of Gloucester, 1561,. 



388 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



uppermost. Here the flanges are shewn downwards, but the early 

character of the maces is apparent from their form. 

This third seal continued in use until 1661, in which year, on 

September 27th, the corporation passed the following resolution : 

It is agreed by this House that the old City seale shall be broken and not 
be used any more from henceforth and that the seale newly made and here 
produced shall be used for the city seale, and that the Stewards shall pay 
to William Costley goldsmith five pounds for the sayd seale. 




(Fig. 17). Fourth Seal of the City of Gloucester, 1661. 

This fourth seal is a large oval one of silver, 3i by 2f inches, 
bearing as a device an ugly shield with scroll-work, cherub's head, 
etc., and charged with the arms granted to the city in 1652 by 
Bishe, Garter, {fig. 17). Legend : 

^ SIGILL : MAIORIS : ET : BVRGENSIVM : CIVIT 
^ GLOVCESTRI^ : IN : COMIT : CIVIT : GLOVC 



Seals or the City oe GloucesteH. 



389 




(Fig. 18). 



Fifth and present Seal of the 
City of Gloucester. 



This seal, which is now disused, has been superseded for 
general use by a smaller and less cumbrous one made. 

This fifth seal is circu- 
lar, 2\ in. in diameter. De- 
vice: an oval with the city 
arms of 1652. Legend as 
on the fourth seal. (Jic). 18 ) 

So much for the corpor- 
ate seals, which form a con- 
tinuous series from 1200 
down to the present time. 

The four oificial seals 
readily fall into two divi- 
sions : (1) those of the city 
officers before the appoint- 
ment of a mayor ; (2) the official mayoralty seals. 

The oldest of the official seals, that of the jyi^cepositi or provosts, 
is a small circular one. If inch in 
diam. [fig. 19). The device consists of 
a castellated building, with central 
tower with conical roof, and two tall 
embattled side towers. The central 
tower has a large round-headed 
doorway with a quatrefoiled window 
or opening over it. On the field of 
the seal in chief are two stars, and 
o , . . in base is the river Severn. Le2:end : 

Seal of the Provosts of Gloucester. 

+ SI6ILL' PHaPOSITOR' GLOVaaSTRia : 

The seal probably dates from John's charter of 1200 permit- 
ting the appointment of two burgesses, one or both of whom shall 
guard the prcepositura of the city. The only known impression 
is appended to a deed of 1301-2 among the city records, wherein 
it is called sigillum comnmnitatis. 




390 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



The second of the oflicial seals, that of the bailiffs, is circular, 
1| inch in diameter (^^^(7- j. It bears the same device as the 
provost's seal, of which it is obviously a copy. The legend is : 

+ SI6ILL' : BALLIVOR : GLOYaaSTRIGC 

This seal is of very little later date than that just described. 

The orif^inal silver matrix, to which 
a long chain and swivel are attached, is 
still preserved by the town clerk. 

The earlier of the two mayoral seals 
is circular, 1| ins. in diam. (jig. 21 ) The 
device is the early shield of arms of the 
city — semee of horse-nails, a sword in 
bend between six horse-shoes — with sprigs 

of foliage at the sides and a lion of Eng- Sealofthe Bailiffs of Gloucester. 

land in base. The legend, in black letter characters, is : 

with sprigs for stops. 

The date of this seal may safely be assigned to the year 1483, 

when Richard III. formally 
granted to the city the privilege 
of choosing a mayor in addition 
to the two bailiffs. The king 
also granted by this charter that 
the mayor for the time being 
might have a sword carried be- 
fore him, and thus the presence 
of the sword in the shield of 
arms is clearly and satisfactorily 
(Fig. 21). accounted for. 

First Seal of the Mayor of Gloucester. 

I may just mention that there is not the smallest reason w^hy 
the city should not revert to the use of the charming shield of 
arms shewn on this their first mayor's seal of office. Its superior- 
ity over the arms concocted by th^ heralds in 1538 and 16.52 is 
too apparent to call for further remark from me. 





Seals of thk City of Gloucester. 



391 



What became of the seal just described I do not know. Per- 
haps its history can be ascertained from ^^^^s^^^^^s^s^^ 



<§> • SIGILL • MAIORAT : CIVITATIS ' GLOVCESTRI^ • 

This seal is clearly contemporary with the large corporate seal 
made in 1661. 

The last of the Gloucester seals, that of the Statute Merchant, 
is also one of the most interesting. 

This is one of the seals provided under the Statute of Acton 
Burnell de Mercatoribus in 11th Edward 1. (1283), which enacted 
that a seal " of two pieces " was to be used for the purpose of 
passing obligations on bonds. One piece, or the "king's seal " as 
it was called, was to be kept by the mayor or some other person 
of trust in the town or city to which* the seal was granted ; the 
other and smaller piece, known as the " clerk's seal," was to be in 
the custody of a clerk named by the king. 

The usual type of these " king's seals " is about If inch in 
diameter, with a full-faced bust of the king, crowned, with a 
castle on either side, and a lion of England in base. The " clerk's 
seals " are not so well known ; the examples that have been 
met with present much variety of device. 

The Gloucester "king's seal" is much larger than the other 
seals of the series, being 2| ins. in diam. (fig. 23). It has the bust 
of the king, who is represented beardless and wearing a crown of 
three fleurons. In base is also the lion of England. The Meld, 
however, instead of being charged with two castles is ts mee of 



The present mayor's seal is circular, 
1 inch in d\dim..(fig.22). It bears a shield 
of the city arms granted in 1652, and the 
legend : 



the city accounts. All the impressions 
that I have seen of it are either broken or 
blurred ; the latest is appended to a deed 
of 14th James I. (1616-17). 




(Fig. 22). 

Second and present Seal of the 
Mayor of Gloucester. 



392 



Transactions for the Ykau 1888-9. 



horse-nails^ and lias a largo horse-shoe on either side the king's 
neck. Legend : 

* S'- GCDWARDI : RGCG' : ANGL' : AD : EGCaOGn' : 
DaBITOR' : APVD : GLOVaaSTR'. 

The matrix of this fine seal is now in the possession of the 
town clerk. Unlike all other seals of its class, which are of 
silver, it is made of pale 
bronze or latten. 

The smaller piece, or 
" clerk's seal," which was 
used as a counter seal to 
the " king's seal," has long 
been lost, and no impres- 
sions of it have yet turned 
up. 

An example of much 
later date is preserved in 
the British Museum, ^ 
appended to a document 
of 1590. It is a small circular seal, |^ inch diameter, bearing 
simply a shield of the arms granted to the city by Barker in 
1538. 

It is to be hoped that these few remarks may be the means of 
bringing to light not only the missing " clerk's seal," but other 
seals relating to the city and its officers. 

I have to thank Mr. W. H. Stevenson for much valuable help 
in elucidating the history and probable dates of the several seals 
described. 

The Society is greatly indebted to the courtesy of the Mayor 
and Corporation of Gloucester for the loan of the blocks which 
illustrate this Paper. 

1 Add. Charters, 19564. 




(Fig. 23). Statute Merchant Seal for Gloucester. 



Lypiatt Hall. 



393 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

guistol anb 6lauasttvsljtrc ^uljirnbgttal Sorid^ 

AT A SPECIAL MEETING, HELD AT STROUD, 

On Thursday Evening^ l^th February, 1889. 

The arrangements were made under the directions of the members of the 
Local Council, and the meeting was well attended. The chair was taken by 
Sir John Dorington, Bart., M.P., a Vice-President of the Society. Among 
the company present was The Very Rev. The Dean of Gloucester, The 
Very Rev. The Prior of Woodchester, Genl. Little, Col. Pennington, 
a large number of local clergy and gentry, and many ladies ; as also the 
Rev. William Bazeley, Hon. General Secretary, and Mr. C. A. Witchell, 
Hon. Local Secretary. 

Sir John Dorington having, in a few words, introduced the Dean of 
Gloucester, the Dean gave a graphic and interesting description of the 
successive stages in the history of the venerable building under his charge, 
which was very successfully illustrated by Mrs. Embrey, of Gloucester, by 
the exhibition with a magic lantern of a series of views taken more than a 
century ago. This address and exhibition gave great satisfaction to the 
meeting, which was largely of a popular character. 

This was followed by a Paper by Mr. Chas. Wethereu, Hon. Associate 
of the Royal Institution of British Architects, On Lower Lypiatt Holly 
which was illustrated by drawings by the Misses Stanton, Mr. Roger 
Batchelor, and Mr. J. B. Lewis. After an introduction of considerable 
length, and no less literary ability, which could not with justice be abridged, 
and which our space will not permit us to print in full, Mr. Wethered 
proceeded to describe the building under notice in the following terms : — 

" I have gone far afield in order to trace back the subject of this paper 
to its source, to show how an abrupt transition from long- established usage 
led astray by deviating from the normal path of progress. This was effected 
by exchanging our true vernacular in stone and brick for foreign terms of 
expression. The cardinal principle of our native style I may describe as 
unity in multiformity. Its basis is freedom and variety of arrangement, 
ruling the i)lan and deciding the elevations. A structural work laid down 
on these lines may be likened to the growth of a tree, which, rising from a 
central axis, springs up and inclines on either side to seek the air and light. 
On the other hand, when a rectangular block without breaks or projections 
includes the various services within four walls under one uniform roof, the 
designer is subjected to a formula which stifles all inventive energy, except 
in matters of minor detail. We may define its chief characteristic as the 
tyranny of uniformity. 



304 



Transactions for the Year 1888-9. 



Wc have a typical specimen of this squared, evenly-balanced plan, two 
miles to the east of Stroud, in Lower Lypiatt Hall, l)uilt within three years 
after the reign of Queen Anne. According to Sir Robert Atkyns, " This 
manor was an ancient seat of the family of the Freanis, and was called 
Lypiatt Hall. It came by descent to Charles Cox, Esq., who married one 
of the heiresses of Fream." Rudder, writing later on, says: "He was 
deservedly appointed one of the judges of Wales, and served in several Par- 
liaments for the borough of Cirencester. He was succeeded in this estate by 
his son, John Cox, Esq., who was also elected a representative for the 
borough of Cirencester in the year 1748, and is for the present proprietor of 
Lower Lypiatt, where he has a handsome house and a large estate." 

" I may briefly describe it as consisting of a barrel- vaulted cellar, a base- 
ment flloor, entered from the back and sides, two stories containing the 
principal rooms, with attics above under a single hipped roof. These attics 
were lit on every side by two dormers, all of which were destroyed some forty 
years ago when the house was almost roofed anew. Those on the main 
front have been replaced in the elevation I have had carefully drawn to 
scale by Mr. Roger Batchelor. And, before going further, I wish to express 
my best thanks to those who have so kindly placed at my disposal their 
several drawings that so well illustrate my subject. Whether you have 
been to Lower Lypiatt or not, you may see in the water-colour drawings by 
the Misses Stanton how thoroughly they have depicted, by the kinship of 
their beautiful art, not only the contours and local colour of this neighbour 
ing landmark, but they have also reflected the sentiment of those old walls 
and windows that have witnessed the ebb and flow of successive waves of 
humanity. 

The porch is composed of a segmental pediment, supported by fluted 
Ionic columns and pilasters, approached by a flight of steps. Through the 
porch we directly enter at a corner of what is said to have been the dining- 
room, and here we at once notice one of the most striking changes from the 
old ordering of things to the new in the disposition of the chambers, stair- 
case, and passages, all of which are contrived so as not to interfere in any- 
way with the equal size and spacing of the window openings. One of the 
awkward results of this restraint is that a partition wall sometimes cuts a 
window vertically in two. This may be tolerated within doors, but it is 
not to be endured outside, so a filling-in of ashlar or opaque material is 
needed to conceal the anomaly from the critical eye of the passer-by. This 
is an outcoine of that compressed, hampered manner of planning I have 
ventured to term the tyranny of uniformity. 

The stone was quarried from the oolitic beds of Bisley, and the masonry 
now toned by the touch of time and storm, is of the best. The lines of the 
cornice, string-course, and window mouldings, like all else inside and out, 
are noteworthy for excellence of workmanship. The wood pannelling, and 
internal fittings generally are, rather strange to say, not of oak or walnut 
but of perishable elm and ash, now much decayed. Cast in relief on the 
lead work of a rain-water pipe are the date 1717 and the arms of the founder. 
The crest is a crowing cock. The gateway leading to the spacious forecourt 
is of wrought-iron work, supported by stdne pillars, with moulded caps and 
urn-shaped terminals relieved by foliations. Interlaced with the scroll work 



Lypiatt Hall. 



395 



above the gates is the name of " Cox in monogram. The hammer of the 
smith and the chisel of the mason seem to have striven here for mastery in 
the rend ering of a feature that adds distinction to the physiognomy of Lower 
Lypiatt Hall. 

Until within the last twenty years the withdrawing-room wa. hung 
with tapestry, and I am indebted to Mr. John Kemp, of Gloucester, lor the 
following interesting account of these picturered hangings woven with dyed 
threads of wool: — " I have much pleasure in giving all the information I 
can respecting the tapestries from Lower Lypiatt Hall, which were presented 
by the late Miss Gordon, of Kemble, to the Gloucester School of Art. They 
consist of three pieces, two 14 ft. by 10 ft., with borders of floral ornament, 
and the other is 10 feet by 8 feet. The subjects have been identified by a 
learned antiquarj", the late Mr. Xiblett, of Haresfield Court, as being taken 
from the Book of Esther, and as representing the history of Mordecai. The 
smaller of these pieces shows King Ahasuerus calling forth Mordecai. One 
of the longer ones shows the bringing forth of the horse on which Mordecai 
is to ride through the city ; and the last, Mordecai exalted on a throne with 
a crown of gold on his head. They are all treated in the large, broader 
manner of Raphael, and carried further by Rubens and his followers. The 
costumes abound in anachronisms, e.g. the soldiers are habited as Roman 
soldiers, and a Red Indian, whose head is decorated with feathers, appears 
in one of them. Mr. Niblett ascribed their execution to the latter part of 
the 17th century, to which period I am disposed to assign them. I consider 
it very probable that they are English work produced in the Royal manu- 
factory at Mortlake, near Windsor, which was established by James I. and 
was continued by Charles I., who purchased the celebrated cartoons of 
Raphael with a view to their execution in tapestry. The civil war put a 
stop to the manufactory, but it was re-established by Charles II. , and the 
looms continued in operation until the death of Francis Crane in 1703, who 
was the last superintendent. T cannot be quite sure of this conjecture, but 
it happens that an engraving of a piece known to have been produced about 
the time of Charles I. is in my possession, and the similarity of style to 
those in our school is very evident." 

The only sign of fusion of the old with the new at Lower Lypiatt is the 
retention of mullions, transoms, and casements in the side windows ; but a 
lingering regard for home-bred Gothic traditions is strongly marked in the 
barns and stables built at the same time. These out-buildings, in fact, 
would be quite in keeping with the belongings of a Tudor grange, and may 
be a reminiscence of the ancestral abode of the Freams that occupied the 
same site. No vestige of this remains except an ancient well and a few 
foundations hidden below the ground close by. 

While thus far clinging to the past in his surroundings, our worthy judge 
could not resist the wave of change that swept in his day over many lands. 
Long ago deserted by his descendants, and stripped within and without of 
much that once made it, like the residence of Justice Shallow in this county, 
" a goodly dwelling and rich," it is none the less the best house of its class 
in this immediate neighbourhood as regards external appearance and finish. 
The influence of this local centre of innovation soon extended exerywhere 
around — with this result, that a square or oblong facing of stone or of brick 
pierced with square openings, unrelieved by a single moulding or incising, 



396 



Transactions for the Yeah 1888-9. 



became the prevailing type and ultimate expression of the once so noble art 
of building. 

Nevertheless, our chissellers and dressers of stone have never lost the 
skill of their craft handed down to them from generation to generation, and 
the late Sir Charles liarry was well advised when he employed freestone 
masons from these westward Cotteswold slopes to build the palace of West- 
minster. Swayed by the deviations and reactions so characteristic of our 
times, not a few among our leading architects have returned to the old 
paths wherein is the good way. In the later essays of many others we too 
often see borrowings and admixtures from all quarters ; imitation of the 
forms rather than observance of the principles that originally dictated the 
adoption of those forms ; but these compounds of diverse elements are, at 
any rate, a decided advance upon the dreary monotonies of the Georgian 
age, so flat, stale, and unprofitable to the mind and eye alike. 

A survey of the monumental remains of past ages compels the unwilling 
admission that the archaeologist of the future will find in the achievements 
of the 19th century no phase of architecture, much less a style, veritably our 
own, and distinctive of our civilization. The present belongs not so much 
to the architect as to the engineer, whose railway viaducts and other works 
of the like bold character, rival in dominion over nature, if not in granduer 
of eff"ect, the out-lasting structures of the old Romans. 

Mr. A. T. Playne followed with a Paper on The History and Architec- 
ture of Avening Church. He said it was fortunate that up to that date the 
building had escaped the ruthless destruction which had befallen so many 
churches under the misused term "restoration," instancing as an example 
the neighbouring church of Minchinhampton, which had been subjected to 
the operation some fifty years ago. Giving a brief sketch of the history of 
the manor, Mr. Playne said that some remains of Norman work existed in 
the structure of the church, particulars of which he described, as also of 
the various changes which had taken place in the building down to modern 
times. Mr. Playne, in concluding his paper, acknowledged his indebtedness 
in its preparation to Mr. Frederick Waller, of Gloucester, and Mr. R. H. 
Carpenter, of London. 

On the termination of Mr. Playne's paper, the Rev. F. de Paravicini, 
Rector of Avening, proposed to read a Paper on the same subject ; but as 
he had omitted to give notice of his intention, it was not included in the 
Agenda for the evening, and the hour, moreover, having become late, the 
chairman ruled that it could not then be admitted, and suggested that it 
should be reserved for the next meeting of the Society; and it was so 
arranged. 

Mr. Robert Taylor had undertaken to read a short Paper entitled A 
Plea for Old Tools, but was prevented from being present by illness ; and 
though Mr. Hyett had kindly promised to read the Paper for Mr. Taylor, 
because of the lateness of the hour it was reserved by general consent. 

Votes of thanks concluded the proceedings. 



FRANCIS DAY, C.L.E., LL.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 

Deputy Surgeon-General, in the Indian Army. 

After an illness of some duration death has removed from us one of the 
most eminent members of our Society in the person of Dr. Feaxcis Day, who 
departed this life at Cheltenham, on Wednesday, the 10th July, 1889, in the 
6 1st year of his age. 

Dr. Day was the third son of William Day, of Hadlow House, Sussex, 
Esq., and was educated at Shrewsbury School under Dr. Kenedy. On leav- 
ing school he adopted the medical profession, and was attached to St. 
George's Hospital, London. Having qualified, he went to India as Assistant 
Surgeon in the Madras army, and in 1852 was promoted to the rank of 
Surgeon, and eventually attained to that of Deputy Surgeon-General. 

As a boy at School he devoted all his spare time to the study of Natural 
History, especially to the habits of fishes, in which branch of science he after- 
wards greatly distinguished himself. In 1865 he published his first work on 
the subject in the Fishes of Malabar, compiled and illustrated from specimens 
he had himself collected on the coast. In the following year he directed his 
attention to the rivers of the Xeilgherry Hills with the view of stocking 
them with trout ova and the cultivation of edible fish. The attempt proved 
successful, and in recognition of this service he was awarded by The Societe 
d' Acclimatization of France their silver medal. In the next year an investi- 
gation was ordered by the English government into the condition of the 
Fisheries of India, and Mr. Day was ordered by the Governor-General in 
Council to undertake if. In the performance of this duty he suffered an 
accident which necessitated his return to Europe, but whilst in England he 
was not idle, for, as soon as he was able, he visited the various salmon rivers, 
breeding establishments, fisheries, and fish-ladders in this country. On his 
return to India he was appointed Inspector-General of Fisheries, and visited 
most of the large rivers in India ; and during this service collected, at his 
own expense, specimens of every fish he could obtain, and, in order to meet 
the wishes of the Government of India, he ofiFered to bring out an illustrated 
work on the fishes of India if he were permitted to go to England for the 
purpose. The Viceroy (Lord Xorthbrook) in Council approved of the pro- 
posal, and Mr, Day arrived in England in May, 1874, and by the end of 
1878 he had completed his magnificent work, The Fishes of India, published 
in four vols., 4:to.,of 7i8 pages of text, with 198 plates, containing 1200 
figures of fishes, most accurately and splendidly finished. 

Whilst this work was in progress, Mr. Day published in 1877 a book on 
the fishes which the Yarkand Mission brought from India. As soon as he 
was relieved from these labours he was engaged upon the preparation of an 
illustrated work on the fresh water and marine fishes of the British Isles, 
which he puljiished under the title of The Fi-ih's of the United Kimjdoin of 
Great Britain and Ireland, in two volumes, with 180 plates. At the time of 



his death a second work by him on The Fishes of India was passing through 
the press, the revision of the proofs which he was able to complete before 
the end. 

Besides these standard works, Mr. Day was, we l)elieve, a frequent con- 
tributor to periodical publications treating of subjects connected with his 
own special course of study. His industry was untiring, his faculty of 
observation peculiarly keen, and his systematic arrangement of material 
remarkable. He was thorough in everything he undertook, hence his great 
success. 

The value of Mr. Day's distinguished services were not overlooked. 
Many prizes have been awarded to him. He was Comissioner for the India 
Department at the " Fisheries Exhibition," and for his own exhibits he was 
awarded three gold medals and the first prize of £100 for a Treatise on 
Commercial Sea Fish, and the Prince of Wales, as President of the Exhibition, 
writing of him to the Secretary of State for India, mentioned ' ' the great 
benefits which have generally been derived throughout the operations of 
the Exhibition by the experience and learned advice which has been so 
freely and generously afforded to us by so learned and competent an author- 
ity on all matters relating to fisheries ; and we trust your Lordship may 
deem it expedient to convey to Dr. Day the sense which we entertain of his 
assistance." Soon after this he was gazetted a Companion of the Most 
Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, and, as lately as February last, the 
University of Edinburgh conferred upon him the Honorary Degree of LL.D. 

Dr. Day was a member of this Society from its formation, and at the 
time of his death was a member of the Council for Cheltenham. He took 
much interest in the work of the Society, and was a regular attendant at 
the Meetings, but he took no part in its management. He was essentially 
a Specialist, and, as we have seen, his time and thoughts were closely occu- 
pied in those studies to which he had so profitably devoted his life, and upon 
which he was engaged to his death ; so that, unfortunately, our Transactions 
have not been enriched by any communication from him. 



Notices of Recent Arch.i:ological P^BLICATIO^^s. 



399 



THE CISTERCIAN ABBEY OF STRATA FLORIDA : Its history, and 
an account of the recent excavations made on its site. By Stephen W. 
Williams, F.R.I.R.A. London : Whitmg & Co., 1889. 

This interesting volume contains a historical account of the Abbey of Strata 
Florida, co. Cardigan, and more especially of the results of the excavations 
conducted there by the author during the last two years. 

The abbey itself is of surpassing interest, though little of the ancient 
structure now remains above ground, except the beautiful and unique wes- 
tern entrance. When S. and N. Buck wrote in 1741, the angle of the 
north transept appears to have been tolerably perfect, as shewn in their 
view of the remains reproduced by Mr. Williams, and the engraving pub- 
lished by Meyrick in 1808 [Hist, of Cardigan, PI. VI.) this fragment in the 
whole or in part, may be seen through the west door in the latter plate. It 
stood 40 feet high, but during the process of the excavations a great portion 
of it fell down, and what remains does not exceed 10 or 12ft. in height above 
the floor level. 

]Mr. Williams, considering that the ancient records of the abbey are so 
intimately associated with the lives of the founders, has, in his preliminary 
chapters, given the history of the later Princes of South Wales. These 
descend from Rhodri, King of North Wales, who began to reign in 843, 
and was slain fighting against the Saxons in 876, Having succeeded, by 
the politic marriages of his father and grandfather, to the inheritance of the 
whole of Wales, uniting all the principality under one sceptre, he imme- 
diately broke up this unity by dividing his kingdom between his three 
sons. Constant wars arose between these rival though brother chieftains. 
Cadell, the eldest son of Rhodri, was expelled from his patrimony, and it 
M-as not until 1077 that Rhys ap Tewdwr came over from Britany, where 
he had been in banishment, and claimed and recovered the principality 
as the representative of Cadell, Rhodri's eldest son. His possessions are 
said to have been of vast extent, embracing the counties of Cardigan, 
Carmarthen, Brecon, and part of Radnor Ij'ing between the rivers ^Vj'e 
and Elan, and it was out of these large estates that Rhys ap Tewdyr and 
his descendants from time to time so munificently endowed Ystrad Flur 
and its successor, the great Abbey of Strata Florida. The possessions 
of the latter, according to a map furnished by Mr. Williams, which, by the 
way, is far from clear, extended from Builth, on the Wye, to Llancurie in 
a northerly direction, a distance, as the crow flies, of about 40 miles, and to 
Aberavon on the west about 70 miles. 

This Rhys ap Tewdwr has hitherto been regarded the founder of the 
great Abbey of Strata Florida, but ]Mr. \A'illiams shews that this could not 
have been the case. That he foumled a house for some order of monks at a 
place called Yr hen Fynachlog — " the Old Monastery," on the banks of a 
small rivulet called " The Flur," two miles soutli-west of the Abbey of Strata 



400 Notices of Recent ARcnyiwLocjicAL Publications. 



Florida is admitted ; but this house was destroyed by fire, and Rhys's grand- 
son, Rhys ap Gruffydd, found it in ruins and determined to build a large 
house in a more convenient situation for Cistercian monks. This was the 
origin of Strata Florida. 

We must not further follow the author in his history of the Welsh 
Princes, or in his account of their internecine wars, or his description of 
the vast possessions of the abbey, suffice it to say that as the Welsh 
Princes waned before the rising sun of England so the great possessions of 
the abbey melted away. The abbey itself was struck with lightning and 
almost wholly destroyed by fire in 1284, on which occasion King Edward I. 
gave £78 towards its restoration, but it was, ten years later, again burnt in a 
Welsh insurrection by the King's army, contrary to his wishes, though Mr. 
Williams suggests that on this occasion the conflagration was confined to 
domestic buildings. It was occupied by the King's army during the war 
with Owen Glendower, and never recovered from the devastation it then 
sustained. 

We hear scarcely any more of Strata Florida until the dissolution of 
the Religious Houses. Even Leland says but little of the buildings or the 
church, except that the foundations of the latter were laid for a structure 
60ft. longer than the then building. The abbey fell under the smaller monas- 
teries, but it was one of those which the King refounded by Letters Patent, 
In this case dated 30th Feb., 1537, upon the payment by the Abbot of a fine 
of £66 13s. 4d., the annual value in the minister's accounts being shewn as 
£199, probably reduced to bring it within limit of £200 prescribed by Act 
of Parliament. Two years later, however, it was, nevertheless, finally sup- 
pressed. There were then resident the Abbot. Richard Talley, and seven 
monks. The Abbot was granted a pension of £40 a year and the monks £3 
each. 

In 1547 a lease of the site of the abbey with all houses, &c., &c., was 
granted to Richard Bevereux, Esq., but nothing is said of the church, and 
Mr. Williams concludes that it continued to be used by the parishioners, 
and says that according to local tradition it was destroyed by the Puritans 
at the time of the great rebellion in the 17th century. With this its history 
ends. 

Strata Florida Abbey would seem to have rested in the quietude of its 
interment in its own debris for a couple of centuries, until after the formation 
of the "Cambrian Archaeological Association" in 1846. At the first anni- 
versary meeting of this excellent society, held at Aberystwyth, in Sept. 
1847, the subject was brought under notice by the Rev. George Roberts, 
Vicar of Monmouth, who read a valuable paper On the History and Archi- 
tecture of Strata I'lorida Abbey ; and on the following day an excursion was 
made by the Society to the ruins. Previously to this visit, by the thought- 
ful prevision of Mr. J. Davies, of Pantyfedwen, with the kind permission 
of Colonel Powell, of Nanteos, the owner of the property, excavations were 
made on the site, to explore, in some measure, a part of the ruins. 
" The spots selected for the excavation were first, for a distance of about 
twelve feet along the south wall of the chancel, where it was expected 
that some traces of the sedilia, the piscina, &c. , might be found ; and, 
secondly, at the western corner of the south transept, where it joins the 
nave, as this point would serve to determine the nature of the work, &c. 



NoTiCF:? OF Recent Akch.eological Ptblicatioxs. 



401 



The excavations were continued on the t^vo following days, and b}^ the time 
the members arrived, the pavement and walls were laid bare ready for 
inspection. " 

At the evening meeting, Dr. Mereweather, Dean of Hereford, at the 
request of the President, in an earnest and eloquent address, gave an account 
of the discoveries which had been made through the excavations. They did 
not amount to much. Enough was found to establish the correctness of the 
theory laid down in Mr. Roberts's paper that the building was of Transition 
Xorman date. A portion of the piscina was also found, which was stated 
to be of a very early period, and some tiles and tiled pavements. jNIuch 
enthusiasm was manifested, but it quickly died away, and although the 
Society again visited Strata Florida in 1878, nothing practical came of it, 
and the building was allowed to rest for another forty j^ears, until in 1887, 
when the subject was again <aken up by the author of the present work, 
through whose energy and perseverance wonders have been wrought in the 
short space of two j'ears, as exhibited in the very interesting volume before 
us. 

'Ml'. Williams commenced his excavations in June, 1887, with very 
small means at his disposal, but as he proceeded funds came in. Within a 
fortnight from the commencement he had so far cleared the ground as to 
enable him. to define the outline of the abbey church. 

His excavations have evidently been conducted with great skill and 
care, and his description of the remains discovered is. throughout, very 
thoughtful and clear ; and, moreover, the illustrations are beautifully drawn 
and executed. It is impossible we can follow him through the progress of 
the operations, or in the details of the objects found, but we will endeavour 
to give a short general description of the church. It was cruciform in plan, 
with a central tower, the total length being 213 ft., length of nave 132 ft. 
6 ins., breadth of the nave and aisles 61 ft., length of the transepts, inclu- 
ding the central tower, 117 ft. 3 ins., breadth of the transepts 28 ft., square 
of lantern, central tower 28 ft., length of choir 28 ft., being, with the 
exception of Cwmhir Abbey, the largest ecclesiastical building in the 
Principality', but the latter had no transepts. 

The whole of the church was in the Transition Korman style, with 
pointed arches, except the great western doorway, and was all built at tlie 
same period during the forty years in which that style pi'evailed. In no 
part of the ruins, Mr. Williams tells ns, was a fragment of ^dndow tracery 
discovered, except that a portion of a mullion was found in the chapter 
house, and this is supposed to have come from the conventual buildings, 
Externall}', Mr. Williams saj's, " the church must have been of that simple 
and stern character which is characteristic of the humbler ecclesiastical 
structures of South Wales," but it is also characteristic of all Cistercian 
churches, especially those of early date. 

Having said thus much on the general plan of the building we will add a 
few words on the sevei'al parts. The floor of the churcli, Mr. Williams tells 
us, was originally throughout nearly of the same level, with only one or, at 
most, two steps to the Presbytery, but at a later date the floor of the Pres- 
bytery had been raised 1ft. Gins., concealing the angle-shafts at the cast end, 
the bases of which were discovered in 18S7. This, he supposes, may have boon 
2 D 



402 



Notices of Recent ATtcir/EOLOoiOAL PrBLTOATioNS. 



effected as late as the time of Charles I. , there being a tradition that the 
church was used for Divine service down to the great rebellion of the 17th 
century, for at the rear of the altar, which stands out from the east wall 
some 12 feet, common black 9 inches square tiles of inferior quality have been 
used, covering up the original pavement. In clearing out the presbytery 
masses of the internal jambs of the great east window were found. They 
had fallen forward and had been buried in the rubbish. They are of peculiar 
type, and are decorated with the pellet ornament and concentric circles of 
distinctively Norman character. The presbytery was vaulted. 

The transepts were separated from the tower or choir by solid walls. 
There were three chapels on the east of each transept. These were groined, 
as fragments of the groining ribs were found, and there was a string-course, 
about 8 feet above the floor level, running round each chapel below the 
windows, and in each angle a three-quarter shaft springing from an elegant 
carved bracket carried the groining ribs. In these chapels both the plaster 
and stone-work were painted, but it had been white-washed over many 
times, Mr. Williams thinks by the monks to hide the action of the fire 
upon the stone-work, traces of which had been found in every direction in 
the church, but we imagine more probably by the Puritans in later times. 
Several kinds of stone of different colours had been used in bands in the 
piers, shafts, mouldings, bases, and capitals, and other dressed stone-work 
throughout the building. In the southern chapels the walls were found 
perfect to the line of the string-course, but not a trace of the windows 
remained except pieces of the jambs, which had fallen outside, and a 
quantity of fragments of stained glass which had dropped out of the win- 
dows into the narrow space between the walls and the altars, which were 
detached. *' It has all very much perished, but traces can still be seen, on 
some of the fragments of beautiful foliated work of the most delicate 
description ; and there is no doubt that, in addition to the wall-painting, 
the windows in the chapels were filled with stained glass. " The line of 
piers of the chapel arcade was also sufficiently perfect to form a judgment of 
what must have been their very fine appearance looked at from north to south 
through the arches of the great central tower, " In the chapels were found 
the bases of the altars, in each case fairly perfect, and the tile-pavements of 
very beautiful design, of incised and encaustic tiles ; and not only the 
chapels but both transepts and the choir and presbytery had been similarly 
tiled. A description of the patterns of the tiles is given. Among them are 
some armorial tiles, charged with the dragon of Wales, the griffin, the arms 
of Despenser, and a plain shield charged with a chevron. 

In the south transept is the base of the staircase leading from the monks' 
dormitory. Underneath this was discovered what appeared like a grave, 
but which Mr. Williams considers was a sort of repository of some kind In 
it were found fragments of canopied tombs and disjecta of different kinds. 

The chapter house is situated on the south of the south transept, from 
which it is separated by two small rooms, their length together being the 
breadth of the transept and 10 feet wide. One designated the sacristy, to 
which there is an entrance from the transept, and the other is called the 
library, which has no communication except with the cloister. The cross wall 
is not bonded into the side walls. These rooms were originally vaulted. The 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 



4C3 



chapter house is 37 feet by 28 feet. Mr. Williams is of opinion that it has 
been altered since it was originally planned, the entrance door not being 
central. The foundations of the stone benches around the room, used by 
the monks when sitting in chapter, still remain. The character of the 
architecture of the building, Mr. Williams says, is clearly of a later date 
than that of the church. It is of the Early English type. The mouldings of 
the doorway consist of bold rounds, filleted, deep hollows, and slender shafts, 
with capitals of stifF-leaved foliage. The monks' cemetery was situated in 
the angle between the east side of the chapter and the south side of the 
presbytery. Many graves were here found. 

A few more words relative to the interior of the church and we shall 
have done. The outer walls of the nave do not appear to have had buttresses 
corresponding with the responds of the piers in the aisles, and therefore, if 
it was intended to groin the aisles, the transverse ribs would have sprung 
from corbels, and the builders appear to have considered that the outer 
walls were sufficiently strong to sustain the thrust of the aisle groining ; 
but, as a matter of fact, there is every reason to believe that the aisles never 
were groined. 

The tower was carried on massive piers, the two western being square 
on their western face and also along the line of the choir. Eastwards they 
were similar to the eastern piers, which are of clustered shafts. The shafts 
supporting the inner members of the lantern arches were semi-circular and 
attached to the square piers, the outer members being carried on three- 
quarter-work-shafts. The bases are of late Norman or Transitional type. 

We cannot conclude this notice without cordially thanking Mr. Williams 
for the patriotic zeal and labour he has bestowed in the elucidation of the 
history and architecture of this famous historic religious house, all the 
remains of which were not only metaphorically but literally buried in ob- 
scurity. He justly says : " There still remains much to be done by way of 
excavating and clearing the ruins of the abbey," and we trust he will receive 
such support as will enable him fully to accomplish what he has so success- 
fully begun. We shall look forward with the deepest interest to a further 
volume on the subject. 

We are sorry to say we have not space to offer any remarks on the 
interesting and valuable documents collected in the Appendix. 



DEVONSHIRE PARISHES, or the Antiquities, Heraldry and Family 
History of Twenty-eight Parishes in the Archdeaconry of Totnes. By 
Charles Worthy, Esq., late H.M. 82nd Regiment. Author of Ashburton 
and its Neighbourhood, Hundred of WinUeigh, Notes on Bideford and the 
House of Granville, Practical Heraldry, dtc. , tt-c. In two volumes. Vol. II. 
Exeter : W. Pollard & Co. London : George Red way, Co vent Garden. 
The first volume of Mr. Worthy's work, containing his account of fourteen 
of the twenty-eight parishes which the work embraces, was noticed in the 
last volume of our Transactions ; and the volume at the head of this notice 
contains the particulars of the other fourteen. We have, we think, in our 
former notice sufficiently stated the object and scope of the work, and the 
plan upon which it is arranged, and it is now only necessary to draw atten- 
tion to some few points in the present volume. 
2d 2 



404 NOTICKS OF RkCENT AllCIi;i'',OLOCIICAL PUBLTOATIONS. 



Mr. Worthy proceeds rapidly over his work, marking the salient points 
under each parish, giving briefly, but with sufficient fullness, the devolution 
of the principal manors with some account of its lords from its earliest dates, 
and an ccclcsiological description of the church, with its chief monuments 
of antiquity, and especially of the blazon of the numerous coats of arms with 
which some of them abound, both on monuments and in ancient painted 
glass, but, unhappily, much of the latter has been lost through the destruc- 
tive process called "restoration " from which, during the present generation, 
our ancient churches have so severely suffered. 

Most of the Devonshire churches still, however, possess remains of much 
historical and ecclesiological value, and it is difficult to select any which are 
specially deserving of particular notice. But among these we may mention 
the parish church of the ancient and picturesque town' of Dartmouth, which 
is unusuallj' rich in armorie. Mr. Worthy favours us with the blazon of 
more than fifty coats in this church. The church of Little Hempston is> 
also, one of no small interest. It contains a particularly handsome rood- 
screen, for which indeed the Devonshire churches were formerly famous, 
but, alas ! many of them have been destroyed under "restoration." That 
at Little Hempston was originally enriched with colours and gilding, but 
this has been destroyed by the whole having been painted a dark brown 
colour. It retains, however, " much carved ornaments of great delicacy and 
minuteness of detail — acanthus flowers, vine leaves, clusters of grapes, and 
birds (among them the woodcock) adorn the cornice, and the projection of 
the rood-loft which still remains." The lower part of which is panelled, 
and "without doubt," Mr. Worthy says, "once contained the customary 
figures of Saints, Apostles and Martyrs, while the upper portion is pierced 
with the usual pointed openings, all filled with good Perpendicular tracery." 

The parish of Wolborough is also deserving of a few words of special 
notice. After a brief general description, from which it appears that the 
manor and advowson given by William Lord Brewer, as a portion of his endow- 
ment of Tor Abbey on its foundation in 1196, Mr. Worthy proceeds to give a 
history of the mesne lords who held the manor of the Abbot. This leads to 
a very full pedigree of the family of Reynell, of Ogwell, and its alliances. 
The church contains a "very beautiful screen" which extends across the 
nave and aisles. Mr. Worthy tells us that of late years it has been carefully 
restored, and is rich with chromatic decoration and gilding, but he does not 
tell us if the images which have been removed from " the four tabernacles 
adorned with crockets and finials " have been replaced. The panels in the 
lower portion of the screen are filled with figures of Saints, &c., most of 
which he has been able to identify by their respective emblems and describle. 
The church contains some effigies and other memorials of the Reynell family, 
and some ancient armorial glass of which the blazon is given. 

Mr. Worthy relates the recovery of a very fine font cover at Shaugh 
Prior. Soon after the institution of the present Vicar, the Rural Dean, on 
visiting the church, mentioned the fact that some years previously a font 
cover of singular grace and beauty existed in the church. The Vicar, with 
praiseworthy zeal, immediately instituted inquiries, and ultimately, in an 
old Linhay, amidst various rubbish, the grea1;;er part of the cover was found, 
though very much decayed and mutilated. The Vicar thereupon had it skil- 
fully restored, in the true sense of the word, and replaced in its position. 



Notices of Recent Aecileological Publications. 



405 



and iiOAr, Mr. Worthy says, " it is the pride and glory of the whole county, 
since no other example of such a cover is to be found in Devonshire." A 
most interesting description is given of this curious and ancient work of art, 
for which we must refer the reader to Mr. Worthy's work. There is also 
a fine Chancel Screen in this cliurch with panel-paintings in the lower 
part as before described, which the author states to be " quite unique in the 
West of England." The work affords much information concerning the 
parishes of which it treats, and is generally very interesting, and well got 
up, but the Index is not worthy of the work. 



OLD ENGLISH-CATHOLIC MISSIONS. By John Oelebar Payne, M.A. 
London : Burns & Oates. New York : Catholic Publication Society, 1889, 

This is a very useful volume, affording information upon a subject not 
before brought under the notice of the public. Apart from the light that 
it throws upon the condition of the Roman Catholic community in this 
country during the last century, it affords inforjnation upon the subject of 
the Roman Catholic Registers of Baptisms, Burials and Marriages, very 
useful to the genealogist, and other matters of historical interest. The 
Registers referred to, which, for very sufficient reasons urged by the late 
Cardinal Wiseman in a letter to the Registrar-General in 1856, are not, with 
a few exceptions, deposited at Somerset House with the Registers of Dis- 
senters and other non-parochial Registers, and therefore literary searchers 
have not access to them, and know but little about them. 

Mr. Payne gives much information respecting these Registers, which, 
from the dangers and disabilities under which the Roman Catholics lived 
for nearly three centuries are far from complete, nevertheless they contain 
much valuable information, as shewn by the Extracts which he gives. And 
he tells us in whose custody they, severally, are now deposited, and, pro- 
bably, upon a suitable application no difficulty would be experienced in 
obtaining information from them. 

The volume also throws much light on the inner life of Roman Catholic- 
ism in England under the operation of the penal laws. In some parts of the 
country the practice of the rites of the Roman church never ceased. " There 
was," according to Abram's 'History of Blackburn,' "an uninterrupted 
maintenance of religious worship by the members of the Roman Church in 
Lancashire. . . during more than two centuries of statutory proscription." 
No chapels were allowed to exist, but the Roman Catholic gentry and riclicr 
families provided for the means of worship by their tenants and poor neigh- 
bours in chapels connected with private mansions. And Mr. Abram further 
observes that traces are frequent of a respectable minority of Roman Catholics 
in that district, and adds, it is a question if in some parts of Ribblesdalc, 
under the contimiance of landlords of the same faith, the Catholic section of 
the population was not, at times, in the majority ; and Mr. Payne produces 
evidence to the same effect from Lambeth Palace Library. 

The entries in the Registers are shewn by the extracts not to be con- 
fined merely to records of baptisms, burials and marriages. Tliey inciden- 
tally exliibit many evidences of the zealous ministrations of the clergy, and 



40G 



Notices of Recent ARcii^iOLOuicAL Publications. 



their iiiiniiicliing courage in the exercise of their office in the greatest diffi- 
culties and infinite personal perils to which they were exposed under the 
rigour of the penal statutes. Many of the records are of great interest, and 
some of the entries very touching. The dates of the foundation of the several 
missions are given as nearly as practicable, though in consequence of the 
rigid proscription of the community in the earlier period considerable 
reserve and concealment was necessarily practised. Later the Registers are 
more full, and give the number, and sometimes in cases of persons of im- 
portance, the names, of those reconciled to the Roman Communion. 

The book shews evidence of careful compilation and editing, and possesses 
a good Index. 

SETTLEMENT OF LANDS IN EDMONTON, ENFIELD, and elsewhere, 
made the 31st May, 1580, with a view to the marriage of Robert Cecil, second 
son of William, Lord Burghley, with Elizabeth Brook, daughter of William, 
Lord Cobham, with sketches of the lives, and a pedigree shewing the rela- 
tions of the parties to the deed. Annotated and edited by Chakles B. 
Bowles, M.A. London : Mitchell & Hughes, 140, Wardour Street. 

Mr. Bowles has judged wisely in thinking that the curious document found 
among his family muniments possesses sufficient interest to be brought 
before the public. It contains much information of local genealogical and 
topographical value, and, admitting that the history of some of the more 
prominent personages, parties to the deed, are sufficiently well known, there 
are others with whose relationship to them we are not so familiar. This 
compilation shews much diligent work, and it would be a great gain to the 
local historian if country gentlemen, like Mr. Bowles, would print, or allow 
others to print, a selection of documents lying unknovvn in their muniment 
rooms. 



THE SURVEY AND RENTAL OF THE CHANTRIES, COLLEGES, 
AND FREE CHAPELS, GUILDS, FRATERNITIES, LAMPS, LIGHTS, 
AND OBITS IN THE COUNTY OF SOMERSET, as returned in the 2nd 
year of King Edward VL, a.d. 1548, with an Introduction by Emanuel 
Green, F.S.A., Member of the Council of the Somerset Record Society, &c., 
&c. Printed for subscribers only. 

The recently-formed Somerset Record Society has commenced its work by 
printing for its members two very interesting volumes. The first, edited by 
the Right Rev. Bishop Hobhouse, contains an abstract of the Register of 
Bishop Brokensford, who ruled the united dioceses of Bath and Wells from 
1310 to 1329 ; and the second volume is that standing at the head of this 
notice. We have not had the pleasure of seeing the first volume, but if it 
be anything like the volumes of the Exeter Registers, published by the Rev. 
Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, which we have noticed in these pages, 
one of them just ante, it will form the commencement of a series of the 
highest value to all who take an interest in the local history of the County 
of Somerset. 



Notices of Rkce^t Akch.eological P^BLICATIo^•s, 



407 



The great interest which centres in the ancient Chantries of England is 
not unknown to our readers. Irrespective of the Certificates of the Com- 
missioners for Gloucestershire of all the Chantries, Colleges, &c., &c., in 
this county, printed in Vol. VIII. of the Transactions of this Society, and the 
account of the goods of which they were dispoiled in the 2nd Edward VI., 
printed in Vol. XII. of the Society's Transactions, several special Papers 
have been printed on the subject in the present volume. 

In some respects, the volume before us is of greater interest than usual. 
In the Introduction, the author gives a brief history of the suppression of 
these popular institutions, with an explanation of the technical terms used in 
the work, many of which are not familiar to the general reader ; and the pro- 
cedure adopted in carrying out the nefarious work. He then prints the 
Certificates of the commissioners appointed to make the Survey in the County 
of Somerset, similar to those of Gloucestershire, above cited, shewing, in 
general terms, the lands, tenements, rents, &c., forming the endowments of 
the several foundations, with the names and ages of the incumbents, the 
objects for which the several chantries were founded, and the names of the 
founders when known. In addition to these particulars, Mr. Green has been 
so fortunate as to discover among the Land Revenue Records, lately trans- 
ferred to the Record Office, the original rental of the Somersetshire Chantries. 
It is frequently referred to in the Certificates, which, perhaps, led Mr. Green 
to make a more careful and, fortunately, successful search. This document 
he considers to be unique, " for although, " he says, similar returns would 
be made for other counties, his one for Somerset would seem to be the only 
one extant. This appears to us to be a somewhat hasty conclusion. It is 
possible that the Land Revenue Records, which have onlj^ recently become 
accessible to the public, may contain other examples. We would fain hope 
so. This rental shews the number of tenements pertaining to each chantry, 
their extent, severally, in area, the name of the tenant, and the amount of 
rent paid, the particulars very closely agreeing with the certificates. 

To complete this subject, we would take the liberty to suggest that the 
Society would do well in continuation to print the Particulars of Sales, which 
contain much curious matter, and in many instances shew what became of 
these chantry possessions, and it could not be in better hands than those of 
Mr. Green. 



THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL REVIEW. A Journal of Historic and Pre- 
Historic Antiquities. Xos. 6, Vol. I., to 6, Vol, 11. London : David Nutt, 
18SS-1SS9. 

Ix our last volume, page 342, we noticed the work down to No. 5, the latest 
number which had then reached us. We have since received the further 
Parts to the completion of Volume II., and must apologise for our delay in 
noticing it, which has arisen from illness and other causes. We are glad to 
say the further numbers confirm the favourable opinion expressed in the 
notice referred to. 

The portion of the Reviexc now before us contains much curious and 
valuable illustration, not elsewhere readily attainable, concerning primitive 
customs. In the 6th number of Vol. 1. is a Paper by Mr. Gonime on Exo- 
gamy and Polyandry, and other practices connected with uiarriage and 



408 



N(Vri('KS OK IIkCKNT AlUMLKOL0(iICAI> PlIBLKJATIONS. 



sexual intercourse among barbarous peoples, referring to a Paper on this 
subject by Mr. McLennan in the preceding January number of the Historical 
lieview. This number contains also some other good Papers, among them 
we may mention some Notes sliewing the continuance of villenage in England 
as late as the middle of the 17th century, by Professor Maxime Kovalensky ; 
and in this number and elsewhere, notes from the Parliamentary Papers 
descriptive of the manners and customs of the Aborigines in our colonies. 

Volume II. opens with a series of Papers relating to the Ethnographic 
Museums throughout Europe and America, the collections in which, having 
been made, in most cases, by specialists, are of vast importance to students 
of the condition of, and degrees of culture possessed by, the various primi- 
tive races of mankind, including our own pre-historic forefathers. The 
collections are of enormous extent, and have been made from all regions of 
the earth, but the remarks on them in the Review are necessarily limited to 
certain museums. The chief collection would appear that in the Ethno- 
graphic Central Institute in Berlin, the hugh mass of material in which, it is 
said, will form an essential basis for ethnological studies. The American 
museums, also, contain valuable collections, but all require careful classifi- 
cation and description, to extend as far as practicable their usefulness to 
the student of pre-historic peoples, and this is now being proceeded with at 
Berlin. 

No. 1 contains a Paper of considerable interest, by Mr. Gomme, on the 
Village Community of Aston and Cote, a sub-manor of the manor of Bamp- 
ton, in Oxfordshire. Mr. Gomme says the tenure of lands in this manor was 
very peculiar, and is quoted in text books of real property law, but he adds 
that he does not find that the evidence it affords upon the history of the 
Village Community of England has ever been considered. He closely and 
carefully examines the details of the organization and manorial customs of the 
district, which, from its very isolated position, arising from the entire absence 
of roads, affords a good example of the continuity of the manorial customs 
as they existed in pre-Norman times, and shews that the process of decay of 
the archaic free village community led to the lord taking upon himself the 
powers which once belonged to the community, and that such an example 
exists so late in our history it is difficult to believe that all other examples 
of communal rights having been absorbed by lords' rights are to be referred, 
as Mr. Seebohn suggests, to the epoch of Roman civilizing forces. 

Our limited space w^ll not permit us to .notice severally the numerous 
valuable Papers in the second volume. We can only mention in No. 2 an 
interesting and readable article, by Mr. Alfred Nutt, on Celtic Myth and 
Saga, a Survey of Recent Literature. In No. 3 are several articles of great 
interest, foremost among which are Mr. Gomme's Widowhood in Manorial 
Law, and Mr. Walter Rye's Notes on Crime and Accident in Norfolk, temp, 
Edivard I. In No. 5 the first paper that attracts attention is an important 
and studious article by Mr. Evans on Stonehenge, and a paper by Mr. Pell on 
Domesday Aleasures of Land, in reply to that by Mr. Round in No. 4 of 
Volume L of the Review on the same subject, which had been sometime 
expected. Mr. Pell explains and considerably strengthens his views as stated 
in Domesday studies, but we do not think the controversy is quite closed. 
Possibly there may have been a rejoinder by Mr. Round since issued which 
we have not seen. 



Notices of Recent ArvCiLtoLOGicAL Publications. 



409 



The Editor, in an address to the contributors and subscribers, on the 
conclusion of his second volume, points out "that the guiding principles of 
the jReriew are to recognise the interdependence of all manifestations of man's 
activity in the past, and to employ the same method of critical investigation 
for all of them," He says "the chief measure of attention will continue to be 
given to religious, social and economic archjeology," and observes that " these 
are branches of study comparatively neglected in this country and are repre- 
sented by no other journal save the Arcliaiological Review. Monumental 
archaeology, especially from its aspect as evidence for early institutions, 
will continue to receive due attention. Celtic antiquities will, as in the 
past year, receive ample notice, and the Review hopes to publish tran- 
sactions of texts hitherto inaccessible to English readers." 

These are objects which cannot fail to commend themselves to every 
true antiquary. It is only by the collection of such out-of-the-way knowledge 
as is furnished by this Review that the student is enabled to institute a com- 
parison between the manners and customs of different countries, and to 
observe to what extent they link in with each other, and what light they 
throw upon the origin of those which prevailed in this country in ancient 
times. A recognition of these facts ought surely to secure for the Review 
the hearty support of all antiquaries. 



HALLEN'S LONDON CITY CHURCH REGISTERS- THE REGISTERS 
OF ST. BOTOLPH, BISHOPSGATE, 1558-1753. Transcribed by A. W. 
Cornelius Hallen, Aloa., N.B. 1888-1889. 

Since our last notice of this useful work (Vol. XII., p. 193) Mr. Hallen has 
made excellent progress towards its completion. Vol. I. is finished, con- 
taining 597 pages irrespective of the Index which is very elaborate, and is 
also printed as far as " SWO " in the alphabet, and thus far extends to nearly 
200 pages more. Of Volume II. 440 pages have also been printed, bringing 
the entries of Burials down to 1716. Perhaps one or two Parts more will 
complete this volume and the Registers of St. Botolph, save the Index to 
the second volume. 

We need not say anything further than we have already said as to the 
excellency of the topography and the general "get-up" of the work, which 
reflect the highest credit upon all concerned. 

We are looking forward with great interest to the commencement of 
the next volume of Mr. Hallen's series, which, we believe, will be the very 
important Registers of St. Paul's Cathedral. 

PARISH OF ST. PETROCK, EXETER. Calendar of Deeds and Docu- 
ments belonging to the Feoffees of the Parish Property. Compiled by their 
fellow citizen, the late Robert Dymond, J. P., F.S.A. Exeter : Printed by 
Vvalliam Pollard & Co., 1889. 

This little brochure is a posthumus work of the late Mi. Robert Dymond, 
F.S.A., of Exeter, a well-known local antiquary of considerable repute, who 
has done much good work. In 1882 he read before a meeting of the Devon- 
shire Institution, held at Crediton, a Paper on The History of the Parish of 
St. Petrock, one of the smallest but most interesting parishes in Exeter. 



410 



Notices of Rf.cent AiiciiyEOLooicAL Publications. 



This history, deduced from the Churchwardens' Accounts, which commence 
in 1424, and other records, was afterwards amplified and printed with il- 
lustrations and an Index. The preparation of this work necessarily led 
Mr. Dymond to make a close examination of the parochial records which he 
arranged and calendared, in so doing he made copious abstracts of the deeds 
and documents which are here printed. Some of the documents are as early 
as the 13th century, but they are most numerous in the 15th, and extend 
down to the present. They are not now, of course, of any use for purposes 
of title, moreover, many of the tenements to which they relate have been 
from time to time sold by the feoffees, but they are very valuable for his- 
torical and genealogical purposes. Among them is printed a translation of 
a long and interesting will of John Kelly, of St. Petrock, an eminent citizen 
of Exeter and thrice mayor of the city. It was brought to light by the 
Rev. Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, in his Abstract of Bishop Stafford's 
Register, noticed in Vol. XI. of our Transactions. 



THE REGISTERS OF WALTER BRONESCOMBE, a.d. 1257-1280, and 
PETER QUIVIL, a.d. 1280-1291, BISHOPS OF EXETER, with some 
records of the Episcopate of THOMAS DE BITTON, a.d. 1292-1307 ; and 
also the Taxation of Pope Nicholas IV., a.d. 1291 (Diocese of Exeter). By 
the Rev. F. E. Hingeston-Randolph, M.A., Rector of Ringmore, Preben- 
dary of Exeter, and Dean Rural. London : George Bell & Sons. Exeter : 
Eland ; William Pollard & Co., Printers. 

In Volume X. of our Transactions we had the opportunity of noticing the 
Register of Edmund Stafford, Bishop of Exeter, 1395-1419, by the Rev. 
Prebendary Hingeston-Randolph, upon which occasion we made a few remarks 
on the general character and value of this most important series of records. 
Bishop Stafford was the nineteenth Bishop of the diocese of Exeter, and 
Bishop Bronescombe, the Abstract of whose Register is now before us, was 
the twelfth. He ruled the diocese from 1257 to 1280, and hence he is 138 
years earlier in date, and consequently his Register shows the condition and 
working of the diocese so much earlier. 

Interesting, valuable, and important as Bishop Stafford's Register is, in 
our estimation that of Bishop Bronescombe exceeds it in all these par- 
ticulars. As mentioned in our former notice, Bishop Bronescombe's is the 
first of the fine series of Episcopal Registers of the diocese of Exeter com- 
mencing in 1257, and we do not know of any anterior to them in any other 
diocese. Our earliest note from the Hereford Registers is dated in 1280, 
and from those of Worcester 1290. It is probable that at first such records 
were kept on Rolls, which, generally, are no longer extant. The Book form 
was first introduced at Winchester by John de Pontisara, Poyntys, or 
Poyntz, who, from being Archdeacon of Exeter, was appointed to the See 
of Winchester in 1282. In the diocese of Lincoln the Book form was 
adopted in 1290, and the Lambeth series commences in 1279. 

Prebendary Randolph makes us acquainted with the romantic history 
of this valuable volume. It is supposed that Bishop Stapeldon must have 
taken it with him to London, and after his murder by the London mob, on 
15th Oct. 1326, when his house was sacked and his goods dispersed, it was 



Notices of Recent Archaeological Publications. 411 



lost or stolen. Someone bought it whose name is unknown, but Bishop 
Grandisson, who seems to have been instrumental in its recovery, denounces 
the purchaser's unworthy treatment of the precious manuscript. 

Bishop Bronescombe was a prelate of vast ability and untiring energy 
in the performance of the duties of his high office, of unsullied integrity of 
character, prompt and courageous in the maintenance of the rights and 
privileges of the Church alike against both ecclesiastics and powerful nobles. 
This is illustrated by his long contention with Edmund Earl of Cornwall, who 
had usurped some of the manorial privileges of the Church manors in divers 
instances in Cornwall, which the Bishop eventually recovered in 1270. His 
activity is shewn by his Itinerary, printed pp. 294-302. 

The Register also displays, as pointed out by Mr. Randolph, that the 
Bishop lived in a church-building age, which he, doubtless, encouraged. 
He himself made extensive alterations in the cathedral, but most of his 
work has been swept away in subsequent restorations. Mr. Randolph says : 
"It is evident that a great wave of zeal for the Houses of God had swept 
over the whole diocese between Sept., 1259, and the end of 1268. Within 
this short time the Bishop was called upon to dedicate eighty-eight rebuilt or 
enlai'ged churches. Of these dedications forty occurred in a single year. 

The volume contains many important charters and other records, some 
of them of earlier date than Bishop Bionescombe's time, bound up for pre- 
servation in the first volume of the series though not pertaining to it. 
Some of these are as early as the middle of the 12th century. These have 
been chronologically arranged and printed at the beginning of the book. 
Such of them as fall within the dates covered by the volume are inserted in 
their proper places in order of time, and others, which are later, are printed 
in an Appendix. Documents which relate personally to the Bishop are 
printed in chronological order at the beginning of the Register. The 
analytical index to the whole volume is arranged upon the same admirable 
system as that adopted by Mr, Randolph in Stafford's Register, to which 
allusion was made in our former notice. There are many charters in the 
body of the work which the Editor has printed verbatim. 

Bishop Bronescombe died 22nd Oct., 1280, and was succeeded by Bishop 
Peter Quivil, who resided mostly in his diocese, but his Register is very 
meagre, extending only to 24 folios of vellum, bound up with the Register 
of Bishop Bronescombe, and does not record any general Visitation of his 
diocese during the eleven years he presided over it. He was a great build- 
ing Bishop, and would seem to have given his attention more to the trans- 
formation of his cathedral than to the episcopal administration of his diocese. 
This was. Archdeacon Freeman says, (Architectural History of Exeter 
Cathedral, p. 12), a gigantic undertaking, and fully carried out by Bishop 
Quivil and his successor. This information is derived from the fabric rolls. 

His Register, as far as it goes, is much of the same character as that of 
Bishop Bronescombe. Bishop Quivil died 4th of October, 1297, and was 
succeeded by 

Bishop Thomas Bitton, who was second son of Sir Adam de Button, or 
Bitton, of Bitton, co. Gloucester, ob. 1299. His Registers is entirely lost, 
and Mr. Randolph suggests that it suffered the sajne fate as that of Bishop 
Bronescombe, though, unfortunately, it has not, like that, been recovered. 



4l5i Notices op Hecent Aiicii.KOLoaiCAL Publications. 



The inost striking incident, however, in this volume is the account of 
the murder in 1288 of Walter Lechlade, Precentor of the Cathedral, which 
has been so involved in obscurity that even Dr. Oliver could scarcely persuade 
himself of the fact. Mr. Randolph, however, with untiring perseverance, has 
brought all the details of this horrible crime to the light of day. 

A great deal of ill-feeling had arisen in the chapter of the cathedral in 
respect to the election, in 1281, of one John Pycot to the office of Dean, the 
patronage being then vested in the chapter. This appointment was ex- 
ceedingly distastful to the Bishop as well as to many members of the 
chapter. The Bishop appealed to the Primate (Archb. Peckham), but failed. 
Pycot was confirmed in the office. The Bishop appealed again, though with no 
better success, but the Bishop refused to recognise him in any way as Dean. 
The strife continued, and became day by day more embittered, until, at 
length, Walter Lechlede, Precentor, was brutally murdered in returning to 
his own house from the celebration of matins on 9th November, 1283, by a 
body of ruffians. The Precentor was the leader of the party in the chapter 
v^hich opposed Pycot, and suspicion immediately fell upon the latter as, 
at least, the instigator of this horrible crime. He, with some twenty other 
persons, were indicted. He was found guilty, and was imprisoned in the 
episcopal prison. Alured de Port, late Mayor, and the Keeper of the South 
Port, and several clerks were also found guilty, and the ex-Mayor and the 
Porter were duly executed. What was the fate of the Dean we know not. 
Perhaps he escaped by the benefit of clergy, but the Deanery became vacant 
in March, 1284-5. 

One point deserves a few words of special notice — the reprinting of the 
Taxation of Pope Nicholas, as far as it relates to the diocese of Exeter. That 
published by the Record Commissioners in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica was 
printed from a corrupt copy of the 15th century in the Record Office, and 
this was reprinted, after collation with the contemporary record at Exeter, 
by the late Dr. Oliver, in his Monasticon Diocesis Exoniensis, but he failed to 
correct many errors. Mr. Randolph has, therefore, done well to print the 
Exeter record from the original for the use of students of the ecclesiastical 
history of the, now, two western dioceses. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE NOTES & QUERIES, Vol. IV. Parts XL. to XLIII. 
Edited by the Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, M.A. London : W. Kent & Co., 
23, Paternoster Row. 

The fourth Part of Vol. IV. of this publication contains the continuation of 
a Tour within the Borough of Stroud. Part XL. opens with a List of the 
Monumental Inscriptions in the Church of Shirehampton, and in the Parts 
now under review are several other such lists. We may mention Chipping 
Sodbury, Maismore, Sapperton, St. Nicholas (Bristol), Trinity Church 
(Kingswood), Woodchester, Cainscross, Chalford, Yate, and the chapel on 
Redland Green ; whilst we have extracts from the Registers of the Parishes 
of Maismore and Charlton Kings. 

In the Part above-mentioned is an interesting note on John Palmer, 
manager of the Bath and Bristol Theatres,, through whose means, in 1783, a 
great improvement was made in the conveyance of H.M. Mails ; also a con- 
tinuation of notes on the Parish of Wick war, commenced as long ago as 



Notices of Recent Arch.eoloCxICal Publications. 413 



18S4. Also a communication relative to the Vicarage of St. Giles, Cripple- 
gate, London, and its connection with the Bishopric of Gloucester, shewing 
the abuses which existed in the church in consequence of pluralism in the 
last half of the 17th century, and which now, happily, have ceased. A curious 
specimen is given of the language and orthography used in the vale oi^ Glou- 
cester as late as 1851, before Board schools were invented. It is reprinted 
here from the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Field Club. In the following 
Part is printed the letter of an old vicar of Quinton, circa 1480-1504, relative 
to enclosures. It is here reprinted from England in the 15th Century , by the 
late Rev. W. Denton. 

Another important paper will be found in Part XLII, , being a copy, ver- 
batim et literatim, of an Indenture made in 1518, between the Abbot of St. 
Peter's and the Mayor and Commonalty of Gloucester, respecting the rights 
of the freemen of the city in the meadows in and near Gloucester, 
Many of the minor notes are of great interest. 

THE WESTERN ANTIQUARY. Edited by W. H. K. Wright, F.R. 
Hist. Soc. to June, 1889. London : George Red way, York Street, Covent 
Garden. Exeter : J. G. Cummin, 230, High Street. 

The Western Antiquary, as was intimated in our last notice (Vol XII. , page 
345), prints further articles of interest on the fate of the Spanish Armada, 
and illustrated Notes on the Exhibits in the Armada Tercentenary Exhibition ; 
and also on Sir Francis Drake and other Armada worthies, together with a 
memoir of Capt. Martin Fringe, the last survivor of the Elizabethan Sea 
Captains. There are other articles of considerable interest, e.g.: On CrocTcprn 
Tor and the Ancient Stannary Parliament, by William Crossing, commenced 
in Part VIIL ; On the Eddy stone Light-house, by H. J. S. Woodhouse ; and 
Some Notes on the Churches of Exeter, by John Newman, not yet completed. 
The indefatigable Rev. Preb. Hingeston-Randolph continues his Abstracts of 
Ancient Manuscripts in Kingsbridge Church, of which he has now printed 
seventy-eight. Many other articles deserve notice : e.g. A Hundred and 
twenty years since, by W. H. H. Rogers, and A List of Devonshire Brasses, 
by John Newnham. In all respects the last year's work well sustains the 
high reputation this periodical has deservedly acquired. 

NORTHERN NOTES AND QUERIES, or The Scottish Antiquary. Edited 
by the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, M.A., F.S.A., Scot., &c. Edin- 
burgh : David Douglas, 1888-1889. 

Under Mr. Hallen's able editorship this periodical makes most satisfactory 
progress. It embraces a wide field, including the whole of Scotland and the 
borderland. Scots' TranscrijHs of the Perth Pegisters, mentioned in our 
former notices, is continued throughout the recent numbers, as also is the 
Account of the Family of Younger of Alloa. The Parish Register of Hadding- 
ton is commenced. The recent numbers are somewhat rich in genealogy. 
An account is given of the supposed descendants of Sir Frank van Hallen, 
K.G., who died in 1375, a paper written for, and accepted by, the Genealo- 
gist," but in consequence of the temporary suspension of that valuable 



414 



Notices of Recent Arciijcolooical Publications. 



periodical through the resignation of the late accomplished Editor Mr.Wal- 
ford Selby in consequence of ilhicss, it is printed here.^ Other important 
genealogical papers are also found relative to the ancient Scottish families 
of Livingstone, Ross, Nicolson, &c., and notes on the marriages recorded on 
the Acta Dom. Cone, et Sess. 1478-1495. Among the minor Notes is one of 
more than local interest, which we desire to commend to the notice of 
English antiquaries. Much attention has been given to old plate, old china, 
old glass, and even old lace, but in visiting ancient manor houses, so far as we 
are aware, no enquiry has been made respecting old household linen, some of 
which is very curious, and, not unfrequently has the family arms woven in 
the fabric. This omission has often impressed itself on our mind, and we have, 
from time to time, made enquiry on the subject, but we confess never with 
much practical result. We thank Mr. Hallen for bringing the matter under 
public notice which we hope may arouse an interest in it, and lead the 
possessors of such relics of the past to recognise the fact that they possess 
historic value. 



NOTES AND QUERIES FOR SOMERSET AND DORSET. Edited by 
Mr. Hugh Norris, of South Petherton, Local Secretary for the Society of 
Antiquaries for Somerset, for Somersetshire, and the Rev. C. H. Mayor, 
Vicar of Long Burton with Holnest, author of Bibliotlieca Dorsetiensis, for 
Dorsetshire. Parts I. to VI. Sherborne : Printed by J. C. Sawtell. 
In our notice of the Western Antiquary last year (Vol. XIL, page .345) we 
announced that in future the scope of that periodical would be limited to 
Devon and Cornwall, and that another serial of the same character would be 
started for counties of Somerset and Dorset. Since then we have received 
copies of the first six Parts of this new work, and under the direction of the 
learned Editors named in the heading of this Notice, it cannot fail to be 
satisfactorily conducted. Moreover, we are glad to observe that they are 
supported by contributors of the first class, among whom we are glad to 
notice the names of Prof. Earle, Mr. Thomas Bond, the Rev. F. W. Weaver, 
the Rev. J. A. Bennett, and other other well known local antiquaries. 

The articles printed are, generally, of much interest. The first to which 
we shall call attention is entitled Armada Expenses in Somerset and Dorset. 
In 1589 an application was made by the Queen under Privy Seal, personally, 
to the most wealthy inhabitants, for the loan of specific sums, according to 
their supposed ability, repayment of the same being promised at the end 
of one year from the date of receipt. And a list is given of the names of 
persons, in the two counties to whom such privy seals were addressed and 
and the amounts severally required of them. To these names the Editors, in 
many instances, have added biographical notes of the several gentlemen. 

There is an article by Miss F. B. James, commenced in Part III. and 
continued in the following Part, on the Peverells of Dorset, which claims 

1 We deeply regret to state that since this notice has been in type Mr. Selby, in the 
prime of life, on the 3rd of August, instant, succumbed to his long illness from typhoid fever, 
to the great grief of all who knew him. All students of our National Muniments have sus- 
tained an incalculable loss. His complete knowledge of all classes of our records was only 
equalled by the obliging kindness and courtesy with which, as Chief of the Search Room at 
the Public Record office, he was ever ready to assist enquirers in the object of their search. 
The void caused by his death will not be easily filled. 



Notices of Recent Archaeological PrELiCAXioNS. 



415 



some notice. The further investigation of this descent would be of great 
interest. Quoting Hutchins, Miss James states that Andrew Peverell, of 
Newton Peverell, co. Dorset, left two daughters and coheirs, who married, 
respectively, Fitzherbert and Brocas, and from an entry in the Originalia 
Rolls, 137o-6, it appears that a John Brocas was son of Margaret, dt ughter 
of Alice, one of the sisters of the same Andrew. It is further stated that it 
is not known who Alice Peverell married, but there is reason to suppose 
that her daughter Margaret married Oliver Brocas. 

In the pedigree of Brocas, given by Captain Montagu Borrows in his 
exhaustive memoir of the Brocas family, it is shown that Sir John Brocas, 
who died in 1365, married a lady named Margaret, who was living in 1.356. 
They had issue Sir Oliver Brocas, who died in 1363, v. p., having married 
Margaret de Hever, who is stated to have died in the same year, ha\-ing had 
issue, John Brocas, who died unmarried in 1377. Was this the John Brocas 
who was mentioned as one of the representatives of Andrew Peverell ? Pro- 
bably the pedigree of Hever might throw some light on this question. 
There is such a pedigree in Berry's Sussex Genealogks, a work, to which, at 
present, we have not access. 

Prof. Earle writes on the identity of Baddanbyrig with Badbury, near 
Wimbome, and Mr. J. H. Moule and the Rev. J. A. Bennett take part in 
the discussion, in which the identity seems to be clearly established. But, 
the Professor remarks, that " interesting as is this detail of the movements 
of 901, the notice is chiefly precious for the light which it throws on an event 
which happened nearly 400 years earlier. The battle of Mons Badonicus in 
520, referred to by Gildas and by Beda, has been stated to have been fought 
near Bath, and though Dr. Guest, 20 years ago, identified Mons Badonicus 
with Badbury, yet the notion that it was at Bath is very persistent, and 
is from time to time repeated." !Mr. F. H. Dickinson writes On the Bonn- 
darieti of Somerset. There is an interesting paper on John Fry the Regicide. 
Mr. Harbin Bates gives the text of a Brief for receiving collections in 
churches and chapels for the sufferers by a G^reat Fire at Yeovil in 1640. ; A 
paper On the Honour of Gloucester, by Mr. David Jones. The Cerne Giants 
and other notes of great interest are also given, which we have not space to 
specify. 

NOTES AXD GLEANINGS. A Monthly Magazins, devoted chiefly to 
subjects connected with the counties of Devon and Cornwall. Edited by 
W. CoTTOv, F.S.A., and James Dallas, F.L.S. Nos. 7 to IS. Exeter: 
W. Pollard & Co., 1SSS-1SS9. 

Tms serial of History and Archjeology for the two western counties, whose 
debut we announced last year (Vol. XII., page 345) has been, we are glad to 
say, most successful in a literary point of view. The articles in the several 
numbers now under notice are above the average in interest and value ; 
nevertheless, we regret to add, that with the January number the Editors 
were constrained to issue an appeal for additional subscrii ers. and at the same 
time they published a long list of persons well qualified as new contributors, 
some of whom have since supplied several valuable communications. The 
magazine is well deserving of the necessary support, and we trust that it 
now receives it. We may mention the following as the most prominent and 



416 Notices or Recent Arch^ological Publications. 



interesting Papers, but there are many others of equal merit. The Cartulary 
,of Otterton and Sidmouth, by P.O. Hutchinson. Gold Mines of De.vomldre, by 
VVinslow Jones. Ancient Cornish Deeds, by W. Pengelly, F.R.S. Genealogy 
of the Coiirtenay Family, by P. 0. Hutchinson. Abstracts of Exeter Municipal 
Records. Dedications of Churches in Devon and Cornwall, by the Rev. F. C. 
Hingeston-Randolph. 

CYMRU FU : Notes and Queries relating to the past history of Wales and 
the Border Counties. Edited by George H. Brieeley. Reprinted with 
additions and corrections from the Cardiff W eekly Mail. Cardiff : Daniel 
Owen & Co. London : Elliot Stock, 1888-1889. 

We are glad to see that the progeny of that popular publication, Notes and 
Queries, originated as long ago as 1849 and is still flourishing, has extended 
into Wales as well as into Scotland. Two publications of this class have 
been started in the Principality : one at Carmarthen, entitled Carmarthen- 
shire Notes, intended chiefly for that county ; and the other described at the 
head of this notice. Both are issued in quarterly Parts, being reprints, the 
former from the South Wales Press, and the latter from the Cai'diff WeeJcly 
Mail, as stated above. The publication of the Queries in the local news- 
papers in the first instance appears to be a very convenient plan. It affords 
an opportunity of receiving replies much earlier than would be the case if 
the issues were limited to the monthly or quarterly publication, and thereby 
greatly enhances the usefulness and interest of the periodical. 

Cymru Fu, pronounced KumriVee — ''Wales in the Past," — Vol. I. con- 
sisting of four quarterly Parts extending to 420 pages, 4to, double columns, 
besides the index, has just reached us. Mr. Brierley, the Editor, appears to be 
supported by some vigorous and learned contributors. In addition to articles 
on various subjects of interest we have minor notes on superstitions, old pre- 
dictions, charms, divination, witchcraft, folk-lore, legends, manners and 
customs, &c. , and, as Board schools have not prevailed in Wales long enough 
to eradicate all poetical feeling, the natives of the principality are still rich 
in legends, folk-lore and ancient customs. 

Among the earliest of the prominent papers is one read before the Royal 
Society of Literature, by Mr. R. B. Holt, a member of the council of that 
Society, on the Reliability of British Records and Traditions, which he sup- 
ports, and introduces many ancient customs of great interest, some of which 
survive to our own day. 

The Rev. Glanffrwd Thomas, of St.',Asaph, contributes many interesting 
and valuable articles. We may mention his notes on Ynysybivl in the time 
of the Monks, which he describes as a small hamlet sleeping among the hills, 
in the vale of the Clydach and Ffrwd, on the road from Pontypridd to 
Aberdare," now a busy colliery. *' What a pity it was," he exclaims, "to 
disturb the little hamlet. So quiet, so sleepy as it was, nestling in the 
leaves, for the slopes were covered with tall trees — oak and beech of a most 
charming appearance." The river Clydach glided through the place quietly 
and leisurely on its way from the mountain to lose itself in the Taff. Mr. 
Thomas says it was founded for the Benedictines, but afterwards passed to 
the Cistercians, like Neath and Margam. Strange to say it is not mentioned 
by Camden or Tanner. It was one of the smaller monasteries granted by 
parliament to the King in 1535, limited by the act to those whose revenues 



Notice^; of Recent Arch.i^ologtcal PrBLicATioNs. 417 

were under £200 per annum, and the number of the religious less than 12. 
Wo do not know the precise number at Ynysybwl, but Mr. Thomas tells us 
that on leaving their home all the monks except two removed to Llantarnam 
Abbey. The two excepted returned to the world, violated their vows and 
"married, and became founders of families who names are still known in the 
parish of Llanwyno." But we must not linger over this sad though interest- 
ing story. Mr. Thomas gives another chapter on the same subject on The 
Monastery of Penrhys, in the Bhondda Valley. Mr. P. Rhys Griffiths con- 
tributes a curious article on Welsh Medicine in the 13th and 14th Centuries. 
There is also a valuable article under the signature of " Morien," on the 
recent Excavations at Llantwit Major, near Cardiff, under the direction of 
Mr. John Storrie, the Curator of the Free Cardiflf Museum. It is the more 
valuable inasmuch as the whole, except a few relics and some photographs 
and drawings made by Mr. Storrie, preserved in the Museum, has been 
covered up and turfed over. The remains found are of great interest. The 
tesselated pavements, as shown by the illustrations, were very good and of 
" early design. *' Down to Sept. 10," (188S), Mr. Storrie writes, "two rooms 
and a Roman bath had been uncovered. In the larger room thirty human 
skeletons were discovered, and those of three horses in a room about 20 
feet square. Among the human skeletons were those of two children — one 
a baby and the other a child about ten years of age." 

** The opening into this room is in the direction of the town. In front 
and on both sides of it, in every direction, are green ridges, which, no doubt, 
represent ancient buildings which fell in the general ruin which befel the 
place. The fact that this one room contained thirty human remains, and 
that beneath one of the horse skeletons was lying a human skeleton, would 
seem to imply that the crowd of human beings had run for safety into this 
room, and that they were pursued by cavalry, who there massacred the 
fugitives, and that the three horses were killed in self-defence before they 
themselves feU. It is noteworthy that the skull of each of the human 
remains, except one, is fractured, which proves that the mortal blows 
received were on the head. At the end of what seems to have been a long 
corridor, leading from this room to the bath, was found the skeleton of an 
aged woman lying on the steps leading to the bath. Her nose and upper jaw 
had been smashed in, the bone being driven into the head. An attempt had 
been made to bury one of the skeletons in the tesselated room. The pave- 
ment had been broken, and the skeleton, which still lay untouched, was 
found in the opening. The probability is that this is the body of one of the 
attacking party, and that the victors took the trouble to bury their dead 
before they set the building on fire. That this body was quietly laid is seen 
in the fact that the feet of the corpse are towards the east, while the other 
skeletons were found lying in every direction. On all sides there are traces 
of fire ; stones found brown on the outside are black in the middle." 

There are many other articles of considerable value, viz., an illustrated 
Paper by Mr. W. H. Green on Caerleon, and the Arthurian Romances ; 
^Yales, and Monmouthshire in the time of James /., signed W.P. One, very 
useful to the local topographer and genealogist, entitled A Digest of the 
Royalist Composition Papers, relating to Glamorgamhire, signed by ' Silurian ;' 
Celtic Saints and Celtic Symbols, by E. J. Sowell, M.A., &c. Indeed, the 
Serial appears to be well edited, and the articles, altogether, are of more 
than ordinary interest. 

Vol. XIII. 2 E 



Abberley Hills, 273 
Abbotsbury, 262n 
Aberdare, 416 
Aberystwyth, 400 
Abinirdon, Abb., 330 
Abliiiton, M., 34Sn 

Account of Receipt and Expenditure, 85 
Acton, 333, 341 
Acton Burnell, 391 
Acton, Iron, 37, 44 
Acton Turville, 346 

Adams,"W. D., "B3'-Waj^sin Book-Land," 

noticed, 229 
^ric, 209 

^thelraed, II., K., 206 
^Ethelstan, 140 
Aidan, 119, 120, 158 

Ainsworth, Wm. F., Ph. Dr., F.S.A., 
F.R.G.S., his "Personal Narrative of 
the Euphrates Expedition," noticed, 
233-238 

Albans, St., 304, 316, 316n, 317 

Alberton, 325 

Albini, de, 333 

Albrichton, 325 

Alchfleda, 156 

Alchfrid, 156 

Aldboroug-h, 295 

Aldred, Archb. of York, his monument, 

254 
Aldrich, 152 
Alexander, Pope, 124 
Alexander, III., Pope, 147 
Alexander, IV., Pope, 147 
Aleyn, 248 

Almondesbury, 33, 290 
Alspathe, de, 336 
Aluric, 359 

Alveston, co. VVarr., 163, 172 
Alveston, Hund., 31, 32n 
Alveston, M., 346 
Ambi'ose, 110 
Amneville, 316, 317, 557 
Amney, 31, 358 
Amney Crucis, 321 
Andrew, 248 
Andrews, 373 

Annalia Dubensia, Memoir on, by Mr. 

F. A. Hj'ett, read, 46 ; the same 

printed, 103-117 
Antiquary, Vol. XVIII., noticed, 340 
Antisey, 303 
A Park, 58 

Apperley, deeds, relating- to, 87 
Apsley, M., 164 

Archaeological Review, Vols. I. and II., 

noticed, 407-409 
Arms— 

A Park, 58 

Austen, 277 

Berkeley of Dursley, 194, 194n, 195, 

195n 
Besford, 166, 167 
Boteler, 58 
Brandon, 58 
Brewers' The, 136 
Chandos, 186 

2 E^2 



Arms— Continued 
Charleton, 172 
Clare, de, 65 
Cliflford, 186 
Collins, 135 
Dashwood, 277 

Gloucester City, 134, 143, 384, 392 

Gurnay, 58 

Skipwith, 58 

Trye, 58 
Armstrong-, 292 
Arragon, Q., Katharine of, 181 
Arrowsmith, 21n 
Arundel, 333, 334, 357 
Ashel worth, M., 33 
Ashley, de, 333, 357 
Ashley Road, 293 
Asne r, 334 
Aston, 126, 334 
Aston, de, 340 
Aston Somerville, 315 
Aston-sub-Edg-e, 103, 339, 340 
Atkins, 149 
Attehulle, 362 
Attetharde, 362 

Augustine, St., Abbey, Bristol, 33, 293, 

353, 354 
Aula, de, 299 
Aure, de, 308 
Aure, M., 298 
Aust, 321 
Austin, 277 

Avon, riv., 159, 288, 289, 291, 292 
Aylesford, 328 
Ay 1 ward, 293 
Ayshwell, 128 



Bachampton, 128 
Backhouse, 380 
Backsore, 329 
Bacon, 174 
Badbury, 413 
Baddanbyng-, 415 
Badewei, 211 

Badgeworth, 62 ; Church visited, 63-66, 

67 ; deeds relating to, 87 
Badgeworth, M., 64, 352, 353 
Badvent, de, 26n 
Bagindon, 340 
Bag-indon, de, 340 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs., is thanked, 61, 62 ; 
reads Paper by Mr. M. H. Bloxam on 
the "Monuments in Gloucester Cath- 
edral," 70 ; the same printed, 252-259 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. W., re-elected on 
Council, 45, 71 

Baker, 250 

Baker, G. E. LI., 62, 71 ; exhs. in Museum, 
78 

Balding-ton, 351 
Balistarius, 324 
Ballard, 110, 116 
Balun, de, 320 
Banboroug-h, 118, 120 
Bampton, de, 338 
Bannockburn, battle, 65 



420 



INDEX. 



Barber's Bridge, battle of, 139 
Uarclay, ]84 
Hard no V, 118 
Barker,' 385 
Barkcdalc, 106 

Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., &c., his 

" Teata dc Ncvill llcturiis for Glou- 
cestershire, 23-34 ; his remarks on 
carucage, ib.; appointed Viee-Presi- 
dent, 44 ; Supplementary Paper on 
the " Berkeleys of Dursley," 188 ; his 
"Testa de Nevill, 297 

Barnard, 1 

Barnsley, 318 

Barnstead, 212 

Barnwood, deeds relating to, 87 
Barrowhill, 290 
Barry, 396 

Bartleet, Rev. S. E„ 1 ; re-elected on 
Council, 45 ; reads Paper On the Hos- 
pital of S.S. Mary and Margaret, 54 ; 
62, 71 ; 340 

Barton, 250, 376 

Barton-on-the-Heath, 103 

Baskerville, 330, 331, 357 

Basse, 104, 110 

Batchelor, 393, 394 

Bates, 415 

Bath, 9, 93, 155, 413 

Bath, Bp. of, 353 

Bath and Wells, Bp. of, 29 

Bayeau, de, 161 

Bayeaux, de, 343 

Bayley, 371, 375, 378 

Bazeley, Rev. W., Hon. Sec, at Sodbury, 
1 fhis remarks on Sodbury Records, 
3 ; his remarks on the Manor House, 
Little Sodbury, 3-4; at Gloucester, 41 ; 
reads Report of Council, 41 ; conducts 
a party over the Cathedral, 46 ; his 
remarks on Mr. J eff's Paper, 47 ; reads 
a Paper on the Early Days of the 
Abbey of S. Peter, 48 ; the same 
printed, 155 ; his remarks on MedicB- 
val Gloucester, 49 ; conducts party 
over the City, ib., his remarks on the 
Ancient Course of the River Severn, 
58 ; 60, 62 ; his remarks on Prinknash 
Park, 68 ; read Paper on the " Ancient 
Guilds of. Gloucester, 71 ; exhs. in 
Museum, 81, 139, his Paper on the 
" Guilds of Gloucester," 260-270 ; at 
Stroud, 393 

Beal, 268 

Beale, 62 ; exha, in Museum, 80 
Beauchamp, 170, 179 
Beaumont, 343, 344, 355 
Beche, de la, 292, 295 
Beckford, Prior of, 354 
Bedwell, 878 
Beele, 249, 250 
Bell, 184, 376 
Bellas, 110 
Bellows, 286 

Bellows, John, remarks on Roman Glou- 
cester, 49, conducts party over the 
City, 49 ; remarks on the Ancient 
Course of the River Severn, 58 ; 
thanked, 62 ; his remarks on Roman 
Gloucester, 69 ; exhs. in Museum, 78 

Bencombe, de, 189 

Bennett, T. P., exhs. in Museum, 79 

Bennett, Rev. J. A., 414, 415 

Berewich, 345 

Berkeley, Barony, 415 

Berkeley of Beverston, 247, 248, 249, 250, 
250n ; pedigree of, 251 



Berkeley, 3, 4, 32, 32n, 37, 57, 58, 177, 179, 
180, 191, 192, 192n, 193, 194, 194n, 195, 
247, 305, 310, 310n 

Berkeley Castle, 37, 274 

"Berkeleys of Dursley," Supplementary 
Paper on, by Sir Ilenry Barkly, 188 

Berkeley Ilcrncsse, 189, 325, 326 

Berkeley, Hon., 357 

Berkeley, Hund., 31, 32, 33, 305, 311, 315, 

322, 326, 351 
Berkeley, Town, 44 
Berks, co., 317 

Bernardone, F., (St. Francis) founder of 

the Franciscan Order, 173 
Bernewood, de, 191 
Bernicia, 159 
Berrie, 250 
Berry, 389 
Bersewell, 361 
Besford, 166, 172 
Besvn, 163, 172 

Bethell, W. W., 1 ; describes Hawkesbury 

Church, his Paper printed, 10-15 
Betteshorne, 251 
Beverley, Prior of, 324n. 
Bigg, 379 

Billett, J. H. exhibits in museum, 80 

Bingham, de, 128 

Birmingham, 140, 141 

Birt, 383 

Bish, 388 

Bishop, 378, 379 

Bisley, 330, 331, 334, 336, 338, 338n, 394 
Bisley, Hund., 31 
Bisp', 361 
Bissop, 362 

Bitton, 289, 316, 317 ; Thomas, Bishop of 
Exeter, 410, 412 

Blacker, Rev. Beaver H., his " Glouces- 
tershire Notes and Queries," noticed, 
412 

Blackleach, Aldm., his monument, 258 

Blakeway, G. S., Town Clerk of Glou- 
cester, 41 ; appointed on Council, 45, 
60, 62 ; is thanked, 68, 384 

Blathwayt, Rev. W. T., local secretary, 
Sodbury, 1 

Blean, S. B., M.A., his "The City of 
Faith," noticed, 234 

Bledislow, Hund., 31, 298 

Blisse, 380 

Blore, 336 

Bloxam, M. H., the late, his description 
of certain monuments in Gloucester 
Cathedral, read by Mrs. Bagnall- 
Oakeley, 70 ; the same printed, 251- 
259 

Bluet, 324 

Blund, de, 301, 317, 358 
Blundeville, 331 
Boadicea, 120 
Bockhampton, M., 29 
Bodmin, 176 

Bohun, de, 303n, 318, 319 
Bolla, 207, 208 
Boleyn, Ann, Q., 4 
Bond, T., 414 

Bonde, le, 362, 364, 365, 379 
Bonnor, Bp., 368n. 

Book-land, By-Ways in, by W.D. Adams, 

noticed, 229 
Boothby, Rev. W. H., 1 ; receives Society 

at Hawkesbury Church, 5 
Borlase, The Descent, Name and Arms of, 

noticed, 227-229 
Borough, 66 
Borough Walls, 289 



421 



Bosco, de, 326, 344, 357 
Bosel, 157 

Bossom, Mr., exhibits in Museum, 73, 

1-21, 122, 123 
Bossu, de, 344 
Boteler. 58, 177 
Botloe, Hund., 31 
Bottrell, 319 

Bower, 134, 138, 130, 268 

Bowles, C. B., M. A. , " S-^ttlement of Lands 

in Edmonton, Enfield and elsewhere," 

edited by him, noticed, 406 
Bradenstoke, Mon., 9 
Bradetone, 293 
Brading, 347 

Bradley, Hund., 31, 330, 334 
Bradshaw, 376 
Bramble, Col., 45 
Brandon, 58 
Brandon Hill, 289, 290 
Brandon, 375 
Braose, de, 318, 327 

Brasienose College, The Calendar, com- 
piled by Kev. W. E. Buckley, M.A., 
and Falconer Madan, M.A., noticed, 
239-240 

Brasses, Monumental, 168 

Braunche, Abb., 364 

Brentano, Lugo, 261 

Breresclyft, 178 

Brewer, 174 

Brickhampton, 90 

Bridgegate, 290 

Brid;<es, 70 

Brierley, G. H., his " Cymru Fu," noticed, 
416-417 

Brightwaldesbarrow, Hund., 31, 317, 318 

Brimstield, deeds relating to, 87, 333n 

Bristol and Gloucester, Roman, compared 
with the Castra Pretoria, and the 
sites of the Castra Peregrina, and the 
Castra Equites Singulares at Rome, 
by George Esdaile, C.E., 288-296 

Bridgwater, 176 

Bristol, Archd. of, 1, 9 

Bristol Castle, 309, 349 

Bristol, Dean and Chapter of, 127, 274 

Br.stol, " Xotes on a window in 6c. James' 
Church," at, by Sir John Maclean, 
F.S.A., 19-22, illus.,fig 18, PL. III. 
93, 176, 288 

Bristol, St. Nicholas, 410 

Bristol, St. Werburgh, '370 

Bristol, White Friars, 182 

Britany, 307 

Briwer, 303 

Brocas, 415 

Brockworth, Advowson, 52 
Brockworth, M., 340 
Bromes, 106 

Bronescombe, Bp. of Exeter, abstract of 
his Register, by Re\-. Preb. Hingeston- 
Randolph, noticed, 410-412 

Brookthorpe, Church visited by the 
Society, 55, 62, 320 ; some account of 
the Parish, by the Rev. J. M. Hall, 
35;J-383 ; Church described, 368 ; 
Village Cross, 369 ; Bells, 370 ; Crpyto- 
gratn, ih., The benefice, 371-373; 
Vicars, 373-378 ; Subsidies 379-380 ; 
Civil History, 380-381 ; Population, 
381, 382 ; Terrier, 382, 383 

Broseliy, Shropshiie, Parish Registers of, 
by Alfred C. C. Langley, noticed, 232 

Bruern. 327 

Btum, le, 312, 333 



Bruton, H. W., exhibits in Museum, 73, 

74, 76, 77, 81, 82 
Brvan, 382 
Bubb, 267 
Buckland, 213, 365 

Buckley, Rev. W. E., M.A., hie Brasenose 

Calendar, noticed, 339-340 
Buckman, 273 
Bulley, 326, 328, 376n 
Bullock, 268 
Bunte, 362 
Burder, 21 

Burford, Baron of. Monumental painting 

of, in Burford Church, Salop, 259 
Burgh, de, 169, 170, 172, 179 
Burghill,376, 376n. 
Burn, 100 
Burris, 154 

Burrup, Miss M., exhs. in Museum, 80 

Bury Camp, 290 

Busby, 367 

Bushley Ch., 154 

Bushley, 338, 338n. 

Bushlington, de, 348n. 

Butt, 377, 378 

Bynge, 376 



Cadbury, 289 
Cadle, 16 

Cadurcis, see Vhaworth 
Caermarthen, 176 
Cainscross, 412 
Calais, 92 
Calcote, M., 33 
Caligua, lOO 
Cambridge, 175, 176 
Camp Brake, 290 

Campden, 31, 44, 170, 213, 333, 334 
Canterbury, 176 

Canterbury, Archbps. of, 118, 119, 124, 

125, 126, 273 
Canterbury, St. Aug. Abbey, 157 
Cantilupe, 334, 335, 357, 358, 385 
Capener, 68 
Carditf, 176, 416 
Cardiff Weekly Mail, 416 
Carditf Castle, 252 
Cardwill, de, 328 
Carpenter, 396 

Canicage, Remarks on, by Sir H. Barkly, 

23, 30, 207 
Castra Peregrina, 288, 295 
Castra Pretoria, 288, 295 
Caulfled, 109, 114 
Caumont, de, 368 
Cernay, 318 
Chalford, 412 
Chambers, 116 

Chamfleures, Schipton, see Schipton 
Chandler, 135, 139 

Chandler, R. P., exhs. in Museum, 79 

Chandos, de, 334, 340, 347, 357 

Chapman, Mr., exhs. in Museum, 79 

Charfield, 298 

Charles, 313n. 

Charles, Prince, 4, 94 

Cliar.eton, 163, 172, 333, 412 

Ctiaurcis, see Chaivorth 

Chaworth, de, 711, 351, 355, 357, 358 

Chedworth, 99, 315 

Cheltenham, Hund., 31, 298 

Cheltenham, 44 ; selected as the place of 

Meeting in 1889-90, 62 ; 272, 298, 333, 

354n. 

Chepstow Castle, 94 
Chester, City, 120, 155, 205 



422 



Chester, Earls of, 81, 32n, 331, 333, 357 

Chester, Honour of, 333 

Cheyuev, IJp., 381 

Cliiltoiihani, dc, 177 

Chipping- Sodhury, see Sodbury 

Chosen Hill, 272,"287 

Christian, E., 276 

Churchani, 376n. 

Churchdown, C2 ; Church visited, 63 
Churchdown, Notes on the Church of St 

IJartholonievv at, by the llev. F. 

Smithe, M.A., LL.D., 271-287 
Church House, uses of, 364n. 
Church of England, a Dictionary of, by 

Rev. E. L. Cutts, B.A., noticed, 221 
Chute, 203, 204 
Cif>-ony, de, 305, 322 

Cirencester, 44, 66, 92, 96, 106, 141, 242, 

299 

Cirencester, Abbot of, 354, 35 4n. 
Cirencester, Canon of, 129 
Cirencester, Hund., 324 
Cirencester, Seven Hund. of, 31 
Claudius, 290 

Clark, Mr. O., exhs. in Museum, 79 
Clare, de, 64, 65, 66, 179, 352, 353, 355, 
357 

Cleeve, Hund., 29; Deeds, relating to, 

87, 318 
Clifford Chambers, 42 
Clifford, de, 4, 350, 357 
Clifton, 377 
Clifton Down, 289 
Clifton Observatory, 43 
Clopton, 162 ; M., 170, 172 
Clopton-on-the-Hill, 1. 
Clopton, Sir William, Notes on his effigy 

at Quinton, 162-171 ; Ped., 172. 
Clopton, Dame Joan, Notes on her Brass, 

162, 171 

Clutterbuck, J., exhs. in Museum, 80 

Clydach, 416 

Clyvedon, 251 

Cnut, K., 207, 208 

Cobberley, 194 

Cock, 251 

Cocker, 135 

Cockes, 139, 366, 367, 378 
Coke, 375, 376 
Cokerel, 320, 321 
Cold Ashton, 290 
Cole, 60, 110, 117 
Colerne Down, 290 
Colewell, 126 
Collare, 302 

Collins, 135, 139, 377, 378 
Colston, 362, 379 
Columba, St., 158 
Columbara, 303n. 
Combe Baskerville, 331 
Commeline, 154 
Compton, 92, 93, 126 
Compton, Tithing, 328 
Compton Winyates, 42 
Comyn, 327, 334 
Cook, 112, 113, 149 
Cooke, 135, 376n. 
Cooperich, 88 
Copenhagen, 205, 209, 211 
Coper, 184 

Corbucim, see Comyn 
Cormeilles, de, 328, 330, 333, 336n ; 356, 
357 

Cormeilles, Honour, 330, 333, 335, 336, 

355 

Cornwall, 189n, 411 
Costlej, 3i8 



Cotclc, de, 312, 324, 324n, 357, 358 
Cotes, de, 328, 358 
Cotes, M., 316, 320, 321, 326, 328 
Cotteswold Hills, Games on, 103, 117, 158, 

272, 273, 396 
Cotton, W., his "Notes and Gleanings," 

noticed, 415-416 
Cowley, de, 189, 189n, 190, 191, 192, 193 
Cowley, Deeds relating to, 87 
Cox, 251, 366 
Crane, 395 
Craswells, 326, 328 

Craucombe, de, 297, 333n, 349, 349n, 350, 

357, 358 
Crawley-Boevey, 1 
Cresswell, 366 
Crewe, 164, 164n, 165n, 172 
Cribb's Causeway, 290 
Crickley, Par., 67 
Cripplegate, 413 

Cripps, Mr. Wilfrid, appd. Vice-President, 
44 

Crockel, M., 316, 316n, 317 

Crocken Tor, 413 

Cromhal (Abbots) M., 33 

Cromwell, 94, 95, 182, 184, 365n. 

Cropredy Bridge, Battle of, 215 

Crossing, 413 

Crupes, de, 311, 351, 357 

Cubberley, 70 

Cuddeswych, M., 165 

Cumbe, de, 191 

Cunmen, 287 

Curthose, Robert, Duke of Normandy, 

his monurtent, 252, 253 
Cuthesthorne, 361 

Cutts, Rev. E. L., D.D., his "Dictionary 
of the Church of England," noticed, 
221 

Cuttstick, 128 
Cwmhir Abbey, 401 
Cyneburgh, 156, 157, 158, 160 
Cynegils, K., 119 

"Cymru Fu," Edited by Geo. H. Brierley, 
noticed, 416-417 



Daglingworth, 352 
Dalby, 242 

Dallas, J., his "Notes and Gleanings," 

noticed, 415, 416 
Dancey, C, 62 ; exhs, in Museum, 74, 76 ; 

77, 79, 81 
Daniels, 104 
Dantesy, 303, 303n, 304 
Danvers, 279, 279n. 
Danyal, 362, 379 
Dartford, 277 
Dartmouth, 404 
Dashwood, 277 
Dastyn, 329 
Daubeney, 98 
D'Avenant, 112, 113 
Davies, 51, 400 

Davies, Rev. W. H. Silvester, 89 ; his 

" Memoir on the Grey Friars," 173 
Davis, 38, 115, 167 

Dawson, Rev. B. S., receives Society at 
Hempsted, and acts as guide to the 
Church ; read a Paper on the Manor 
and Church, 54 ; the same printed, 
146-154 

Dawson, Sir J. W., his "Modern Science 
ip Bible Lands," noticed, 216-218 

Day, Francis, C. I. E., LL.D., F. L. S., 
F.Z.S.; In Memoriam, 397, 398 

Deacon, le, 341 



INDEX. 



Dean, Forest, Liberty of, 31, 82n, 15S,-273 
Peane, 377 

Deerhurst, 29, 156, 299 ; Prior of, 354 

Denis, St., Church, Paris, 30 

Deniseburn, 119 

Denison, Archd.,3 

Dennis, 9 

Dennv, 104, 110 

Denton, Rev. W., 410 

Derby, 1-20 

Derk, 179 

Despenser, 298, 299, 323, 324, 357, 358 
Devereux, 327 32S, 400 
Devizes, 309, 340 
Devon, co., 349 

"Devonshire Parishes," History of, by 
Charles Worthy, VoL LL, noticed, 
403-405 

Dick, 12S 

Dimock, 44 

Dinley, 3, 4 

Dodington, 305 

D"Ombrain, Rev. H., appd. on Council 
45 

DCTBineva, IIS, 122 
Done, 377 
Donne, 135 

Dorinarton, Sir John, Bart., presides at 
Special Meeting at Stroud, 393-396 

Dorset, co., 97, 322, 347, 349 

Dorset, >otes and Queries of, noticed, 
414-415 

Dorsington, if., 315 

Douce, 105 

Dover, 110, 114, 115, 116, 175, 176 
Dover. Bp. of, iS3 
Dover, Robert, 103-117 
Down Amney, 297, 29S, 349 
Draicote, 1S9 
Drake, 147 
Drayton, 104, 110 
Driver, 154 

Drvden, Sir Henrv, is thanked, 61 

Dudlev, 92, 195, 195n 

Dudstan. Hund., 31, 52n, 299, 300, 302, 

359, 379 
Dumas, 1 
Dumbleton, 366 
Dunchevenal, 297 
Duntesboume Matresden, 318 
Duntesbourne Ron?, Ch., 368 
Durdham Down. 259 
Diirham, LIS. 120 
Durham, Bps. of, 125, 126 
Dursley, de, 322, 357 

Durslev, Mediaeval Buildings at, desc. by 
Rev. W. R. Lett. 16 ; 191, 188, 192, 
194 

Durslev, 305 

Dursley, Church Plate, 43 
Dyer-Edwards, Mr. & Mrs. , receive Society 

at Prinknash Park, 62, 68 
Dyer, le, 335 

DjTuond, Robert, his " Calendar of Deeds, 
(Sc., of the Parish of St. Petrock, 
Exeter," noticed, 409-410 

Dyrham, 110, 320, 321 

Dyrham, Guild at, 3, 6, 9 



Eadburgh, 160 

Earle, Rev. John, his Hand-book of Land 

Charters and other Documents, 

noticed, 222-225 ; 414 
Earle, Dr. Samuel, his History and Fate 

of Sacrilege, t.y Sir Henry Spelman, 

noticed, 219-220 



Eastington, 319, 320 
Eastleach, 326, 327 
Eaton, Baronv, 317 
Eaton, de, 322 

Eaton. John, 339, 340, see Asto7i-sub- 

Ed'je 
i Ebrington, 326 
! Ecclesfield, Rector of, 164 
I Eckington, 59 
' Ecetune. de, 191 

Edgar, K., 10 

Edor\vorth, Manor. 44, 242 

Edinburgh, 101 

Edmar, 359 

Edmonton, Enfield and Settlement of 
lands in, by C. B. Bowles, M.A., 
noticed, 406 

Edward the Confessor, 161, 209, 210, 273, 
359 

Edward I., K., 313 

Edward II., K., his monument, 70, 254, 
1 314 

! Edward, III., K., 263 
i Edward, K. of Wessex, 221 
Edwin, K., 155 

E;{: tries, Sepulchral, 166, 252-259 
EffiL'y of Sir W. Clopton, 166, 167 
Egcreworth, M., 332 

I Esgeworth, de, 159, 190, 192, 193, 332 

I Ezsrfrid, 156 

i Elbridge, 382 

I Eleanor, Countess of Leicester, 349 
Eleanor, Q., 33S 

FUmbridge, deeds relating to, 87 
Elizabeth, Q., 255 
Elkstone, 333 

EUacombe, Canon, re-elected on Council, 
45 

Ellis, A.S., 259 

EUis, T. S., remarks on the Ancient 
Course of River Severn, 55 ; exhs. in 
Museum, SO 
Ellsworth, 126 
■ Elmington, "Warr., 343 

Elmore, 52 ; deeds relating to, 87, 147, 
, 148, 179 

Elmore Court, visited by the Society, 58 
Embrey, 393 

English Catholics, Records of, bv J. O. 
; Payne. M.A., noticed, 221-222 

Esdaile, George, C.E., his Paper on 
" Roman Bristol and Roman Glou- 
cester, compared with the Castra 
Pretoria and the sites of the Castra 
Peregrina, and of the Castra Equites 
Singulares at Rome," 288-296 

Esselins-, Prior of, 354, 354n. 

Essex, CO., 162 

Estonde, see Ashton 

Eston, M., 315 

Ethelfleda, 115, 120, 121, 155 

Ethelred, K., 10, 115, 120, 155, 156, 157 

Euphrates Expedition, A Personal Nar- 
rative of, by W. F. Ainsworth, Ph. 
Dr., F.S.A., F.R.G.S., &c., 7ioticed, 
233 

Evans, 377, 378, 3S0, 403 

Evan?, Re\. E., appointed local Sec, 

Xewent 
Evelyn, 141 

Evereux. de, 3.39, .3.">7. 3.58 
Evesham, Abbot of, 170, 347, 353, 357 
Evesham, Almonry at. 46 
Evesham, Battle of, 335 
Ewvas Lacv, 327 
Exeter, 176, 262n. 



424 



INDEX. 



Exeter Cathedral, Architectural Ilistoiy 
of, by E. V. Erccman, M.A., noticed, 

Eylford, 129 
Eyton, 335, 336 



Fairford, 44 

Faith, The City of, by S. B. Blcan, M,A., 

noticed, 231 
Falkner, 129 
Fallan, 2-19 
Fan wick, 57 
Farming-ton, M., 317 
Felde, de la, 361, 3(52, 379 
Feltham, 104, 110 
Feriiham, 67, 126 
Ferrars, de, 336, 337 
Fitz Alan, 341, 346, 357, 360 
Fitz Gerald, 297, 357 
Fitz Harding, 33, 190, 325, 326 
Fitz Herbert, 318, 357, 358, 415 
Fitz Hugh, 165, 251 
Fitz Osborn, 321 
Fitz Peter, 303, 303n, 318, 357 
Fitz Pernelle, 326 
Fitz Powy, 350 
Fitz Roger, 357 

Fitz Rolf, 319, 320n, 321, 323, 332 

Fitz Simon, 357 

Fitz Walter, 52, 146, 318 

Fitz Warine, 346, 357 

Fitz Wido, 320 

Fleford, Ch., 165 

Fleming, le, 310, 324, 324n, 325n, 326, 357 

Flower, Edgar, 42 

Folliott, Bp., 70, 360, 361 

Forbes, Cel., 43 

Ford, 375 

Forster, 3 

Forth, 110 

Fowler, 187, 366 

Fox, 379 

Fox, Aldm.^ Chairman of Committee at 
Sodbury, 1 ; read Paper on the Gilds 
of Sodbury and Dyrham, 3 ; receives 
Society at Yate House, 5 ; his Paper 
on the Gilds of Sodbury and Dyrham 
printed, 6-9 ; app. vice-president, 44 ; 
45, 71 

Frampton, 350 

Frampton, Bp., 56 

Frampton Cottrell, 32n, 324, 325 

France, 353 

Franks, 204 

Freeman, 53, 153, 154, 411 
Freame, 334, 395 

Frederick II., Emp., 306,307, S07n. 
Freeman, E, A i M.A., his " Architectural 

History of Exeter Cathedral,"/iofiC6Ci, 

220 

Frethorne, 319, 320 
Frith, 122 

Frome, riv., 289, 291, 292, 293 
Fromegate, 289 
Fryer, K. H., 86 
Fulbrook, 293 
Fynes-Clinton, 212 
Fyssher, 248 



Gael, Mr. S. H., V. P., his death reported, 
44 

Gainsborough, 126 
Gamages, de, 323, 335, 367 
Gambier, 212 
Gardiner, 382 



Garrett, 380 
Gaunt, dc, 325 
Geneve, de, 327 
Genoville, de, 327 
Geraud, 178 
Gersdon, 297 
Gethyn, 187 

Giffard, 65, 126, 301, 317, 329, 333, 335, 

336, 358 
Gilds, 9, 39n 

"Gilds, Their Origin, Constitution, Ob- 
jects, and later History," by the late 
Cornelius Walford, F.S.A., F.S.S., 
F.R.H.S., noticed, 238-239 

*' Gilds of Gloucester " by Rev. W. Baze- 
ley, 260-2 70 

Giles, St., Vicarage of London, 413 

Gloucester, Hon. of, 30, 353, 355 

Earls of, 31, 32n, 303n, 312 

Castle, 180 

Sheriffs of, 4, 41, 45, 189, 190, 

299, 300, 301, 317, 347 

Corporation of, exh. in Mu- 
seum, 83, 84 

St. Peter's Abbey, 33; remarks 

on the Early Days of, read by Rev, 
W. Bazeley, 48 ; the same printed, 
155-161 ; 89, 129, 161, 178, 350, 360, 
375, 376 

St. Peter, Abbots of, 360, 363, 

375, 376 

Cathedral, 370 

Bps. of, 36 

Deans of, 129, 393 

Dean & Chapter of, 127, 373, 

374, 376, 377, 378, 413 

Dean of (Spencc), 45, 62 ; his 

remarks on Glouc. Cathedral, 69 

Archd. of, 67, 88 

City, Summer Meeting at, 41- 

85 ; 45 ; Cathedral visited, 45 ; the 
Dean's Address, ib.; remarks on the 
Seals of the City of, by Mr. W. H. St. 
John Hope, 48 ; remarks on Roman 
Gloucester, by Mr. Bellows, 49 ; re- 
marks on Mediaeval Gloucester, by Mr. 
Bazeley, 49; Paper on the Grey Friars, 
read by Mi. W. H. Silvester Davies, 
54 ; on Scriven's Conduit, by Mr. H. 
Medland, ib.; on Gloucester Tokens, 
of the XVII, Century, by Mr. J. P. 
Wilton, ib.; Records of, 59-60 ; Early 
Rent Roll of, 60-61 ; 68 ; remarks on 
Roman Remains, by Mr. Bellows, 68 ; 
rem. on Cathedral Monuments,byMr. 
M. H. Bloxam, read by Mrs. Bagnall- 
Oakeley, 70 ; the same printed, 252- 
259 ; Paper on Ancient Guilds of, 
read by Mr. Bazeley, 71 ; Old Build, 
ings, ib.; St. Mary de Crypt Church, 
62, 138, 139 ; Temporary Museum at, 
73-84 ; 241, 273, 291, 293, 295, 353, 354- 
367, 381 ; remarks on the Seals of the 
City, by Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, 
384, illust. 

Bailiffs of, 242 

Mayors of, 41, 134, 137, 138, 

184,187,188; Corporation thanked, 62 

St. Aldate's Church, 184, 413 

— St. Barth. Hosp., 88, 89, 90n, 

143, 188 189, 191 

St. John's Ch., 143, 266 

St. Kyneburgh's Hosp., 268 

St. Mary de Crypt, 245 

St. Mary de Lode Ch., 139, 

143 262 

— St. Michael's Ch., 143, 376 



INDEX. 



425 



GLorcESTER Hospital of S.S. Mary and 

Maraarct, rapcr on, read by the Rev. 

S. E": Bartlcct, 54 

yt. Nicholas Ch., 143, 258 

On St. Oswald's Priory, by Mr. 

H. Medland, 118-129 ; Priors of, 128- 

129 ; 168, 278, 287 
. St. Owens', Ch. of, 146, 147, 

148, 150, 245 
Gloucester, de, 346 

Grej' Friars, Memoirs of, by 

Rev. W. H. Silvester Davies, 173, 187, 
242 

Gilds of, 260-270 

High Cross, 246 

King's Board, 246 

The^Mint of, 205-211 

New County Gaol, 143 

Gloucester, Robt. de, 121 

Gloucester, Siege of, 154 

Tradesmen's Tokens of, des- 
cribed by Mr. J. P. Wilton, 130-143 ; 
drawn by Mr. Walter Huntlej-, ib. 

White Friars, 89, 90, 143, 179 

' CO., Testa de Nevill Returns 

for, by Sir Henry Barkly, 23-34, 126, 
127, 155, 157, 159, 172, 192, 297-358, 
366 

Gloucestershire " Notes and Queries," 
edited by the Rev. Beaver H. Blacker, 
noticed, 412 

Glover, 194 

Grandisson, Bp., 411 

Green, Emanuel, F.S.A., "The Survey 
and Rental of the Chantries, Colleges, 
and Free Chapels, Lamps, Lights and 
Obits in the County of Somerset," 
noticed, 406-407 

Greeton, M., 316, 328, 329 

Grefyth, 376 

Grete, M., 316 

Godric, 209 

Godrich, Honour of, 311,352 
Godwin, 21, 46, 47, 135, 241 
Goizenbod, 330 
Golafra, 329 
Goldesborough, 70 
Gordon, 395 
Gotherington, 321 
Gowry, 65 

Grafton, Vicar of, 372 
Grant, Rev. Mr., 40 
Graunger, 361 
Grave, de la, 302 
Graves, 106 
Green, W, H,, 417 
Gregory, 151, 152, 154 
Gregory, IX., Pope, 147, 307 
Grentesmesnil, de, 315, 342, 343, 343n, 344, 
359 

Gretestan, Hund., 298, 315, 330 
Grey, 215, 328 
Grey, Archbp., 125 
Grey, Lady Jane, 92 
Griffin, 110, 116 
Griffiths, 242, 246, 415 
Grimboldsash, Hund., 31, 305 
Gropend, 361 
Grosseteste^ Bp. , 179 
Grove Court, M. , 303 
Grosart, 109, 114, 115 
Guido, Prior of, St. Oswald's, 128 
Guise, Sir W.V., Bart., his death reported, 
44; 86 

Guise, Sir W. F. G., and Lady Guise re- 
ceive the Society at Elmore, 58 ; 
thanked, 62 



Guiting, see Temple Guiting 
Guldene, 248 
Gunter, 67 

Gurney, 47, 58, 305, 325, 357 
G3'an, 249 
Gyde, 12 



Hadley, de, 323 
Hadrian, 99 
Hale, 16 
Hales, 298 

Hales Abbey, 338, 339 

Hall, Rev. J. M., re-elected on Council, 
45 ; read a Paper on Brookthorpe 
Church, 55 ; remarks on Haresfield 
Church, 55 ; 62 ; 302n ; his Account 
of the Parish of Brookthorpe, 359-383 

Hallen's "London City Church Registers," 
noticed, 409 

Hallen, Rev. A. W. Cornelius, his " Lon- 
don City Church Registers— St Bo- 
tolph, Eishopsgate," noticed, 409 ; 
his " Northern Notes and Queries," 
noticed, 413-414 

Hailing, 379 

Hamilton, 92 

Hamilton, W. D., his '* Calendar of State 

Papers," Dom., noticed, 214-216 
Hamlin, Abb., 360 
Hammond, 215 
Hampton, de, 32S, 339 
Hampton Mead, Warr., 163, 172 
Hanberg, 205 
Hani', de, 189 
Hants, CO., 347 

Harcourt, de, 336, 341, 343, 344, 345, 357, 
358 

Hardwick, visited by the Society, 56 ; re- 
marks on the Church, by Mr. G. E. 
Ll. Baker, 56-58, 62 : deeds relating 
to, 87 

Harescombe, 302, 359, 360, 362, 363, 364, 

365, 366, 367, 373 
Haresfield, 303, 318, 318n, 362 
Haresfield, Advow., 52 
Haresfield Church visited by the Society, 

55 ; remarks on, by Rev. J. M. Hail, 

ib.; 57, 62 
Hare well, ped., 164n. 
Harmer, 279 
Harold, K., 359 
Harres, 364, 379, 380 
Harthacnut, K., 209 
Hartland, 1 
Hartley, 4 
Hartpury, par., 374 

Harvey, Rev. W. H. P., 1. ; guide to 

Chipping Sodbury Church, 2 
Harwood, 138 
Hasard, 184 

Hasfield, deeds relating to, 87, 321, 331. 

332, 374 
Hasluck, 1 

Hastings, de, 317, 318, 341, 357 
Hatherley, M., 64,^66 ; deeds relating to, 

87, 359 ^ 
Hatton, 166n 
Havenepenne, 126 

Haverfield, F., further remarks on the 
Ring of Seniciinus, 203-204 

Hawkesbury Church visited, 5 ; descrip- 
tion of, by Mr. Bethell, ib.: the same 
printed, 10-15, Plan PI. I. 

Hawkescombo, 299, 300n 

Hawlyne, 380 

Hayles, 358 



INDEX. 



Haymo, Friar, 177 
Hayward le, 3(51 
IlcatlUicld, ir.f) 
Ilcdcoto, M., ;547 

Hoiiipstcd Church visited, 52 ; Notes on, 
by the late Rev. J. L. i'etitt, 181!), and 

on St. Well, connnunicated 

by iSir J. Maclean, 53 ; Paper on the 
Manor and Church, by the Rev. B. 
S. Dawson, 54 ; the same printed, 146- 
154 ; 370 

Hcnbury, 290 

Hcnbury, Hund., 29 

Henley,' 24 

Henry, I., K., 211, 343 

Henry, II., K., 23, 26, 147 

Henry, III. , K., 27, 211, 306, 307, 308, 322, 

338, 348 

Henry VIII., & Anne Boleyn visit GIouc, 
90 

Henry, King of the Romans, 307n 

Henry, Prince, 4 

Herbert, 139, 166, 249, 249n 

Hereford, 176, 183 

Hereford, Bps. of, 176, 360 

Hereford Cathedral, 374, 410 

de, 55, 146, 358, 362 

Dean of, 401 

Earls of, 303, 303n, 305, 314, 

318, 360 361, 362 

Earldom of, 146, 347 

J., 151 

Herefordshire, 312, 327, 329, 331, 335 

339, 349 
Heremon, 361 
Heved, 128 
Hever, de, 415 
Hewlett, 377 
Hexham, 119 
Heyford, M., 215 
Heythrop, 31 

Hey wood, 104, 106, 110, 111 

Higford, 52 

Highnam, 212 

High Wycombe, 277 

Higins, 129 

Hilda, 157, 158 

Hildebrand, 205 

Hill, 44 

Hillesley, 321 

Hine, 21 

Hingeston-Randolph, Rev. Prebendary, 
406, 410 ; his Registers of Bishops 
Bronescombe and Quivil of Exeter, 
noticed, 419, 412, 413, 416 

Hinston, 329 

Hintone, 330 

Hort, 100 

Hoare, Sir R. C.,294 
Hobhouse, Bp., 406 
Hobson, 135 
Hodges, 374, 377 
Hoese, 823, 325, 357 
Hoich, 189 
Holder, 8 

Holeberwe, de, 362, 379 

Holford and Winchconibe, Hund., 31 

Holm Lacjr, 149 

Holt, 374n, 416 

Honorius, Pope, 124, 147, 175 

Hope, 323 

Hope, Mr. W. H. St. John, read a Paper 
oil "The Seals of the City of Glou- 
cester," 48, 71 ; the same printed, 
384-392, illust. 

Hopldnson, 242 



Horace, 90 

Ilorewood, Forest, 35 
Ilorfield, M., 33, 290 
Ilorsealey, Prior of, 354 
lioskin, i4& ^ 
Hospitallers, Knights, 371 
Hoveden, Roger, 27 
Howard, 52 
Howitt, 242 

Howitt, Mr., exhs. in museum, 78, 125 
Htibner, 204 
Hucclecote, 271, 287 

deeds relating to, 87 

Hudd, A. E., 1, 71 
Huddynoll, 382 
Hugh, Cardinal, 124 

Hughes, E., his "Some Aspects of Hu- 
manity," noticed, 229 
Huich, 128 
Hull, M., 326 
Humber, riv., 120 

Humanity, some Aspects of, by E.Hughes, 

noticed, 230 
Humphrey, 128 
Hunedi, de, 189 
Hunter, 106 
Huntingdon, co., 349 

Earl of, 331 

Huntley, 4 

, fam., 323 

, M., 323 

, W., drew Gloucester Tokens 

130 

Hutchinson, 410 
Husey, 325 
Hussman, 326 
Hyde, 52 

Hyde, de la, 352n. 

Hyett, E. A., appd, on Coimcil, 45 ; reads 
Paper on the Annalia Dubrensia, 
46 ; 71 ; the same printed, 103-li7 ; 
396 

Hyginus, 288, 289, 291, 294 
Hylegh, 248 



Ilmington, 347 

Inglis, 129 

Ingworth, Bp., 181 

Innocent, Pope, 124, 174 

Inscriptions, Monumental, 153, 154, 168, 

363, 410 
Inscriptions on Bells, 154, 370 
Inventories of Church Goods, &c., 185, 

186 

lona, 119, 122 

Ireland, ,94, 327 

Iron Acton, 251 

Isabella, Empress, 306, 307 

Isis, riv., 120 

Isord, 248 

Ivreio, de, 859, 360. 371 

izod, no 



Jaket, 184 
Jalle, de la, 298 
James 1., K., 103, 106 
James, Miss, 414, 415 
James, Mr. F., appointed Vice-President, 
44 

James, Rev. G., exhs. in Museum, 74, 75 ' 
Jefferies, 113 

Jefls, Henry, reads Paper on Maso7is' 
Maries and Squares, 46, 47 ; his re- 
marks on Scriven's Conduit, 54, 71 



INDEX. 



427 



Jeiinor, 70 

Jennintjs, 127, 129, 187 
Joy ties, 209 
Joonc, 379 

John, K., 307, 308. 813, 319, 322, 324, 

S37ii, 348, 349, 350, 385 
Johnson, (52 
Jonson, 104, 110, 117 
Jones, 415, 416 

Jones, Miss E. H.. exhs. in Museum, 89 ; 

370, 378 
Jordan, 137, 138 
Judge, 202 
Juvenis, 323 



Karswell, see CrasweU 

Katherine, Q. (of Arragon), 181 

Ka3% Sir Brook, at Sodbury, 1 ; presides 
at huich at Sodbury, 3 ; his appoint- 
ment as President of Council, re- 
printed, 44 ; prop, vote of thanks to 
Lord Sherborne, 45, 71 

Kaynes, de, 358 

Kebull , 184 

Keke, 375 

Kelly, 410 

Kemble, 395 

Kemp, 395 

Kempley, 44, 213, 326, 328 
Kempsfbrd. 352, 376n. 
Kent, CO.. 157 
Kerswell, CO., Wore, 163 
Keys, 147 

Kidderminster, 128 
Kiftsgate, Hund., 31, 298 
Kinemon, 147 
King, 382 

" King Edward the Sixth — Supreme 
Head," by F. G. Lee, D.D., noticed, 
232 

King's Barton, Hund., 301, 359, 361 

Kingsholm, 118, 153, 158, 299, 299n 

King's Lynn, 87 

Kingston Russell, Dorset, 322 

Kingsweston, 289, 290 

Kingswood, 412 

Kingswood Abbey, 33 

Kingswood Forest, 158 

Knowles, 135 

Kylthornescroft, 361 

Kyneburgh, St., Chapel, 52; 119, see also 

Cyneburgh. 
KyngtOD, 248 



Labanc, 239 

Lacy, de, 312, 326, 327n, 328, 339, 357, 

358 

Lade, de, 352, 352n. 

Laforde, 349n. 

Lahide, 349n. 

Lambank, 338 

Lambe, 111 

Lambeth, 340 

Lancaster, E., of, 352 

Land Charters and other Documents, 

Hand Book of, by Rev. J. Earlc, 

M.A., noticed, 222, 225 
Lane, 135, 139, 141 
Langbury, 339 

Langborowe, see Linghorough 

Langlcy. A. F. C. C, his "Parish 

Registers of Broseley, Shropshire," 

noticed, 232 
Langley, de, 349n. 
Langlcy, Hund., 32n. 



Langtree, Hund., 31, 318 

Lanthonj', Priors of, 146, 354 

Priory visited, 51 ; remarks 

on, by Rev. G. C. Scobell, 52, 55 ; 60, 
128; Canon of, 129, 146, 147, 149, 
150, 152 ; 177, 360, 373 

Larkstoke, 347 

Lawrence, 95 

Lassindon, 126 

Lassnigton, 328 

Laud, Archb., 149 

Lavars, J., 21, 21n, 22 

Lavington, 128 

Lea, par., 138 

Leach, 317 

Leapgate, 290 

Lear, 212 

Le Blanc, 62, 71 

Lechlade, 336, 337, 412 

Leckhampton, 299, 301 

Ledbury, 328 

Leddon, riv., 293 

Lediard, 373 

Lee, F. G., D.D., his "King Edward the 
Sixth, Supreme Head," noticed, 232 
Leek, 242 

Leghton, 169, 170, 171, 172 
Leicester, 87, 120 
Leicestershire, 164n 
Leofnoth, 208 
Leofsige, 206, 208 
Leofwine, 210 

Lett, Rev, W. R., his *' Notes on Media3val 

Dursley," 16 ; illus. PI. II. 
Lewis, 67, 393 

exhs. in museum, 79 

Leye, 325 

Lifton, W., exhs. in museum, 79 
Llantarnam Abbey, 417 
Llantwit Major, 414 
Llanwyno, par., 417 
Limesey, de, 334 
Lincoln, 176, 385 

, Bps. of, 179 

, CO., 345 

Lindisfarne, 119, 122 
Lindsey, 120, 124 
Lingen, 169, 170, 172 
Lire, Abbey of, 146 
L'Isle, 325, 327 
Little, 393 

Little Hampton, 404 
Littleton, 330 
Loarde, 380 
Locke, 362 
Lodric, 207, 208, 209 
Lodwine, 206 
Loges, de, 339 
Loke, 379 

London, 101, 140, 142, 176, 295, 385 

Bps. of, 29 

Tower of, 333n, 350 

Sheriffs of, 316 

Long, Mr., exhs. in museum, 80 
Longborough, 336, 337, 338, 339 
Longchamp, 326, 328 
Longespde, de, 352, 358 
Longford, deeds relating to, 88 
Long-hope, par., 138 
Lord, 377 
Lorenge Farm, 33 
Louis IX., King of France, 307 
Lovein, de, 341, 357, 358 
Low, Col. L., his death, 44 
Loxley, 44 

Luchamp— See Longchamp. 
Lucy, 298 



42S IN 



Lucy, W. C, auditor, 86 
Ludlow, 183 
Lufi-g, 2G9 

Lut5>arscshalo, dc 189 
Lutgarshall— Paper on. by Sir Ilctn-y 

Barkly, 188 ; derivation of, 188n, 189, 

191 

Lutheton, 329 
Lydney, 99, 101, 204, 315 
Lye, la"), 138 
Lysons, 154, 367 



Maclean, Sir J., F.S.A., his notes on a 
window in St. James' Church, Bristol, 
19-22; thanked, 42 ; seconds resol., 
45 ; seconds vote of thanks to Lord 
Sherborne, 45 ; his remarks on Masons' 
Marks, 47 ; communicates notes on 
Hempsted Church, 53 ; Presided after 
the departure of the President, 55 ; 
thanks readers of Papers, ib.; and 
Messrs. Wilton, C. H. Dancey, and J. 
Mills for their services in respect to 
the Tempoi-ary Museum, ib.; occu- 
pies the Chair in the absence of the 
President, 61 ; recommends the print- 
ing of the Early Gloucester Rent-Roll, 
61 ; takes part in the discussion 
thereon, ib.; his remarks on the Ro- 
man Villa, 63 ; 71 ; 101 ; his notes on 
a Monumental Effigy, and a Brass at 
Quinton, 162-171 ; 189 ; his second 
notice ot the Roman Villa at Tocking- 
ton Park, 196-202; his "List of In- 
stitutions to the Chapel of Tocking- 
ton, 247-250 ; his pedigree of Berkeley 
of Beverston, 254 ; 333n ; his notes on 
the Manumission of Serfs," 364nt365n 

Madan, Falconer, M.A., his *" Brasenose 
Calendar," noticed, 239-240 

Maes Knoll, 290 

Maidford, Ch., Northamptonshire, 368 
Maillard, 301 
Maismore, 412 
Maitland, 367, 373 
Majendie, 378 

Majendie, Rev. S. R , receives Society at 

Brookthorpe, 55 
Malburn, 128 
Mallery, 153 

Malmesbury, 121, 124, 156 
Malvern, 338n, 339 
Malvern Hills, 273 
Malvern, Parva, Priory, 339 
Manchester, 89 
Mandeville, 304, 314 
Manford, 247 

Mansel, 320, 324, 324n, 325 
Manumission of Serfs, late occurence of, 

364n, 365n. 
Margam, Abbey, 416 
Margaret, Q., i65n 
Mariscoe, 125 
Marlbergh, de, 302 

Marmion, 104, 110, 341, 342, 342n, 343, 344, 
345 

Marmuwy. 336n 

Marshall, 64, 301, 302, 348, 357 

Martel, 317 

Martin, St., de, 190 

Marston, Moor, battle of, 215 

Marwent, 376 

Mary church, 347 

Mary, Princess, visits Gloucester, 91 
Maserfield, battle, 120, 155 
Massinger, 376, 377 



Masscy, 186, 215, 381 
Matthew, 184 
Mathews, B., 41 
Mattes Knoll, 241, 245 
Mattesdon, 178, 187, 242, 376n. 
Maud, Empress, 52, 146 
Mereweather, Dean, 401 
Mauduit, 315 
Maximinianus, 290 
Maydenstone, de, 66 
Maydestane, 176 

Mayor, Rev, C. H., his " Notes & Queries 
for Somerset and Dorset," noticed, 
414 

Medland, H., appd. on Council, 45 ; read 
Paper on St. Oswald's Priory, 48 ; 54 ; 
read Paper on Scriven's Conduit, 54 ; 
62, 71 ; exhs. in Museum, 82 ; his 
Paper on St. Oswald's Priory, prin- 
ted, 118-129 ; his Memoir on Scriven's 
Conduit, 241-246 

Meisi Hampton, de, 375 

Melksham, Forest, 217 

Mennes, 104, 110 

Meon, 323 

Meon Hill, 42 

Mereyet, 362, 379 

Meriet, de, 308 

Merston, M., 342 

Messiene, Nuns of, 40 

Michael's, St., Hill, 290 

Micheldean, par., 138 

Mickleton, 42, 106 ; M., 170 

Middleton, Prof., appointed Vice-Presi- 
dent, 44, 278 

Midleton, M., Warr.,343 

Mills, J., 62 ; exhs. in Museum, 75, 82 

Minsterworth, deeds relating to, 88 

Miserden, M., 315 

" Modern Science in Bible Lands" by Sir 
J. W. Dawson, noticed, 216-218 

Moeles, de. 319, 320, 321 

Moir, Erskine, his "Through the Sha- 
dows," noticed, 231 

Molendinis, de, 319, 357 

Mommsen, Prof., 97 

Monk, Bp., 374n. 

Monk Wearmouth, 159 

Monmouth, de, 32n, 299, 323, 357 

Monmouth, Hon. of, 323 

Monmouthshire, 67 

Monson, 104, 110 

Montague, 209, 210, 211 

Montchesney, de, 332, 357 

Montfort, de, 344, 346, 349 

Monumental Effigies, 70, 162, 171, 252-259 

Moor, 135 

Moore, G. P., exhs. in Museum, 78 
More Fladf ord, M. , 165 
Morehall, 163, 164, 164n 
Morehall, de la, 163, 164, 172 
Moi-eton, 104 

Moreton Valance, par., 374, 376n. 
Morgan, 365, 380 

Mortimer, 330, 335, 336, 337, 338, 338n, 

339, 339n, 357 
Mortlake, 395 
Moteham, 124 
Moule, 415 
Mowbray, 180 

Mundubbel, de (Montdoubleau), 351, 352 
Murdac, Archb.,124 

Murrell, remark on the Ancieiit Course of 

the River Severn, 58 
Jilusard, 190, 192, 315, 316, 332, 347 

Museum, Temporary, Exhibits in— 
Portraits of Royal Personages, 72, 73 



INDEX. 



429 



Portraits of Bishops, 73 

of Deans, 74 

of Archdeacons, 74 

of Prebendaries and Canons, 74 

of Lord Hi<rh Stewards of 

Gloucester, 7o 

of Recorders of Gloucester, 75 

of M.P. of, 75 

of Mayors of, 75 

of Officers at the Siege of, 76 

of Persons of eminence con- 
nected with, 76 

Antiquarian Objects, kc, 77 

Oil Paintiners, 79 

Water Colour Drawings, SO 

EnirraviniTS and Drawingrs, 81, S2 

Charters/&c., of Gloucester, S3, 84 

Plate of, 84 

Mutlow, 377, 373 

Mvtton, 165n, 170, 171, 172 



Nash, 1 

** Nature's Fairy Land,*' by H. W. S. 

Worslev-Benison, F.L.S., noticed, 
230 

Naunton, 330, 33S, 339 
Neath, 416 
Neeld, 374 
Neale, 219 
Nest, 62, 268 
Ne^ille, 194n, 251 
Newark, 148, 149 
Newcastle, 176 
Newburirh, 314 
Newent, 44 ; par. 138 
Newent, Prior of, 353 
Newgate. 175 
Newnham, 413 

Newinaton Bagpath, M., ISS, ISSn, lS9n, 
193 

Newman, 413 

Newmarch, 273, 319, 319n, 320n, 321, 322, 

332, 357 
New-march, Barony, 322, 355 
Newnham Deeds, relating to, 88 
Newport, 169, 170, 172 
Newton, 377 

Niblett, A. E., receives Society at Hares- 
field, 55 
Niblett, J. D. T., 55 
Nicolas, 351 

Nicholas, St., Bristol, 412 

NichoUs, 2S3 

Nicholson, 376 

Nicholson, Bp., 151 

Nimpesfield, 326 

Norfolk, de, 88 

Norleche, de, 375 

Norris, 414 

Noithampton, 176 

Northampton, Marquis of, 42 

" Northern Notes and Queries," edited 
bv the Rev. A. W. Cornelius Hallen, 
M.A., F.S.A., Edinb., noticed, 413, 
414 

Northumbria, 119, 157, 158, 159 
North Wraxall, 290 
Norton, 4, 120, 333, 336 
Norys, 177 

" Notes and Gleanings," edited by W. 

Cotton, F.S.A., and James Dallas, 

F.L.S., noticed, 415, 416 
Nottingham, 87 
Nov!, 65 

Nurse, 134, 137, 138, 140 
Nutt, 408 



Nyblett, 363, 364, 376n, 379, 3S0,'395 



Oakham, Castle, 337 
Oaklev, 321 ■ * • 

Oddin£.^on, M,, 64 
Oele, 110 
Ogwell, 404 

"Old English Catholic Missions," by 
John Orlebar Paj-ne, M.A., noticed, 
405, 406 

Old Sarum, 294 

Oliver le Clerk, 309 

Olveston, Rector of, 247, 248 

Olynton, de 

Optune, 318 

Ordington, Berks, 351 

Organ, 363, 364, 380 

Ormerod, Dr. 289 

Osred, 157 

Csric, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 255 

Ostende, 94 
Osthryd, 156, 157 
Ostorius, 2SS 

Oswald, K., 119, 120, 122, 155, 156 
Oswald. St., his Priorv, Memoir on, bv 

Mr. H. Medland, 4S ; printed 118-156; 

300 

Oswestry, 120 
Os-nin, 156, 157 
Oswolde, 362 
Oswrede, 379 
Oure, de, 361 
Owlpen, de, 1S9, 189n. 
Oxehev, 317 

OxehaVe, de, 316, 317. 347 
Oxenhall, 326, 328, 339 
Oxford, 152. 176 
Oxforf, CO., 120, 317, 349, 351 
Oxford. Jesus College, 67 
Ozc-lworih, M., 33 



Packer, 4, 250 
Paganel. 195, 195n. 
Pain, 380 

Paine, Dr., re-elected on Council, 45 
Painswick, 141 ; M., 332 ; Town, 3i,l 
Painswick, Advowson, 52 
Parke. 104 
Parker, 160 
Parker, Abb., 255 

Parrv, T. Gauibier, In Memoriam. 212, 
213 

Parthon, 126 
Partridge, 8 
Paschal, Pope, 124 
Patchwav, 290 
Pate, 8 

Pates, monument, 259 

Payne, 184, 1S7, 269, 379 

Payne, J. 0., M.A., his " Records of the 

English Catholics," noticed, 121 ; his 

" Old Catholic Missions," noticed, 405 

406 
Paulet, 251 
Pauncefoot, 321. 332 
Paunton, 328, 328n, 331, 857, 358 
Pautot. see Pauyiton 
Pearesford, see Bes/ord 
Pearson, Charles, liib " Ringers' Guide to 

the Church Bells of Devon," noticed, 

225-226 
Peb worth, 326 
Peckham, Archb., 177 
Pell, 408 

Pembridge, M., 335 



430 



INDEX. 



Pembridcfe, de, 328, 331n, 333, 335, 335n, 

336, 357 
Penda, K., 118, 120, 155, 156 
Pennington, 393 

Pennj', Rev. E. G., remarks on Ancient 

Course of the River Severn, 58 
Parcavicini, Rev. F. de, 396 
Pershorc Abbey, 10, 321, 349. 349n, 350 
Peter, St., 159, 160 

Petrock's, St., Exeter, Parish of, " Calen- 
dar of Deeds, &c.," hy the late Robt. 
Dymond, F.S.A., noticed, 409-410 

Petronilla, St., 159, 160 

Peverell, fam., of Dorset, 414, 415 

Phelps, 112 

Philip, K. of France, 26 
Phillipps, 114 
Picton, 188n. 
Pierce, 380 

Pinnockshire, 297, 349, 349n, 358 
Pireley, M., 316 
Pisa, Agnellas, de, 175 
Pitchcombe, par., 12, 359, 382 
Pitt, 2 

Pitt-Rivers, General, 43, 97 
Plant, 243 

Plantao-enet,65, 66, 335, 337, 339, 346, 411 
Players, 129 

Playne, A. T. , read Paper on the " History 
and Architecture of Avening- Church," 
396 

Podsmead, 149 
Poer, le, 329 
Poictou, 816 345 
Polesworth, Nuns of, 342 
Polybius, 295 
Pompeii, 100, 101 

Ponting, A., 62 ^ 

Pontisara, Bp. , 410 ^ 
Pontypridd, 416 
Pont de I'Arch, 360 
Pontifex, 1 
Poole, 110 

Pope, T. S., 1, 21 ; his description of 

Sodbury Churches, 36-40 
Port, de, 412 

Porter, 52, 103, 103n, 148, 149, 154 
Postlip, 329 
Pouneye, 328 
Powle, 150 

Powell, 70 ; exhs. in Museum, 78 
Powell, 188; Sir John, his Monument, 

259 

Poyntz, 3, 247, 248, 251, 410 

Prestbury, Advow., 52 

Price, Thomas, 134, 138 

Price. W. P., exhs. in Museum, 80 : 86 

Prinknash Park, visited, 68 ; remarks on, 

by Rev. W. Bazeley, ib. 
Pryce, 269 

Pucklechurch, M., 29 
Pugh, 377 
Pultin, 315 
Purlent, 136 
Pury, 93, 95, 380 

Putot, de, 190, 308, 308n, 312, 316, 317, 

332, 847 
Pycot, Dean of Exeter, 412 
Pygot, 248, 249 
Pyrrye, 187, 249 

Quedgley, 52, 91,''_147, 148, 149 359, 360, 
Quency, de, 355 

Quititon, 42 ; Effigy and Brass in the 
Church, 162-171, 164, 165, 168, 172 ; 
336, 341, 342, 342n. 343, 344, 345, 346, 
370 



Quinton, Vicar of, 413 

Quivil, Bp. of Exeter, Abstract of his 

Register, by Rev. Preb. Hingeston- 

Randolph, noticed, 410 



Radbrook, 163, 164, 165 ; M., 170, 172 

Radnor, Honour of, 335 

Radnorshire Hills, 273 

Radwick, M., 346n. 

Raleigh, 113 

Randall, 1, 110, 117 

Randolph, 104 

Rapsgate, Hund., 31 

Rawth or Raworth, 111 

Redland, 290, 410 

Redvers, de, 297, 325, 347, 348, 357 

Remains — 

Celtic, 79 

Coins, 77, 78, 79 

Mediajval, 77, 78 

Roman, 77, 78, 196-204 
Rendcombe, 212 
Report of Council, 41-45 
Reynald, 376n. 
Reynell Family, 404 
Reys, 302 
Ribblesdale, 405 
Ricard, 211 
Richard, — , 247 
Richard IH., K., 263 
Richards, 379 

Richard's Castle, Honour of, 329, 330, 

339n. 
Ricketts, 62 
Ridgway, 290 

" Ringers' Guide to the Church Bells of 
Devon," by Charles Pearson, M.A., 
noticed, 225-226 

Risenden, 324, 325 

Robert, Duke of Normandy, his Monu- 
ment, 70 
Roberts, 400 

Robertson, J. D., exhs, in Museum, 77 : 
140 

Robertson, J. D., his Supplementary 
Paper on the Mint of Gloucester, 205 
Robin Wood's Hill, 89, 241, 245, 272 
Rochelle, 316 
Rochester, 385 

Rochester, Bp. of, 339, 357, 358 
Rockhampton, 32n. 
Rodborow, 438 
Rogers, J., 413 

Roman Houses, Paper on the Constrnc- 
tion and Ornamentation of, by the 
Rev. Preb. Scarth, 54; the same 
printed, 96-102 

Round, 25n, 408 

Rous, le, 302, 361 

Rowbright, 367 

Royce, Rev. D., 43 

Rudburn, 124 

Ruddall, 154 

Rudford, Rect., 129 

Rufus, 320 

Russell, 319, 320, 321, 322, 332, 357 
Rutter, 104, 110 
Rye, 408 

Rysindon, de, 375 



Sacrilege, History and Fate of, by Sir 
Henry Spelman, edited by Samuel 
P^ales, noticed, 219-220 

Sadler, 377 

Salisbury, Dean of, 212 



INDEX. 



431 



Salop, CO., 166, 168 
Salperton, 334, 335 
Sampson, 24S, 371 
Sanders, 292 

Sandhurst, 347, 347n, 348, 359 
Sanford, 110, 1S9, 247 
Sapperton, 324, 370, 412 
Savage, 367, 374 
Sawj-er, 373 
Sav, de, 330 
Scaltok, 375 

Scarth, Rev, Preb., his Paper " On the 
Construction and Ornamentation of 
Roman Houses," read, 54 ; the same 
printed, 96-102 

Schipton Chamfleures, 340, 346 

Scobell, Rev. E. C, his remarks on Lan- 
thony Priory ; thanked, 62 

Scot, le, 331 

Scriven, John, his Conduit, 241-246 ; 242, 
244, 24j 

"Scriven's Conduit," Memoir on, by Mr. 
Henry Medland, 241-246 

Scrupe, see Crupes 

Scudamore, 52, 149, 150, 151, 152 

Seabrook, Abb., 70, 254 

Seal of, Ilenry de Berkeley, 191 

Seals of the City of Gloucester, descrip- 
tion of, by Mr. W. H. St, John Hope, 
3S4-392 

Seisincote, 341 

Seisincote, de, 341 

Selby, Abbey, 124 

Selby, Walford D, ; note on his death, 414 
414n. 

Senandor, see Sandhurst 

Senicianus, Further Remarks on his Ring-, 

by F. Haverfield, M.A., 203-204 
Serlo, Abb. of Glouc, his monument, 

254 ; 371 
Semus Fullius, 295 
Sevenhampton, Advow., 52 
Severn, riv., 155, 156, 158, 161, 244, 260, 

263, 288, 293, 295 
Sheffield, 140, 141 
Sherborne, 177 

Sherborne, Lord, President, at Gloucester, 
41, 43 ; vote of thanks to him, 45 ; he 
returns thanks, ib.; 71 

Sheringham, Archd., his remarks on 
Standish Church. 56-62 

Shering'ton, Chapel, 64, 65, 66, 67 

Shipston, 129 

Shirehampton, 412 

Shorey, 367 

Shottesover, 179 '' 
Silac, 210 

Sired, 206, 207, 208 
Siriowe, 110 
Skinfrith, 251 
Skippon, 93 
Skipwith, 58 

Slaugfhter Hund., 31, 331, 339 

Smith, 17, 80, 199, 202, 204, 269, 300, 300n 

sjmithe. Rev. Dr., receives the Society at 
Churchdown Church, 63 ; his " Notes 
on the Church of St. Bartholomew at 
Churchdown," 271-287 

Smith, E., exhs. in Museum, 79 

Smyth, 305, 376 

Sodbury, Burghers of, 8, 9 

Sodburj^ Camp, 5 

Sodbury (Chipping), Spring- Meeting- at, 
1-5, Church of, visited by the Society, 
1 ; description of, by Mr. Pope, 3 ; 
the same printed, 37 ; 44, 412 



Sodbury, Old, Church,'Mr. Pope's descrip 

tion of, 36-37 
Sodbury, Little, remarks on Manor 

House of, by Rev. W. Bazeley, 3-4 ; 

Manor of, 4 ; Church, ib.; Mr. Pope 

on the Church, 35 ; 40 
Sales, de, 329, 340, 357 
Somery, 195, 19Sn. 
Somerset, co., 291, 308, 319, 322, 347 
" Somerset and Dorset Notes &' Queries," 

edited by Hugh Norris and Rev. C. 

H. Mayor, noticed, 314-315 
*' Somerset Incumbents," by F, W. 

Weaver, M.A., noticed, 232 
Somersetshire, Sheriffs, 307 
Southam, 318 
Southampton, 175 

Spelman, Sir Henry, his '••History and 
Fate of Sacrileg-e," noticed, 219-220 

Spence, Very Rev, Dean, his address on 
Gloucester Cathedral, 45 ; thanked, 
62, 71 ; at meeting- at Stroud, 393 

Spence, Mrs. receives the Society at the 
Deanery, 46, 62 

Spencer, 164 

Spilsbury, 89 

Stafford, 120, 249n, 411 

Stafford, Co., 166 

Standish visited by the Society, 55 ; re- 
marks on the Manor and AJvowson, 
by Rev. J, M. Hall, 56, 62 

Stanford, 28, 248 

Stanhouse, 352 

Stanlej', 170, 305, 316, 321, 223, 370 
Stanshaw, 318 
Stanton, 393, 394 
Stapeldon,Bp., 410 

State Papers, Calendar of 1644, edited by 

W. D. Hamilton, noticed, 214, 216 
Stawell, M., 817 
Stephen, 113 
Stephens, 5 
Stevens, 4